Pune Metro

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Pune Metro
Official Logo of Pune Metro.jpeg
Pune Pimpri Chinchwad Metro Route Map (Lines 1 and 2)
Overview
Area servedPune, Pimpri Chinchwad, Hinjawadi
LocalePune Metropolitan Region
Transit typeRapid Transit
Number of lines
Number of stations
  • Total: 53
  • MahaMetro: 30 (Total)
    Elevated: 25
    Underground: 5
  • PMRDA : 23 (Elevated)
Daily ridership(estd. 2021)[1][2]
Chief executive
WebsitePune Metro
Operation
Operation will start
Operator(s)
CharacterUnderground and Elevated
Number of vehicles26
Train length4 coaches
Technical
System length
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard gauge)
Electrification25 kV AC through overhead catenary
Average speed33 kmph (estd.)

Pune Metro (proposed name:[9][10] Pune - Pimpri Chinchwad Metro) is a metro rail based rapid transit system under construction to serve the city of Pune and its Industrial twin city, Pimpri Chinchwad in the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of March 2018, the system comprises 3 lines with a total length of 54.58 km. The 16.59-km Line 1 (PCMC BuildingSwargate) will be elevated between the headquarters of the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC Building) in Pimpri to Range Hills, from where it will run underground. Line 2 will run from Vanaz to Ramwadi covering a distance of 14.66 km on an elevated viaduct.[11] Lines 1 and 2 are expected to be operational in 2021.[12] The 23.33-km elevated Line 3 will run from the Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi via Balewadi to Shivajinagar. All three lines will align at the Civil Court interchange station.[7][8]

On 24 December 2016, the foundation stone for Lines 1 and 2 was laid by PM Narendra Modi.[13] These two lines with a combined length of 31.25 km and are being implemented by the Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Limited (MahaMetro), a 50:50 joint venture of the State and Central Governments.[14] Line 3 will be implemented by the Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) on a public–private partnership (PPP) basis.[6][15] As of October 2018, the joint venture of Tata Realty[16] and Siemens[17] was awarded the contract. Construction is expected to begin by June 2019 and to be completed in three years.[3][4][5]

Background[edit]

Pune has witnessed enormous industrial growth since 2000. Rapid urbanization in the recent past has put the city’s travel infrastructure to stress. With an increase in small scale, medium scale as well as heavy industries, the traffic in the city is rising at alarming rates. The roads in the city, while being narrow, cater to various kinds of vehicles simultaneously. Such roads, at an optimum can carry 8,000 peak hour peak direction traffic (PHPDT). Being a densely populated area, Pune’s traffic needs cannot be met by road-based system and additional flyovers.[citation needed] Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Ltd. (PMPML), the public transport provider that operates buses and BRT services in Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad, has failed to meet the transport needs of the twin cities.[18][19][20][21] This has mainly contributed to an unhealthy growth of vehicles on roads. According to reports published in April 2018, the number of vehicles registered in the city stands at 3.62 million surpassing the population of the city.[22][23] Such a high density of traffic has put the urban transport system in Pune under severe stress leading to longer travel time, increased air pollution and rise in number of road accidents.[1] In light of this, a strong public transport system has been discussed in Pune since the early 2000s. Initially, Skybus Metro, a prototype suspended railway system developed by the Konkan Railways, was being considered on a 7.5-km route between Swargate and Pune Station.[24] However, following a tragic mishap in September 2004, the project took a back seat.[25]

On 15 August 2008, the preparation of detailed project report (DPR) work was undertaken by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and submitted their report.[26] In 2010, the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) delayed submitting the proposal to the Union government to make provisions in the annual budget for the project. The initial project consisting of two lines with a combined length of 31.25 km was approved by the State in June 2012.[27][28] However, it received the final approval from the Central Government only on 7 December 2016, almost 4.5 years later.[29] PM Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone on 24 December 2016.[13] MahaMetro is implementing the two lines,[14] viz. the partly elevated and partly underground Line 1 from Pimpri-Chinchwad to Swargate and the completely elevated Line 2 from Vanaz to Ramwadi.[30] MahaMetro expects to complete the project in 2021.[12] Days after the foundation stone for the MahaMetro lines was laid, PMRDA approved Line 3 (Hinjewadi - Shivajinagar) on 29 December 2016.[7][8][31] The project will be implemented by PMRDA on a PPP basis.[6] It was approved by the State on 2 January 2018 and by the Centre on 7 March 2018.[7]

