Starlink (satellite constellation)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from SpaceX satellite constellation)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Starlink is a satellite constellation development project underway by SpaceX,[1] to develop a low-cost, high-performance satellite bus and requisite customer ground transceivers to implement a new space-based Internet communication system.[2][3] SpaceX also plans to sell satellites that use a satellite bus that may be used for military,[4] scientific or exploratory purposes.[5] By 2017, SpaceX had submitted regulatory filings to launch nearly 12,000 satellites to orbit by the mid-2020s.[6] These will be smallsats in low Earth orbit that provide stationary user terminals with internet connectivity.

Development began in 2015, and prototype test-flight satellites were launched on 22 February 2018.[7][8] A second set of test satellites and the first large deployment of a piece of the constellation is slated for 2019, on a launch no earlier than May 2019.[9][10] Initial commercial operation of the constellation could begin in 2020.[11]

The SpaceX satellite development facility in Redmond, Washington, houses the research, development and on-orbit control operations for the satellite Internet project.


The communication satellite network SpaceX envisions was publicly announced in January 2015, with the projected design capability to support sufficient bandwidth to carry up to 50% of all backhaul communications traffic and up to 10% of local Internet traffic in high-density cities.[3][5] CEO Elon Musk said that there is significant unmet demand for low-cost global broadband capabilities.[12]

SpaceX original satellite development facility, Redmond, Washington. Used 2015–mid-2018

The opening of the SpaceX satellite development facility, in Redmond was announced by SpaceX in January 2015, to develop and build out the new communication network. At the time, the Seattle-area office planned to initially hire approximately 60 engineers, and potentially 1,000 people over the next several years.[13] The company operated in 2,800 square meters (30,000 sq ft) of leased space by late 2016, and by January 2017 had taken on a 3,800 square meters (40,625 sq ft) second facility, both in Redmond.[14]

By January 2016, the company was planning to have two prototype satellites flying in 2016,[15] and have the initial satellite constellation in orbit and operational by approximately 2020.[5] In the event, however, by 2017 design changes obviated the original two test satellites—they were used only in ground testing—and the launch of two revised satellites was moved to 2018.[16][17]

In July 2016, SpaceX had also acquired a 740 square meters (8,000 sq ft) creative space in Irvine, CA (Orange County).[18] SpaceX job listings indicated the Irvine office would include signal processing, RFIC, and ASIC development for the satellite program.[19]

By October 2016, SpaceX had developed the initial satellites that they hoped to launch and test in 2017 but they were focusing on a significant business challenge of achieving a sufficiently low-cost design for the user equipment, aiming for something that can ostensibly install easily at end-user premises for approximately US$200. Overall, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell said the project remained in the "design phase as the company seeks to tackle issues related to user-terminal cost."[2] Deployment, if carried out, would not be until "late in this decade or early in the next."[12]

In November 2016, SpaceX filed an application with the FCC for a "non-geostationary orbit satellite system in the Fixed-Satellite Service using the Ku and Ka frequency bands."[20]

By March 2017, SpaceX filed with the FCC plans to field an additional orbital shell of more than 7500 "V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services" in an electromagnetic spectrum that has not previously been "heavily employed for commercial communications services." Called the "V-band low-Earth orbit (VLEO) constellation," it was proposed to consist of "7,518 satellites to follow the [earlier] proposed 4,425 satellites that would function in Ka- and Ku-band."[21]

The March 2017 plan called for SpaceX to launch test satellites of the initial type in both 2017 and 2018, and begin launching the operational constellation sats in 2019. Full build-out of the constellation was then not expected to be completed until 2024, at which time there were expected to be "4,425 satellites into orbit around the Earth, operating in 83 planes, at fairly low altitudes of between 1,110 kilometers and 1,325 kilometers."[22] By September 2017, the planned number of sats in each orbital shell had not changed, but the altitude of each constellation became explicit: the larger group—7,518 sats—would operate at 340 kilometres (210 mi) altitude, while the smaller group—4,425 sats—would orbit at 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) altitude.[23]

Some controversy arose in 2015–2017 with regulatory authorities on licensing the communications spectrum for these large constellations of satellites. The traditional and historical regulatory rule for satellites licensing comm spectrum has been that satellite operators could "launch a single spacecraft to meet their in-service deadline [from the regulator], a policy seen as allowing an operator to block the use of valuable radio spectrum for years without deploying its fleet."[24] By 2017, the US regulatory authority had set a six-year deadline to have an entire large constellation deployed to comply with licensing terms. The international regulator, International Telecommunication Union, proposed in mid-2017 an international guideline that would be considerably less restrictive. In September 2017, both Boeing and SpaceX petitioned the US FCC for a waiver of the 6-year rule,[24] but that was not granted by early 2019.

