Mumbai Metro

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Mumbai Metro
मुंबई मेट्रो
Mumbai Metro Line 1 logo.png
Train at Azad Nagar station, Mumbai.jpg
Overview
Native name मुंबई मेट्रो
Owner MMRDA
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines
  • 1 (operational)[1]
  • 3 (under construction)
  • 2 (bidding in progress)
  • 2 (planned)
  • 2 (approved)
  • 1 (DPR completed)
Line number
Number of stations
  • 12 (operational)
  • 58 (under construction)
  • 54 (bidding in progress)
  • 30 (planned)
  • 15 (approved)
Daily ridership 355,000 (February 2017)[2]
Annual ridership 100 million [3]
Website
Operation
Began operation 8 June 2014; 3 years ago (2014-06-08)
Operator(s) Metro One Operation Private Limited (Line 1)
Character elevated, underground, at grade
Train length 4–8 coach trainsets[4]
Headway 4–8 minutes
Technical
System length
  • 11.4 km (7.1 mi) (operational)[1]
  • 68.6 km (42.6 mi) (under construction)
  • 56 km (35 mi) (post-bidding negotiations)
  • 55.5 km (34.5 mi) (approved)
No. of tracks 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Standard gauge)
Electrification 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary[5]
Average speed 33 km/h (21 mph)[4]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)[4]

Mumbai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway (colloquially called local trains) network. It is being built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When completed, the core system will comprise eight high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 200 kilometres (120 mi) (20% underground, the rest elevated, with a miniscule portion built at-grade), and serviced by 169 stations.

Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro system is operated by Metro One Operation Private Limited (MOOPL), a joint venture company formed between RATP Développement, Transdev and Reliance Infrastructure. While lines 2, 7 (under construction) and 4 (bidding in progress) will be operated by MMRDA, the completely underground line 3 (also under construction) will be operated by Mumbai Metro Railway Corporation Limited (MMRCL). The total financial outlay for the expansion of the metro system beyond the currently operational Line 1 is 821.72 billion (US$12.81 billion or €10.84 billion), to be funded through a mix of equity and bilateral, multilateral as well as syndicated debt[6].

In June 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project, although construction work began in February 2008[7][8][9]. A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013[10][11][12], and the system's first line entered into operation on 8 June 2014.

History[edit]

Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtra, one of the most economically developed states of India. It is among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011,[13] and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum.[14] Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day,[15] and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. Until 1980s, transport in Bombay was not a big problem. The discontinuation of trams resulted in a direct increase of passenger pressure on the suburban railway network. By 2010 the population of Bombay doubled. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades.[16] Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network.

Original Mumbai Metro master plan[16]
Phase Line Name of the corridor Length (km)
Phase I
(2006–2011)
1 Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar 11.07
2 Colaba - Bandra – Charkop 38.24
3 Bandra - Kurla – Mankhurd 13.37
Phase II
(2011–2016)
4 Charkop - Dahisar 7.5
5 Ghatkopar – Mulund 12.4
Phase III
(2016–2021)
6 BKC - Kanjurmarg via Airport 19.5
7 Andheri (E) - Dahisar (E) 16.5
8 Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar 21.8
9 Sewri – Prabhadevi 3.5

The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult and TCS, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhil ation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA).[16] The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground.[17] The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of 19,525 crore.[16] In September 2009, the proposed Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar was reduced to a line between Hutatma Chowk and Carnac Bunder.

In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided to increase ridership on the line by running it out past Bandra to Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of 21,000 crore (US$3.3 billion),[18] and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations.[19]

On 27 February 2012, the Union Government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. Money for the project is being borrowed from Japanese International Cooperation Agency (50%), the state government (16%), the central government (14%), and others.[20] In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.[21] In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013.[22] The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.[23]

A metro station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.