PMRDA and MahaMetro[edit]

The Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) had proposed to take over the Metro project, which was declined by the PMC and PCMC.[32][33] The opposing representatives said that the Metro rail is going to be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicle. Instead, the civic bodies suggested inclusion of PMRDA in the SPV to increase the reach of the Metro rail. PMRDA will execute only Line 3 i.e. Shivajinagar to Hinjewadi line. They will follow PPP model for the project.[34] For the implementation of the initial two lines, the former Nagpur Metro Rail Corporation was reconstituted to form Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Limited (MahaMetro).[35][36][37]

Network[edit]

Line Opening date Terminals Length
(km)
Stations Implemented by Operator
Line 1 2021 PCMC building Swargate 16.59 14 MahaMetro MahaMetro
Line 2 2021 Vanaz Ramwadi 14.66 16
Line 3 TBD Civil Court
(Shivajinagar)
Hinjawadi 23.33 23 PMRDA TBD
54.58 53

MahaMetro lines[edit]

Pune Metro Lines 1 & 2 (MahaMetro)
PCMC Building
Bus rapid transit
Sant Tukaram Nagar
Bus rapid transitBus interchange
Bhosari (Nashik Phata)
Bus rapid transit
Kasarwadi
Bus rapid transitMainline rail interchange
Bus rapid transit
Ramwadi
Phugewadi
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit
Kalyani Nagar
Dapodi
Bus rapid transitMainline rail interchange
Bus rapid transit
Yerwada
Bopodi
Bundgarden
Khadki
Mainline rail interchange
Ruby Hall Clinic
Range Hills
Bus interchangeMainline rail interchange
Pune Railway Station
Shivajinagar
Bus interchangeMainline rail interchange
Mangalwar Peth
Metro interchange
Civil Court (Interchange to Line 3)
PMC Building
Bus interchange
Budhwar Peth
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Udyan
Mahatma Phule Mandai
Deccan Gymkhana
Bus interchange
Bus interchangeBus rapid transit
Swargate
Garware College
Nal Stop
Ideal Colony
Anand Nagar
Vanaz
Bhusari Colony
Shivasrushti (Chandani Chowk)

Line 1 (PCMC buildingSwargate)[edit]

Line 1 will run from PCMC building in Pimpri to Swargate. The 16.59-km line will be elevated till Range Hills with 9 stations and will further go underground up to Swargate with 5 stations. This route will go via Bhosari (Nashik Phata), Khadki and Shivajinagar.[38][39] The maintenance depot for Line 1 will be located near the Range Hills station on the land acquired from the College of Agriculture.[40][41]

The 5.09-km long underground section of line 1 from Agriculture College to Swargate is being carried out in two packages: 1. Agriculture college to Budhwar Peth; 2. Budhwar Peth to Swargate.[42][43] Mahametro has invited separate tenders for these two packages each involving the design and construction of the stations and associated tunnels.[43][44] Following firms have submitted the bids: L&T, Tata projects-Gulermark JV, Shanghai Tunnel Engineering, J Kumar, Afcons.[citation needed]

The underground station at Swargate will be a part of a multimodal transit hub integrating intra- and inter-city bus services run by PMPML and MSRTC, autorickshaws, as well as parking facility for private vehicles.[45][46] The project is being undertaken by MahaMetro on a PPP basis at a cost of 1,600 crore (US$220 million).[47] In August 2018, J Kumar Infraprojects was awarded the contract for the hub.[48]

Alignment revision[edit]

In April 2018, MahaMetro began construction in the Kharalwadi and Morwadi area on the elevated stretch of the line between PCMC building and Range Hills. For the construction, the barricades on the newly built BRTS lane were removed. MahaMetro claimed it to be temporary and revealed that an earlier plan to construct the pillars on the footpath was dropped due to utility lines running below the surface.[49][50] However, the PCMC conducted trials on the BRTS route in April 2018 and intended to launch services soon and therefore ordered MahaMetro to stop construction.[50][51] As a result, MahaMetro revised the alignment in May 2018, one year after construction began on the line.[52][53]

