Mumbai Metro

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Mumbai Metro
मुंबई मेट्रो
Train at Azad Nagar station, Mumbai.jpg
Native name मुंबई मेट्रो
Owner Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 1 (operational)[1]
3 (planned)
Number of stations 12 (operational)
93 (planned)
Daily ridership 2.77 lakh (Line 1 average)[2]
Annual ridership 100 million [3]
Began operation 8 June 2014 (Line 1)
Operator(s) Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (Line 1)
Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation Limited (Line 3)
Train length 4–6 coach trainsets[4]
Headway 4–8 minutes
System length 11.4 km (7.1 mi) (operational)[1]
160.9 km (100.0 mi) (planned)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Standard gauge)
Electrification 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary[5]
Average speed 33 km/h (21 mph)[4]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)[4]

Mumbai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. It will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres (39 mi). Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MOOPL), a joint venture company formed by RATP Développement, Transdev and Reliance Infrastructure, under a 35-year contract.[6] MOOPL operates under the control of Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL), formed by Reliance and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).[6]

In June 2006, then-Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008.[7][8][9] A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013,[10][11][12] and the system's first line entered operation on 8 June 2014, though some aspects of the project were afflicted by delays and cost issues.[8][13][14][15]


Mumbai is capital of Maharashtra, the most economically developed state of India. It is among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011,[16] and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum.[17] Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day,[18] and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades.[19] Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network.

Original Mumbai Metro master plan[19]
Phase Line Name of the corridor Length (km)
Phase I
1 Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar 11.07
2 Colaba - Bandra – Charkop 38.24
3 Bandra - Kurla – Mankhurd 13.37
Phase II
4 Charkop - Dahisar 7.5
5 Ghatkopar – Mulund 12.4
Phase III
6 BKC - Kanjur Marg via Airport 9.5
7 Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) 18
8 Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar 21.8
9 Sewri – Prabhadevi 3.5

The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult and TCS, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA).[19] The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground.[20] The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of 19,525 crore.[19] In September 2009, the proposed Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar was reduced to a line between Hutatma Chowk and Carnac Bunder.[21] In 2010, the MMRDA revised the estimated cost of constructing the nine lines to 36000 crore (US$5.4 billion).[20] In November 2010, it was decided to extend the Ghatkopar-Mulund route to Teen Haath Naka in Thane.[21]

In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided to increase ridership on the line by running it out past Bandra to Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of 21000 crore (US$3.2 billion),[22] and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations.[23]

On 27 February 2012, the Union Government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. Money for the project is being borrowed from Japanese International Cooperation Agency (50%), the state government (16%), the central government (14%), and others.[24] In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.[25] In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013.[26] The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.[27]

A metro station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.

The Mumbai Metro master plan was revised by the MMRDA in 2012, increasing the total length of the proposed network to 160.90 km.[28] In June 2015, two new lines were proposed. A line from Andheri West to Dahisar West, and a line from BKC to Mankhurd.[29] The following table shows the updated master plan unveiled by the MMRDA:

Line Name of Corridor[30] Length (km) Estimated cost Status
1 Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar 11.40 2356 (in 2012) Opened
2 Dahisar–Mankhurd 40.2 Planning
N/A Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd 32 7660 (in 2012) Proposed as Line 2; merged with Charkop–Dahisar line.
N/A Charkop–Dahisar 7.8 4680 (in 2012) Proposed as Line 4; merged with Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd line.
3 Colaba–Bandra–SEEPZ 33.5 24,430 Tendering
4 Wadala–Ghatkopar-Mulund–Teen Hath Naka (Thane)–Kasarvadavali 32 8757 (in 2012) Previously, planned as Line 5
N/A Wadala–Carnac Bunder 13.5 2635 (in 2012) Proposed as Line 6; Cancelled[31]
7 JVLR–Kanjurmarg 12 4200 (in 2015) Planning; SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg line (10.5 km) extended to JVLR.[32]
8 Andheri (E)–Dahisar (E) 18 6,300 (in 2015) Planning
9 Sewri–Prabhadevi 3.50 2100 (in 2012)
Andheri (W)–Dahisar (W) 18 6,300 (in 2015) Planning[33]
BKC–Mankhurd 12 4200 (in 2015) Planning[34]
Total 160.90 67618 crore (US$10 billion)

On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.[35][36][37][38]

The revised Mumbai Metro master plan had proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. The feasibility report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposed route of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of 22,000 crore.[39] This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.[40]