The Mumbai Metro master plan was revised by the MMRDA in 2012, increasing the total length of the proposed network to 160.90 km.[24] In June 2015, two new lines were proposed. A line from Andheri West to Dahisar West, and a line from BKC to Mankhurd.[25] The following table shows the updated master plan unveiled by the MMRDA:

Line Name of Corridor[26] Length (km) Estimated cost Status
1 Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar 11.40 ₹4,321 Opened
2 Dahisar–Mankhurd 42.1 ₹17396

(in 2016)

Under Construction
2A Dahisar-DN Nagar 18.5 ₹6,410 crore Under Construction
2B DN Nagar-Mankhurd 23.6 ₹10,986 crore Under Construction
3 Colaba - Bandra – SEEPZ 33.5 ₹24,430 crore Under Construction
4 Wadala–Ghatkopar-Mulund–Teen Hath Naka–Kasarvadavali 32 ₹14,549crore Under Construction
5 Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan 24 ₹8,416 crore Approved
6 Lokhandwala-Jogeshwari-Kanjurmarg 14.5 ₹6,672 Approved
7 Dahisar East-Andheri (East) 16.5 ₹6,208 Under Construction
Total 174.00 ₹81,992 crore

On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.[27][28][29][30]

The revised Mumbai Metro master plan had proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. The feasibility report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposed route of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of 22,000 crore.[31] This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.[32]

Following the opening of Line 1, MMRDA metropolitan commissioner UPS Madan stated that the authority would focus on constructing the Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ, Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd, and Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines. He also stated that the other proposed lines had not been cancelled and that they may be implemented in the future.[33] In May 2015, the MMRDA stated that it had begun planning for the Andheri-Dahisar line and Seepz-Kanjurmarg. Both lines are expected to be elevated, although the latter could be constructed underground if a proposal to extend Line 3 to Kanjurmarg is undertaken. DPRs for both lines had been prepared in 2004, along with the master plan, and the MMRDA would now update the DPRs. The agency also intends to construct Line 9 of the metro as an underground corridor from Sewri to Worli. However, planning for the project will only begun after the construction of the proposed Mumbai Trans Harbour Link commences.[34]

In a report on 14 November 2014 about the cancellation of the PPP agreement for Line 2, Mint quoted a senior MMRDA official as stating, "as decided earlier, all future lines of Mumbai Metro will be constructed by the Mumbai Metro Railway Corp. Ltd (MMRCL), a joint venture between the state government and the Union government."[35] On 20 May 2015, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis requested officials to consider constructing the Charkop-Bandra-Dahisar and the Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines as elevated corridors. Although, both corridors had been planned as elevated lines in the Mumbai Metro master plan, the previous Congress-NCP had decided to construct all metro lines underground, after delays and difficulties caused by acquiring land for Line 1. However, Chief Minister Fadnavis believes that the two proposed lines can be constructed quicker and cheaper if they were elevated due to the proposed route of the alignment.[36] The Government plans to implement all future metro lines (except Line 3) as elevated corridors.[37] On 15 June 2015, the MMRDA announced that it would implement Line 2 of the metro in three parts. The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[37]

In June 2015, Fadnavis announced that he would request the DMRC to assist in the implementation of the Mumbai Metro. He stated that he intends to expand the metro system by 109 km before the state assembly elections in October 2019.[38][39][40] In July 2015, UPS Madan announced that the State Government formally appointed the DMRC to revise and update the Mumbai Metro master plan. The DMRC will prepare DPRs for the Andheri East to Dahisar East, Jogeshwari to Kanjurmarg, Andheri West to Dahisar West and Bandra Kurla Complex to Mankhurd lines.[41] The Andheri-Dahisar line will have connectivity with the existing Line 1 and the proposed JVLR-Kanjurmarg line.[37] All four lines are proposed to be elevated and constructed as cash contracts. The lines are estimated to cost a total of 21,000 crore (US$3.3 billion), or about 350 crore (US$55 million) per km.[25] In addition, the planned Line 3 and Wadala-Ghatkopar-Thane-Kasarvadavli line of the metro would also be constructed.[41]

Fadnavis announced on 8 April 2017 that the government was considering a circular metro loop line in the along Kalyan-Dombivli-Taloja route. The proposed 15 km line would link Kalyan and Sheel Phata with 13 stations, bring metro connectivity to Kalyan East, Dombivili, Ambernath and Diva.[42][43]

Network[edit]

Map showing all of the railway services in Mumbai, including the Metro, Monorail and Suburban services

Lines on the Mumbai Metro are currently identified by numbers. In March 2016, MMRDA Metropolitan Commissioner, U.P.S. Madan, announced that all lines on the system would be color coded after more lines were opened.[44]