Proposed extensions[edit]

Ever since the Centre gave its nod for the first two metro corridors, there has been a demand for extending Line 1 from PCMC Building to Bhakti Shakti Sthal, Nigdi.[54][55] In light of these demands, PCMC decided to prepare DPRs for the extensions in their respective jurisdictions and bear the cost for it.[56] However on 18 January 2018, MLA and Pune's Guardian Minister Girish Bapat announced in his speech at the ground-breaking ceremony for the first metro station at Sant Tukaram Nagar that work on the extension would be taken up only in the "second phase" of the project without mentioning a timeline.[57] As a result, confusion ensued and social organizations in Pimpri-Chinchwad held a token hunger strike in February 2018 to press their demand for extension.[58] In April 2018, PCMC earmarked a sum of 50 crore (US$7.0 million) so that MahaMetro could prepare a DPR for the Nigdi extension.[59] In October 2018, MahaMetro submitted the DPR for the 7-km long extension to the PCMC. The 7-km long extension is estimated to cost between 1,100 crore (US$150 million) and 1,500 crore (US$210 million).[60][61]

There have also been demands for extending the line from Swargate to Katraj.[62] The PMC decided to prepare a DPR for the extension on 4 January 2018.[56][63] The DPR is being prepared by MahaMetro.[64] However, due to the presence of several flyovers on Pune-Satara road, the extension might be diverted via Market Yard on an elevated viaduct.[65][66]

Line 2 (Vanaz - Ramwadi)[edit]

Line 2 will run from Ramwadi to Vanaz via Mangalwar Peth and Deccan Gymkhana. The elevated line will cover a distance of 14.66 km and will have 16 stations. It will connect with Lines 1 and 3 at the Civil Court interchange station. The maintenance depot for Line 2 will be located near the Vanaz station on the former garbage depot land.[67][68]

Alignment revisions[edit]

In November 2015, a revised proposal submitted to the PMC by the DMRC suggested realigning the route along the Mutha river as against the earlier alignment along the Jangli Maharaj Road to reduce the project cost. The route length now is 14.66 km, reducing the length by 260 m.[69] The alignment of Line 2 was once again revised in January 2018 due to Indian Railways' expansion plans.[70]

In September 2018, the National Monument Authority rejected permission sought by MahaMetro to build near Aga Khan Palace in the prohibited area of the monument.[71][72] No construction is permitted within 100 m of a monument under AMASR Act, 1958. This led to a third revision in the alignment of line 2, for which MahaMetro has suggested the PMC three alternative alignments for the Civil Court to Ramwadi section of Line 2 near the monument:[73][74][75]

  1. A diversion from Kalyani Nagar which would increase route length by 0.06 km and the cost by 135 crore (US$19 million). However, this would involve rehabilitation of several people as it is a densely populated are as well as defence and acquisition which is a time consuming process.
  2. A diversion from Bund Garden station along the southern bank of the Mutha river increasing the length of the route by 0.563 km and the cost by 155 crore (US$22 million). However, this route would hit the ridership from the northern parts of Kalyani Nagar and would also raise environmental concerns as the route will pass along the river.
  3. Given the possible difficulties in implementing the first two option, MahaMetro has recommended the third alternative involving a diversion from Gunjan Chowk which would increase the route length by 0.92 km and the cost by 185 crore (US$26 million).

Proposed extensions[edit]

Although the currently under construction line will terminate at Vanaz in the west, it was decided to extend the line till Chandani Chowk. The decision came in February 2018, when a longstanding dispute over the erstwhile garbage depot land in Kothrud was resolved by allotting it to MahaMetro for the development of a metro depot for Line 2. A permanent exhibition depicting the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj - the Shivsrushti (Marathi: शिवसृष्टी) project - which was also planned at the same location, will instead be built on the land reserved for a biodiversity park near Chandani Chowk.[76] The station at Chandani Chowk will bear the name of the Shivsrushti project. A DPR is being prepared for the 2-km long extension and an additional station between Vanaz and Shivsrushti (Chandani Chowk) at Bhusari Colony is being contemplated. MahaMetro will bear the costs for this extension.[77] There have been demands for the extension of the line from Ramwadi to Wagholi as well as a connection to the Pune International Airport.[78][79][80]