Following the opening of Line 1, MMRDA metropolitan commissioner UPS Madan stated that the authority would focus on constructing the Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ, Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd, and Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines. He also stated that the other proposed lines had not been cancelled and that they may be implemented in the future.[31] In May 2015, the MMRDA stated that it had begun planning for the Andheri-Dahisar line and Seepz-Kanjurmarg. Both lines are expected to be elevated, although the latter could be constructed underground if a proposal to extend Line 3 to Kanjurmarg is undertaken. DPRs for both lines had been prepared in 2004, along with the master plan, and the MMRDA would now update the DPRs. The agency also intends to construct Line 9 of the metro as an underground corridor from Sewri to Worli. However, planning for the project will only begun after the construction of the proposed Mumbai Trans Harbour Link commences.[41]

In a report on 14 November 2014 about the cancellation of the PPP agreement for Line 2, Mint quoted a senior MMRDA official as stating, "as decided earlier, all future lines of Mumbai Metro will be constructed by the Mumbai Metro Railway Corp. Ltd (MMRCL), a joint venture between the state government and the Union government."[42] On 20 May 2015, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis requested officials to consider constructing the Charkop-Bandra-Dahisar and the Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines as elevated corridors. Although, both corridors had been planned as elevated lines in the Mumbai Metro master plan, the previous Congress-NCP had decided to construct all metro lines underground, after delays and difficulties caused by acquiring land for Line 1. However, Chief Minister Fadnavis believes that the two proposed lines can be constructed quicker and cheaper if they were elevated due to the proposed route of the alignment.[43] The Government plans to implement all future metro lines (except Line 3) as elevated corridors.[44] On 15 June 2015, the MMRDA announced that it would implement Line 2 of the metro in three parts. The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[45]

In June 2015, Fadnavis announced that he would request the DMRC to assist in the implementation of the Mumbai Metro. He stated that he intends to expand the metro system by 109 km before the state assembly elections in October 2019.[46][47][48] In July 2015, UPS Madan announced that the State Government formally appointed the DMRC to revise and update the Mumbai Metro master plan. The DMRC will prepare DPRs for the Andheri East to Dahisar East, Jogeshwari to Kanjurmarg, Andheri West to Dahisar West and Bandra Kurla Complex to Mankhurd lines.[49] The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[50] All four lines are proposed to be elevated and constructed as cash contracts. The lines are estimated to cost a total of 21000 crore (US$3.2 billion), or about 350 crore (US$53 million) per km.[51] In addition, the planned Line 3 and Wadala-Ghatkopar-Thane-Kasarvadavli line of the metro would also be constructed.[52]


Map showing all of the railway services in Mumbai, including the Metro, Monorail and Suburban services
Line Terminal Opening date System length Stations
UG Elevated At grade UG Elevated At grade
Line 1 Versova Ghatkopar 8 June 2014 0 km 11.4 km 0 km 0 12 0
Line 2 Dahisar Mankhurd Planning 40.2 km 0 km 0 km 36[53] 0 0
Line 3 Colaba SEEPZ Tendering (2014–15) 33 km 0 km 0 km 26 0 1
Line 4 Wadala Kasarvadavali Planning[31] 32 km 0 km 0 km 24[53] 6 0

Line 1[edit]

Main article: Line 1 (Mumbai Metro)
Mumbai Metro train arriving at Ghatkopar.jpg
Metro trains arriving at different stations.
Infodesk at stations.

Line 1 connects Versova, Andheri in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Eastern Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi).[1] It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations.[1] Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012.[54] The line opened for service on 8 June 2014.[55] Line 1 of Mumbai Metro has 12 stations in the V-A-G corridor, Versova, D.N.Nagar, Azad Nagar, Andheri, W. E. H., Chakala, Airport Road, Marol Naka, Saki Naka, Asalpha, Jagruti Nagar and Ghatkopar.