SpaceX filed legal documents in 2017 seeking to trademark the name Starlink for their satellite broadband network.[25]

By March 2017, SpaceX had filed regulatory paperwork to launch a total of approximately 12,000 satellites in two orbital shells, including 7,518 sats to "provide communications in the little used V band in very-low Earth orbit.[6]

SpaceX filed documents in late 2017 with the US FCC to clarify their space debris mitigation plan. SpaceX will "implement an operations plan for the orderly de-orbit of satellites nearing the end of their useful lives (roughly five to seven years) at a rate far faster than is required under international standards. [Satellites] will de-orbit by propulsively moving to a disposal orbit from which they will reenter the Earth's atmosphere within approximately one year after completion of their mission."[26]

In March 2018 the FCC issued SpaceX approval with some conditions. SpaceX would need to obtain a separate approval from the ITU.[27][28] The FCC did agree with NASA for asking SpaceX for an even higher de-orbiting reliability than the NASA's previous standard for itself of reliably deorbiting 90% of the satellites after their missions are complete.[29] In May 2018, SpaceX expected the total cost of development and buildout of the constellation to approach US$10 billion.[30]

In mid-2018, SpaceX reorganized the satellite development division in Redmond, and fired several senior management in the process.[31] They also consolidated all their Seattle-area operations with a move to Redmond Ridge Corporate Center,[31] leaving the facility they started work in during 2015.

In November 2018, SpaceX received US regulatory approval to deploy 7,518 broadband satellites, in addition to the 4,425 satellites that were approved earlier. SpaceX's initial 4,425 satellites had been requested in the initial regulatory filings to orbit at altitudes of 1,110 km to 1,325 km, well above the ISS. The new approval was for the proposal to add a very-low Earth orbit NGSO [non-geostationary satellite orbit] constellation, consisting of 7,518 satellites operating at altitudes from 335 km to 346 km, below the ISS.[32] Also in November, SpaceX made regulatory filings with the US FCC to request the ability to alter its previously granted license to operate approximately 1500 of the 4,425 satellites approved for operation at 1,150 km (710 mi) to a "new lower shell of the constellation" to only 550 km (340 mi) orbital altitude.[33][34] In a new regulatory filing that same month, SpaceX revealed that the initial 1584 Starlink satellites to be launched—beginning with the first large deployment[quantify] on a launch slated for no earlier than (NET) May 2019,[9]—will operate in a third orbital shell, a 550 km orbit, while the higher and lower orbits at ~1200 km and ~340 km will be used later once a considerably larger deployment of satellites becomes possible in the later years of the deployment process. The deployment of the first 1584 sats will be into 40 orbital planes of 66 sats each, but with a requested lower minimum elevation angle than that other two orbital shells: 25 degrees rather than 40 degrees.[33]:17

In February 2019, a sister company of SpaceX, SpaceX Services, Inc., filed a request with the US Federal Communications Commission to request a license for the operation of up to 1,000,000 fixed satellite Earth stations that will communicate with its non-geostationary orbit satellite (NGSO) Starlink system.[35]

By April 2019, SpaceX was transitioning their satellite efforts from R&D to manufacturing, with the planned first launch of a large batch of satellites to orbit, and the clear need to achieve an average launch rate of "44 high-performance, low-cost spacecraft built and launched every month for the next 60 months" to get the 2200 satellites launched to support their FCC spectrum allocation license assignment.[10]


Global broadband Internet[edit]

SpaceX has articulated the explicit goal to provide broadband internet connectivity to underserved areas of the planet, as well as provide competitively-priced service to urban areas. Moreover, SpaceX has indicated that the positive cash flow from selling satellite internet services would be necessary to fund SpaceX Mars plans.[36]