Rolling stock[edit]

Rolling stock for the metro will be procured by floating competitive international tenders. The company bidding the lowest will be awarded the contract. The company will manufacture 104 coaches to form 26 trains each with four coaches. The rolling stock will have the following specifications:[1]

Coach type Length Width Height Axle load Seating arrangement Passenger capacity
Seating Standing Total
Driver Trailer coach (DTC) 21.64 m 2.90 m 3.90 m 16 tonnes Longitudinal 43 207 250
Motor coach (MC)/Trailer coach (TC) 21.34 m 50 220 270

Cost[edit]

The MahaMetro lines were estimated to cost 11,522 crore (US$1.6 billion), a hike of 653 crore (US$91 million) from the 2014 estimate.[81] The PMC and PCMC will each bear 5% of the cost, while the state government and the central government will each bear 20% of the cost. The remaining 50% will be obtained as loans. The state government's share of 20% includes the expenses of acquiring land, including government land, at market price.[82] The delay in the execution of the project has resulted in an upward revision of ₹ 700 crores (US$107.8 million) in the draft civic budget for 2015-16 presented by Municipal Commissioner Kunal Kumar.[83]

On 17 September 2016, the Union government had approved a proposal seeking loan of 6,325 crore (US$880 million) from the World Bank and China-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) for the project.[84] However, as of March 2018, MahaMetro is negotiating loans worth 4,500 crore (US$630 million) and 2,000 crore (US$280 million) from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD).[85] MahaMetro expects to sign loan agreements with both the EIB and the AFD by October 2018.[86][87]

Budgetary allocations[edit]

Summary of budgetary allocations
Fiscal year Budgetary allocation

( crore)

Union State Total
2015-16[88] 126.58 174.99 301.57
2016-17[89] 10.20 45.00 55.20
2017-18[90] 500.00 110.00 610.00
2018-19[90] 1,322.00 130.00 1,452.00
  • Financial year 2015–16: The central government made an allocation of 126.58 crore (US$18 million) and the state government allocated 174.99 crore (US$24 million).[88] The budget allocation raised high hopes for the city's most awaited project but failed to keep the momentum, since apart from re-assurance nothing major happened that year.
  • Financial year 2016–17: The central government made an allocation of 10.2 crore (US$1.4 million) and the state government allocated 45 crore (US$6.3 million) off the total 180 crore (US$25 million) allocated for Pune and Nagpur metro projects. The citizens of Pune were disappointed with the budget, stating that the government had no interest in addressing Pune's needs. The opposition protested against the State government for sidelining Pune, and that the Nagpur metro was being carried out speedily while Pune project has not even started.[89]
  • Financial year 2018-19: The central government made an allocation of 1,322 crore (US$180 million) and the state government allocated 130 crore (US$18 million), a hike of 822 crore (US$110 million) and 20 crore (US$2.8 million), respectively, compared to the allocations in the previous fiscal 2017-18.[90][91]

Project status[edit]

  • 2016 December: Officials of the Nagpur Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (NMRCL, later MahaMetro)[37] visited Pune and detailed survey of the site commenced.[92]
  • 2017 January: MahaMetro established by reconstitution of NMRCL.[37]
  • 2017 February: MahaMetro invited bids for the construction of elevated viaduct on the PCMC building to Range Hills section of Line 1.[93]
  • 2017 May: Hyderabad based Nagarjuna Construction Company was awarded the contract to construct elevated viaducts on the Pimpri-Chinchwad to Range Hills section of Line 1.[94]
  • 2017 August: The contract for the elevated viaduct on the Vanaz to Civil Court section of Line 2 (Vanaz to Ramwadi) was awarded to Nagarjuna Construction Company.[93][95]
  • 2017 November: HCC-Al Fara'a was awarded the contract to construct the following nine elevated stations on Line 1: PCMC, Sant Tukaram Nagar, Nashik Phata (Bhosari), Kasarwadi, Phugewadi, Dapodi, Bopodi, Khadki, Range Hills.[93]
  • 2018 January:
    • HCC-Al Fara'a was awarded the contract to construct the following nine elevated stations on Line 2: Vanaz, Anand Nagar, Ideal Colony, Nal Stop, Garware College, Deccan, Sambhaji Park, PMC.[96][97]
    • Construction of the Sant Tukaram Nagar station commenced.[98]
  • 2018 May: J Kumar Infraprojects was awarded the contract for tunneling shafts at Agriculture College and Swargate as well as for the metro station and multimodal transit hub at Swargate.[99][48]
  • 2018 August: The contract for the elevated viaduct on the Civil Court to Ramwadi section of Line 2 (Vanaz to Ramwadi) was awarded to J Kumar Infraprojects.[100][101][102]