Line Terminal Orientation Connections Opening date System length Number of stations Funding Agency (Debt)[45]
Underground Elevated At-grade Underground Elevated At-grade
Line 1 Versova Ghatkopar West - East 8 June 2014 0 km (0 mi) 11.40 km (7.08 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 12 0 NA
Line 2 Dahisar Mankhurd North - South Under Construction (Line 2A) 0 km (0 mi) 18.589 km (11.551 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 17 0 ADB (74.98 billion (US$1.17 billion))
North - South
West - East
Post-bidding negotiations (Line 2B) 0 km (0 mi) 23.643 km (14.691 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 22 0
Line 3 Aarey Depot Cuffe Parade North - South Under Construction 33 km (21 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0.5 km (0.31 mi) 26 0 1 JICA (57%[46], 132.35 billion (US$2.06 billion))[47]
Line 4 Kasarvadavali Wadala North - South post-bidding negotiations 0 km (0 mi) 32.32 km (20.08 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 32 0 AIIB (39.16 billion (US$610.62 million))
Line 5 Thane Kalyan West - East Planned 0 km (0 mi) 24 km (15 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 17 0 TBD
Line 6 Swami Samarth Nagar Vikhroli West - East Planned 0 km (0 mi) 14.5 km (9.0 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 13 0 TBD
Line 7 Dahisar Andheri (East) North - South
Under Construction 0 km (0 mi) 16.475 km (10.237 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 0 14 0 ADB (22.46 billion (US$350.22 million))
Bhayander CSIA T2 Approved (North & South Extensions) 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 13.5 km (8.4 mi) 0 km (0 mi) 3 12 0
Total 36.5 km (22.7 mi) 154.5 km (96.0 mi) 0.5 km (0.31 mi) 29 139 1
191.5 km (119.0 mi) 169

§ Numbers in italics denote data that is estimated
Lines labeled (approved) have not yet entered the planning stage, while those labelled (planned) are awaiting clearances to enter the tendering stage

Metro 1[edit]

Mumbai Metro train arriving at Ghatkopar.jpg
Metro trains arriving at different stations.
Infodesk at stations.

Line 1 connects Versova in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Central Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi).[1] It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations.[1] Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012.[48] The line opened for service on 8 June 2014.[49]

Metro 2[edit]

This corridor is being executed in two phases i.e. 2A and 2B. The 18.589 km (11.551 mi)[50] long 2A corridor is being executed by DMRC on behalf of MMRDA. The corridor has 17 stations (Dahisar (East) to D.N. Nagar), and is expected to cost 64.1 billion (US$999.50 million). Its civil works, including viaduct and stations, are being executed by J.Kumar Infraprojects. The corridor is expected to be operational in 2019.[51]

The 2B corridor will be 23.643 km (14.691 mi)[52] long, and is estimated to cost 109.7 billion (US$1.71 billion), including land acquisition cost of 12.74 billion (US$198.65 million). This section will have 22 stations (D.N. Nagar to Mandale), work on which is expected to begin in late 2017.

Line 2 is being partially funded through multilateral debt to the tune of 74.98 billion (US$1.17 billion) from ADB[45].

Metro 3[edit]

This corridor is almost entirely built underground, and is 33.50 km (20.82 mi) long, with 27 stations[53]. The metro line will connect the Cuffe Parade business district in the south of Mumbai with SEEPZ and Aarey in the north[54]. It will also pass through the Domestic and International airports of Mumbai, for which the airport operator (GVK) has promised an equity infusion of 7.77 billion (equivalent to 8.2 billion or US$128.00 million in 2016)[55]. The cost of this corridor is estimated at 231.36 billion (US$3.61 billion)[56][57]. The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed only in 2022.

Upon completion, it will have interchanges with the planned Line 6 at SEEPZ, Line 1 at Marol Naka, Line 2 at BKC, Central Line at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai Monorail at Mahalaxmi (Jacob Circle), and Western Line at Mahalaxmi, Mumbai Central and Churchgate.

57%[46] of the funds needed for this project are being sourced as multilateral debt from JICA[47].

Metro 4[edit]

The line 4 of Mumbai Metro is envisaged to be a 32.32 km (20.08 mi)[58] long elevated corridor, covering 32[58] stations from Kasarvadavali (near Thane) in the north to Wadala in the south. It is estimated to cost 145.49 billion (US$2.27 billion). This project will help connect the city of Thane with Mumbai with an alternate mode of public transport.