In early 2015, two space entrepreneurs announced Internet satellite ventures in the same week. In addition to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk announcing the project that would later be named Starlink, serial-entrepreneur Richard Branson announced an investment in OneWeb, a similar constellation with approximately 700 satellites that had already procured communication frequency licenses for their broadcast spectrum.[13][37]

After the failures of previous satellite-to-consumer space ventures, satellite industry consultant Roger Rusch said in 2015 "It's highly unlikely that you can make a successful business out of this."[13] Musk publicly acknowledged that business reality, and indicated in mid-2015 that while endeavoring to develop this technically-complicated space-based communication system he wants to avoid overextending the company and stated that they are being measured in the pace of development.[38] Nevertheless, internal documents leaked in February 2017 indicate that SpaceX expected more than US$30 billion in revenue by 2025 from its satellite constellation while revenues by its launch business were expected to reach US$5 billion in the same year.[39][40]

In February 2015, financial analysts questioned established geosynchronous orbit communications satellite fleet operators as to how they intend to respond to the competitive threat of SpaceX/Google and OneWeb LEO communication satellites.[41][needs update] In October, SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell indicated that while development continues the business case for the long-term rollout of an operational satellite network was still in an early phase.[42]

In 2015, court documents indicate that SpaceX had engaged in collaboration with wireless chip-maker Broadcom. Five key engineers subsequently left to join SpaceX leading to a lawsuit filed by Broadcom alleging that "SpaceX stole our best minds." In March, an Orange County judge denied Broadcom's multiple restraining order requests.[43][needs update]

Extending to use beyond Earth[edit]

In the long-term, SpaceX intends to develop and deploy a version of the satellite communication system that would be used on Mars. In the mid-term, SpaceX is interested in the satcomm system on Earth generating revenue that would be helpful in providing capital for the company's Mars transport project.[12]

Satellite hardware[edit]

The Internet communication satellites are expected to be in the smallsat-class of 100-to-500 kg (220-to-1,100 lb)-mass, which were intended to be in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at an altitude of approximately 1,100 kilometers (680 mi). However, SpaceX ultimately decided to keep the satellites at a relatively low 550 kilometers (340 mi), due to concerns about the space environment.[44] Initial plans as of January 2015 were for the constellation to be made up of approximately 4000 cross-linked[38] satellites, more than twice as many operational satellites as were in orbit in January 2015.[5]

The satellites will employ optical inter-satellite links and phased array beam forming and digital processing technologies in the Ku and Ka bands, according to documents filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[45][46] While specifics of the phased array technologies have been disclosed as part of the frequency application, SpaceX enforced confidentiality regarding details of the optical inter-satellite links other than that they will utilize frequencies above 10,000 GHz.[47]

The satellites will be mass-produced, at a much lower cost per unit of capability than existing satellites. Musk said "We’re going to try and do for satellites what we’ve done for rockets."[48] "In order to revolutionize space, we have to address both satellites and rockets."[5] "Smaller satellites are crucial to lowering the cost of space-based Internet and communications."[13]

In February 2015, SpaceX asked the FCC to consider future innovative uses of the Ka-band spectrum before the FCC commits to 5G communications regulations that would create barriers to entry, since SpaceX is a new entrant to the satellite communications market. The SpaceX non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) communications satellite constellation will operate in the high frequency bands above 24 GHz, "where steerable earth station transmit antennas would have a wider geographic impact and significantly lower satellite altitudes magnify the impact of aggregate interference from terrestrial transmissions."[49]

The system will not compete with the Iridium satellite constellation, which is designed to link directly to handsets. Instead, it will be linked to flat user terminals the size of a pizza box, which will have phased array antennas and track the satellites. The terminals can be mounted anywhere, as long as they can see the sky.[38]

Internet traffic via a geostationary satellite has a minimum theoretical round-trip latency of at least 477 ms (between user and ground gateway), but in practice, current satellites have latencies of 600 ms or more. Starlink satellites would orbit at ​130 to ​1105 of the height of geostationary orbits, and thus offer more practical Earth-to-sat latencies of around 25 to 35 ms, comparable to existing cable and fiber networks[50] (although transmitting a signal halfway around the globe takes at least 67 ms at the speed of light).

The system will use a peer-to-peer protocol claimed to be "simpler than IPv6",[51] though no details have been as yet released.