PMRDA line[edit]

Line 3 (HinjawadiCivil Court)[edit]

Pune Metro Line 3 (PMRDA)[2]
Megapolis (Hinjawadi Phase III)
Quadran
Dohler
Infosys (Hinjawadi Phase II)
Wipro Technologies
Pall India
Shivaji Chowk (Hinjawadi Phase I)
Hinjawadi
Wakad Chowk
Balewadi Stadium
NICMAR
Ramnagar
Laxminagar
Balewadi Phata
Baner Gaon
Baner
Agricultural Research Institute
Sakal Nagar
Savitribai Phule Pune University
Reserve Bank of India
Agriculture College
Bus interchangeMainline rail interchange
Shivaji Nagar
Metro interchange
Civil Court (Interchange to Lines 1 & 2)

Line 3 will run from Civil Court, Pune to Megapolis Pune in Hinjawadi. The 23.3-km line will be completely elevated and will have 23 stations and will align with the MahaMetro lines at the Civil Court interchange station.[7][8] The construction will be taken up in two phases, the section between Hinjawadi and Balewadi is expected to be taken up first followed by the section between Balewadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar. A metro car shed will be built in Hinjewadi. The MIDC will provide 55 acres of land in Hinjewadi for setting up a Metro rail depot.[38][103][104] On 3 August 2018, PMRDA announced the final bidder for the project — the joint venture Tata Realty-Siemens.[16][17] On 3 October 2018, Tata Realty-Siemens were awarded the contract to execute the project on a design, build, finance, operate and transfer model. The construction work is expected to begin by June 2019.[3][4][5]

The line will also connect to the multimodal transit hub planned along the National Highway 48 in Balewadi which will integrate the inter- and intra-city bus services and BRTS operated by the MSRTC and PMPML.[105][106] The hub will be constructed on a PPP basis under the Smart City mission and is expected to cost 1,251 crore (US$170 million). The hub will comprise a built-up space of 1,900,000 square feet (180,000 m2) including 1,750,000 square feet (163,000 m2) of commercial office space, parking space for 80 buses, 1942 cars and 3884 two-wheelers.[105][107] As of October 2018, offers from international and national real estate developers have been invited for the hub and the PMC is in the process of land transfer to the executing agency, Pune Smart City Development Corporation Ltd. (PSCDCL).[105][108]

Proposed extension[edit]

PMRDA has announced that the line would be extended from the Civil Court intersection up to Phursungi IT Park via Hadapsar.[109][110] The DPR for the extension is being prepared by DMRC. This would add another 11.8 km of elevated corridor to the network and 12 additional stations.[111][112]

Cost[edit]

The line is estimated to cost 8,313 crore (US$1.2 billion) and will be implemented by PMRDA on a PPP basis. The private partner will bring in 60% of the funds, 30% in equity and 70% in debt, while the rest 40% will be provided together by the Centre, State and PMRDA. The Centre has already approved a sum of 1,300 crore (US$180 million) as viability gap funding, while the State will provide 812 crore (US$110 million) and PMRDA will come up with the rest.[15] The private partner will build, operate and maintain the line for 35 years.[113]

On 31 July 2018, the State government allotted 5.1 hectares (13.84 acres) of land with a market value of 153 crore (US$21 million) for Line 3. This land located in Balewadi will be monetized by the bidder for financial viability and forms a part of the costs to be borne by the State.[114][115]