The line was approved by the Maharashtra government on 27 September 2016[59][60][60][61], and construction is expected to begin in late 2017.

The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has extended a multilateral loan of 39.16 billion (US$610.62 million)[45] for this project, and is expected to be completed by 2020[62].

Metro 5[edit]

The 24.9 km-long Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan Metro-V corridor will have 17 stations and will cost Rs. 8,416 crore. It will be totally an elevated corridor.It will connect Thane to Bhiwandi and Kalyan in the eastern suburbs. The stations include Kapurbawdi in Thane (West), Balkum Naka, Kasheli, Kalher, Purna, Anjur Phata, Dhamankar Naka, Bhiwandi, Gopal Nagar, Temghar, Rajnouli Village, Govegaon MIDC, Kongaon, Durgadi Fort, Sahajanand Chowk, Kalyan railway station and Kalyan APMC.

The line was approved by Chief Minister Fadnavis on 19 October 2016.[63][64] The MMRDA plans to begin construction of the line by December 2017.[65] It will be ready by 2021-22.

Metro 6[edit]

The 14.47 km long Lokhandwala-Jogeshwari-Vikhroli-Kanjurmarg Metro-VI corridor will have 13 stations and cost Rs. 6,672 crore. It will be an elevated corridor.It will connect Lokhandwala Complex in Andheri in the western suburbs to Vikhroli and Kanjurmarg in the eastern suburbs. The stations include Lokhandwala Complex, Adarsh Nagar, Momin Nagar, JVLR, Shyam Nagar, Mahakali Caves, SEEPZ Village, Saki Vihar Road, Ram Baug, Powai Lake, IIT Powai, Kanjurmarg (W), Vikhroli-Eastern Express Highway. Metro 6 will provide interchange with Metro 2 at Infinity Mall in Andheri, with Metro 3 at SEEPZ, with Metro 4 and the Mumbai Suburban Railway at Jogeshwari and Kanjurmarg, and with Metro 7 at JVLR.[66]

The line was approved by Chief Minister Fadnavis on 19 October 2016.[63][64] The MMRDA issued a tender to conduct a detailed aerial mapping survey of the alignment in April 2017. Authorities will also be able to determine the location of trees along the alignment accuracy of up to 10 cm utilizing a differential GPS (DGPS), while a digital aerial triangulation system will help determine the types of trees, their heights and diameters.[67]

The MMRDA plans to begin construction of the line by December 2017.[65] It will be ready by 2021-22.

Metro 7[edit]

This corridor is 16.475 km (10.237 mi)[68] long, and runs from Dahisar (East) in the north to Andheri (East) in the south, with a further extension till Bhayander[69] in the north, and Mumbai International Airport Terminal 2[70] in the south. The line is partially elevated (under construction, with completion slated for 2019), and partially underground (approved, with construction planned to begin in 2018). The elevated section is expected to cost 62.08 billion (US$968.01 million), while the outlay for the recently approved underground section is 6 billion (US$93.56 million). Civil works, including viaduct and station works, is being executed by NCC, Simplex Infrastructure and J.Kumar Infraprojects.

The corridor is being funded through multilateral debt to the tune of 22.46 billion (US$350.22 million)[45] by Asian Development Bank. The cost of the 13.5 km extension till Bhayander in the north is expected to be around 36 billion (US$561.34 million)[69][71].

Metro 8[edit]

This is a proposed metro line extending the planned Line 4 from Wadala in the north to Mumbai GPO in the south.[72]


Infrastructure[edit]

Railcars of the Mumbai Metro in 2010
Interior of a metro train
A metro train on an elevated viaduct
Metro bridge

Rolling stock[edit]

RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion.[73][74] In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars.[75] The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.[76]

The coaches are fire retardant,[77] air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations.[78] The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.[79]

Power[edit]

Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.[80]

Signalling and communications[edit]

The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signalling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signalling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.[4]

Siemens will supply the signalling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signalling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[81]

Ridership[edit]

A study in 2012 by Metro One and consultant MVA Systra estimated the daily ridership at 1.5 million, and it is estimated that the metro has seen 90 million annual passengers since it opened.[82] The average ridership is 2.77 lakh. Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.[78] Officials said that the maximum ridership recorded on a single day was 312,215 and minimum was 64,522. The Mumbai Metro witnessed service disruption two times between 2014 and 2015.[83]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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