Prototype development and testing[edit]

SpaceX began flight testing their satellite technologies in 2018,[16] with the launch of two test satellites. The two identical satellites were called MicroSat-2a and MicroSat-2b[52] during development but were renamed Tintin A and Tintin B upon orbital deployment in February 2018. Two previously manufactured satellites, MicroSat-1a and MicroSat-1b were meant to be launched together as secondary payloads on one of the Iridium-NEXT flights, but they were instead used for ground-based tests.[53]

MicroSat 1a & 1b were originally slated to be launched into 625 km circular orbits at approximately 86.4 degrees inclination, and to include panchromatic video imager cameras to film image of Earth and the satellite.[54]

MicroSat 2a&2b were inserted into a 514 km orbit. Per FCC filings[55] they were intended to raise themselves to an 1125 km orbit, the operational altitude for StarLink LEO satellites per the earliest regulatory filings. For unknown reasons the satellites have not moved to the higher orbit, but could be related to SpaceX November 2018 reveal that they would like to operate an initial shell of ~1600 sats in the constellation at ~550 km orbital altitude.[33]:17

The satellites currently orbit in a circular low Earth orbit at about 500 kilometers (310 mi) altitude[56] in a high-inclination orbit for a planned six to twelve-month duration. The satellites will communicate with three testing ground stations in Washington and California for short-term experiments of less than ten minutes duration, roughly daily.[15][57]

At the time of the June 2015 announcement, SpaceX had stated plans to launch the first two demonstration satellites in 2016,[15] but the target date was subsequently moved out to 2018.[16] As of October 2015, MicroSat-2a and 2b were planned to be the first of up to eight[54] prototype satellites to be flown before deployment of the operational constellation.[58] The initial two test satellites were successfully launched to a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit on 22 February 2018, and were renamed Tintin A and Tintin B.[7][59] In October 2018 SpaceX confirmed that the test satellites were working as expected and announced mid 2019 as target for initial launches of the constellation.[11]

Competition and market effects[edit]

In addition to the OneWeb constellation, announced nearly concurrently with the SpaceX constellation, a 2015 proposal from Samsung has outlined a 4600-satellite constellation orbiting at 1,400 kilometers (900 mi) that could provide a zettabyte per month capacity worldwide, an equivalent of 200 gigabytes per month for 5 billion users of Internet data.[60][61] Telesat announced a smaller 117 satellite constellation and plans to deliver initial service in 2021.[62] Amazon announced a large broadband internet satellite constellation in April 2019, planning to launch 3,236 satellites in the next decade in what Amazon calls "Project Kuiper", a satellite constellation that will work in concert[63] with Amazon's previously-announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018.[64]

By October 2017, the expectation for large increases in satellite network capacity from emerging lower-altitude broadband constellations caused market players to cancel investments in new geosynchronous orbit broadband commsats.[65]

See also[edit]

  • Globalstar - a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation for satellite phone and low-speed data communications
  • Iridium satellite constellation – an operational constellation of 66 active LEO satellites used to provide global satellite phone service
  • OneWeb satellite constellation – a proposed LEO satellite constellation to provide global Internet broadband service to individual consumers as early as 2019
  • ORBCOMM – an operational constellation used to provide global asset monitoring and messaging services from its constellation of 29 LEO communications satellites orbiting at 775 km
  • Teledesic – a former (1990s) venture to accomplish broadband satellite Internet services
  • ViaSat Communications – offers an operational Internet service from four geostationary satellites
  • Laser communication in space – key technology used to establish the inter-satellite links of the Starlink constellation