Project status[edit]

  • 2015 August: PMRDA suggested a metro route between Shivajinagar and Hinjawadi in place of the earlier proposed LRT.[32]
  • 2016 December: CM Devendra Fadnavis gave a go ahead to Line 3 (Hinjewadi to Civil Court, Shivajinagar) to be implemented by PMRDA on a PPP basis.[31][116]
  • 2018 January: The project was approved by the State.[104]
  • 2018 March:
    • The project was approved by the Centre.[7]
    • PMRDA floated tenders for the project. Three companies, viz. Tata Realty-Siemens, IL&FS and IRB, had qualified to enter their bids by 27 April 2018.[113][117] The deadline for submission of bids was extended until mid-July 2018.[118][119]
  • 2018 August: After several deadline extensions for submitting the bids, PMRDA announced the final bidder — the joint venture Tata Realty-Siemens.[120][121]
  • 2018 October: Contract awarded to Tata Realty-Siemens. Construction is expected to begin by June 2019 and to be completed in three years.[3][4][5]

Fares[edit]

An integrated fare system has also been planned to facilitate seamless transfers,[122][123][124][125] however, exact fares for the same travel distance will vary based on the operator.[126] MiCard (Marathi: मी कार्ड), the smart card currently being used on the bus and BRTS services run by the PMPML, will be used as the common mobility card on the metro services as well as parking facilities.[127][128][129]

Fare structure (2020–21)
Distance
(km)
Fare
()
0-2 10
2-4 20
4-12 30
12-18 40
>18 50
This fare structure was suggested by DMRC
in the DPR for MahaMetro lines.[130]

Issues[edit]

Delay in implementation[edit]

The citizens and city-based NGOs have regularly raised questions over the intention of the State governments as to whether they actually want to implement the project. The project was proposed way back in 2007 by the then CM Prithviraj Chavan of the Congress-lead government, but did not move ahead due to red tape and bureaucracy. The DPR was itself approved only on 12 June 2012.[131] At an event in 2013 during his tour of the city, the Metroman E. Sreedharan blamed the people involved in planning and implementing the project for the long delay, stating that "Pune lost five valuable years in unnecessary discussions instead of executing the project."[132] After coming in power in 2014, the newly elected CM Devendra Fadnavis had assured fast implementation of the project, stating that it will be taken on priority basis along with Mumbai and Nagpur projects. However, the newly elected government had to bear a lot of protest as Nagpur Metro was approved before Pune. The opposition claimed that the BJP-led government was purposely ignoring Pune as the party is not in power in the city.[133]

Alignment issue[edit]

Initial plans were to build a few sections underground and the rest elevated. However, citizens of Pune did not want elevated routes as they felt that the roads could not bear the increased traffic that would result from the construction. Most roads were too narrow to accommodate the pillars of elevated routes. It was decided that all the routes in the city would be underground, although the map and the details of phases showed elevated routes. In November 2011, the State government declared that all the routes would be underground. However, in April 2012, the PMC declared that all routes will be as per the DMRC report, mostly elevated and partially underground in core city areas.[134] On 27 May 2015, the then Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs M. Venkaiah Naidu stated that underground metro was not a feasible option and that Pune, like other cities, will have to get an elevated metro as suggested by the DMRC. But as per the city activists, elevated metro is not possible due to presence of some flyovers along the route of metro and narrow roads on the metro corridor, which will cause traffic congestion and interruption.[83] To alleviate the confusion, CM Devendra Fadnavis announced that Pune will get "mixed-metro", as the alignment of some routes does support elevated sections.[135]

Metro phase I was criticized by Pimpri-Chinchwad Citizens’ Forum (PCCF), believing that the project will not benefit nearly 70 per cent area of Pimpri-Chinchwad, as it will not serve the Akurdi, Chinchwad and Nigdi stretch.[136] Adding further, the citizens group supported their cause by stating that it would take another 5 years after phase II gets approval from Union Cabinet for metro to reach core PCMC area. Since infrastructure projects take a lot of time to get approvals, they fear metro will not reach Nigdi before 2025. Many architects and urban planners also vouch for Nigdi's role in transport management.[citation needed]