Line 2[edit]

The second corridor that was planned to be built in the first phase was the 32 km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which was planned to have 27 stations. Like Line 1, Line 2 was proposed to be constructed on a public private partnership (PPP) model.[56] Then President Pratibha Patil launched the project in August 2009. The MMRDA appointed a consortium of Reliance Infrastructure (RInfra), SNC Lavalin Inc. Canada, and Reliance Communications,[57] on 3 August 2009 to carry out this phase of the project, and the concession agreement was signed on 21 January 2010.[58][59] The MMRDA estimated the project would cost 8250 crore (US$1.2 billion), while Reliance Infrastructure estimated it would cost 11,000 crore.[60] Construction was planned to begin in August 2010 and be completed by mid-2013.[61] However, construction work had yet to begin by December 2012, leading to calls for Line 2 to be cancelled outright.[59]

The line's construction was handicapped by the lack of available land for carsheds at Charkop and Mankhurd; coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws forbade construction on the land that had been selected by the MMRDA. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) refused to give clearance for the depots.[62] MMRDA officials plan to solve the problem by shifting the location of the proposed rake depot to Malwani near Malad.[63]

On 6 September 2012, the MMRDA sent a letter to Reliance Infrastructure asking them to start work on the metro immediately or face legal action.[64][65] In response to the letter, RInfra blamed the government and MMRDA for the delayed construction work. They said that the government had failed to fulfill its contractual obligation to provide the necessary land, right of way permits and clearances.[66][67][68][69] On 8 February 2013, then RInfra CEO Sumit Banerjee claimed that the project had not advanced because the MMRDA had failed to fulfill its obligations.[70][71] On 9 August 2013, DNA reported that an MMRDA official had informed them that a 27-acre plot that was to be used as the casting yard for Line 2, was planned to be marked for use as a casting yard for Line 3. The paper called the move "a clear indication" that Line 2 "will not take off in the near future."[72] Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan told the media on 30 August 2013 that "it is now clear that Mumbai's Metro II project will now not happen."[73] On 13 November 2014, Reliance Infrastructure announced that it had terminated the agreement between the MMTPL and the Maharashtra government. RInfra stated, "Due to non-fulfilment of various critical obligations by Maharashtra government and Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), the project could not take off. Even after four years, despite the best efforts of the Maharashtra government, various project impediments could not be resolved." The MMRDA issued a statement confirming that the agreement was terminated with mutual consent. No party will bear any cost as a result of the termination and the state government will return a bank guarantee of 160 crore (US$25 Million). The MMRDA also clarified that the Line 2 project had not been cancelled and will be constructed by the Mumbai Metro Railway Corp. Ltd (MMRCL).[42][58]

RITES submitted its final report to the MMRDA in the last week of May 2014, concluding that constructing the metro elevated-underground and extending it up to Dahisar was feasible.[74][75][76] The merged Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd line would be 40.2 km long and have 37 underground stations. The estimated cost of construction of this line is 28,900 crore, 134% higher than the originally estimated costs of 7,660 crore for the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd line and 4,680 crore for the Charkop-Dahisar corridor.

On 15 June 2015, the MMRDA announced that Line 2 would be executed in three parts - Mankhurd-BKC, Andheri-Dahisar and BKC-Andheri. The first two parts are planned to be constructed if the they are deemed to be feasible by a feasibility report. The BKC-Andheri section is expected to take much longer due to issues such as a shortage of available land and congested roads.[77]

On 1 July, it was announced that MMRDA was allotted a 22-acre plot in Mankhurd adjacent to the Sion Panvel highway for the Metro carshed. The land was under dispute between the MMRDA and the State Home Ministry for the construction of a Jail.[78]

Line 3[edit]

Main article: Line 3 (Mumbai Metro)

The second line to be constructed will be the 33.50 kilometre long Line 3. It will be the first underground metro line in Mumbai, and will consist of 27 stations.[79] The metro line will connect Cuffe Parade business district to SEEPZ.[80] The cost of this corridor is estimated at 23136 crore (US$3.5 billion).[81][82] The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed in 2020.[83]

Line 4[edit]

Metro 4 will be built across a 32-km corridor from Wadala to Kasarvadavali, near Thane, It will also be underground with a partially elevated stretch.[84]


Railcars of the Mumbai Metro in 2010.
Interior of metro train.
A metro train on an elevated viaduct.
Metro bridge.

Rolling stock[edit]

RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion.[85][86] In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars.[87] The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.[88]

The coaches are fire retardant,[89] air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations.[90] The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.[91]


Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.[92]

Signaling and communications[edit]

The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.[4]

Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[93]


Capacity and frequency[edit]

A study in 2012 by Metro One and consultant MVA Systra estimated the daily ridership at 1.5 million.[94] The average ridership is 2.77 lakh. Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.[90]

Responding to an RTI query Metro one officials said maximum ridership recorded on a single day was 3,12,215 and minimum was 64,522. Mumbai metro witnessed service disruption two times between 2014 to 2015. [95]

Mumbai Metro Line 1 has had an annual ridership of over 90 million passengers since it opened

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]