Environment interest litigation[edit]

In May 2016, an environment interest litigation (EIL) was filed in the western zone bench of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) against the realignment of Line 2 from JM road to the Mutha river bed.[69][137] The litigants MP Anu Aga, Sarang Yadwadkar, Arti Kirloskar and Dileep Padgaonkar expressed concerns over free flow of the river being obstructed by the pillars supporting the 1.7-km stretch of the metro viaduct.[137] In October 2016, the Biodiversity Monitoring Committee of the PMC reported that the metro project could be catastrophic for the riverbed ecology, corroborating the EIL.[138] The NGT put an interim stay on metro construction in the river bed on 2 January 2017, days after the foundation stone was laid on 24 December 2016.[139][140] The stay, however, was put on hold be the Supreme Court.[141][142] Subsequently, after the MahaMetro was formed and became a respondent in the EIL, it unsuccessfully moved SC challenging the NGT's jurisdiction on the case.[143] In October 2017, the NGT resumed the hearing and appointed an expert committee convened by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) to study the impact of the metro project on the river bed.[144] In January 2018, the report was submitted and stated that the construction would not damage the river.[145] However, the case is still pending in the NGT. Since 1 February 2018, the NGT's western zone bench in Pune is unable to function following an SC order restricting single-member benches of the NGT from hearing cases.[146][147][148] The case is expected to be heard in July 2018, when the circuit bench of the NGT will hear cases for three weeks in Pune.[149][150] On 3 August 2018, the principal bench of the NGT cleared metro construction on the river bed. The clearance is subject to MahaMetro complying with the recommendations made by the three-member expert committee, which had concluded that the construction would not damage riverbed hydrology.[151][152][153]

FSI debate[edit]

The DMRC had proposed 4 FSI on either side of the corridor to achieve greater population densification through vertical development of residential and commercial properties. The PMC will raise money for the metro and needed civic amenities to support the higher density. Furthermore, PMC hopes to increase the use of metro.

Some members of the planning committee have suggested that three FSI be granted not only within a 500-m radius along the metro corridor but also in the entire city. Members have suggested that the amount collected through the premium on additional FSI should be turned into an urban development fund. A 60% share of this fund should be used for the metro project, while 15% for the PMPML and high capacity mass transit road and monorail and 25% for developing basic infrastructure.[154]

But as per several urban planners, NGOs and experts, the FSI introduction will have more drawbacks than benefits for the city.[155]

  1. Even if half of the landowners along the metro corridor take advantage of the 4 FSI proposal, it will lead to 20 km2 of built up area in coming years, which is more than the total housing needs of Pune for the next 20 years.
  2. The PMC would raise 37,000 crore (US$5.1 billion) from the sale of FSI whereas it needs just 3,000 crore (US$420 million).
  3. In the area studied, most of the plots which could consume the 4 FSI were at the edge of the corridor away from the stations, while many plots next to the tracks and the stations would remain as they are, since they are too small to accommodate the extra FSI. This plan might backfire as the distance of these plots from the nearby metro corridor might encourage the residents to use private vehicles and thus, defeat the purpose of metro.
  4. Given the prevailing land costs, the new development that comes up will be of the "premium" category. Thus any new housing that comes up through this extra FSI will cater to the more affluent segment, which is the group least likely to use the Metro.
  5. The open space per capita in the city will be reduced to half or less of what it is at present. The space required for other public amenities like hospitals, schools, clinics etc. will also fall short since very few plots are large enough to come under the "amenity" space rules under which the landowners have to give small portion to the city for providing amenities.[156]

In July 2018, the Department of Defence of the MoD notified height restrictions in a six-kilometer radius of the National Defence Academy and the Lohegaon airport. This area accounts for approximately 50% of the city's area. The notification restricts the construction of high-rise buildings and has made 4 FSI along the metro corridor under the transit-oriented development policy impossible.[157]

Future lines[edit]

The following routes have been proposed:

  1. Wagholi to Ramwadi
  2. Nashik Phata - Moshi - Chakan [158][159]
  3. Swargate - Hadapsar [160][161]
  4. Swargate - Khadakwasla [162][160]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]