  1. ^ Grush, Loren (15 February 2018). "SpaceX is about to launch two of its space Internet satellites — the first of nearly 12,000". The Verge. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b de Selding, Peter B. (5 October 2016). "SpaceX's Shotwell on Falcon 9 inquiry, discounts for reused rockets and Silicon Valley's test-and-fail ethos". SpaceNews. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  3. ^ a b Gates, Dominic (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk touts launch of 'SpaceX Seattle'". Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  4. ^ Eric, Ralph (21 December 2018). "SpaceX's Starlink eyed by US military as co. raises $500-750M for development". The Verge. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e SpaceX Seattle 2015, 16 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b Messier, Doug (3 March 2017). "SpaceX Wants to Launch 12,000 Satellites". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b Musk, Elon (22 February 2018). "First two Starlink demo satellites, called Tintin A & B, deployed and communicating to Earth stations (video)". Twitter. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Elon Musk on Twitter: "First two Starlink demo satellites, called Tintin A & B, deployed and communicating to Earth stations… "". 22 February 2018. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  9. ^ a b Falcon Heavy and Starlink headline SpaceX’s upcoming manifest, Michael Baylor, 6 March 2019, accessed 24 March 2019.
  10. ^ a b SpaceX’s first dedicated Starlink launch announced as mass production begins, Teslatrati, 8 April 2019, accessed 9 April 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Musk shakes up SpaceX in race to make satellite launch window: sources". Reuters. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Foust, Jeff (10 October 2016). "Shotwell says SpaceX "homing in" on cause of Falcon 9 pad explosion". SpaceNews. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d Petersen, Melody (16 January 2015). "Elon Musk and Richard Branson invest in satellite-Internet ventures". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  14. ^ "SpaceX adds a big new lab to its satellite development operation in Seattle area". 27 January 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Boyle, Alan (4 June 2015). "How SpaceX Plans to Test Its Satellite Internet Service in 2016". NBC News. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  16. ^ a b c "Caleb Henry on Twitter".
  17. ^ "SpaceX FCC Application Technical Application - QUESTION 7: PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENT".
  18. ^ "SpaceX expands to new 8,000 sqft office space in Orange County, CA".
  19. ^ SpaceX. "Open Positions". SpaceX.
  20. ^ "FCC SELECTED APPLICATION LISTING File Number = SATLOA2016111500118". International Bureau Application Filing and Reporting System. FCC. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  21. ^ "FCC gets five new applications for non-geostationary satellite constellations -". 2 March 2017.
  22. ^ "SpaceX plans to launch first Internet-providing satellites in 2019". 4 May 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  23. ^ "SpaceX asks FCC to make exception for LEO constellations in Connect America Fund decisions -". 19 September 2017.
  24. ^ a b "SES asks ITU to replace 'one and done' rule for satellite constellations with new system - Space Intel Report". 4 September 2017.
  25. ^ "SpaceX seeks to trademark the name 'Starlink' for satellite broadband network". 19 September 2017.
  26. ^ Brodkin, Jon (4 October 2017). "SpaceX and OneWeb broadband satellites raise fears about space debris". Ars Technica. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  27. ^ "FCC Authorizes SpaceX to Provide Broadband Satellite Services". Federal Communications Commission. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  28. ^ Brodkin, Jon (30 March 2018). "FCC approves SpaceX plan to launch 4,425 broadband satellites". Ars Technica. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  29. ^ "FCC approves SpaceX constellation, denies waiver for easier deployment deadline -". 29 March 2018.
  30. ^ Baylor, Michael (17 May 2018). "With Block 5, SpaceX to increase launch cadence and lower prices". Retrieved 22 May 2018. The system is designed to improve global internet access by utilizing thousands of satellites in Low Earth orbit. SpaceX President Gwynne Shotwell stated in a TED Talk last month that she expects the constellation to cost at least $10 billion. Therefore, reducing launch costs will be vital.
  31. ^ a b SpaceX reorganizes Starlink satellite operation, reportedly with high-level firings, Alan Boyle, GeekWire, 31 October 2018, accessed 2 November 2018.
  32. ^ Brodkin, Jon (30 March 2018). "FCC tells SpaceX it can deploy up to 11,943 broadband satellites". Ars Technica. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  33. ^ a b c Wiltshire, William M., ed. (18 November 2018), "Application for Fixed Satellite Service by Space Exploration Holdings, LLC", SAT-MOD-20181108-00083 / SATMOD2018110800083, Space Exploration Holdings, LLC via FCC regulatory release process, retrieved 24 March 2019, Space Exploration Holdings, LLC seeks to modify its Ku/Ka-band NGSO license to relocate satellites previously authorized to operate at an altitude of 1,150 km to an altitude of 550 km, and to make related changes to the operations of the satellites in this new lower shell of the constellation.
  34. ^ SPACEX NON-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE SYSTEM, Attachment A, TECHNICAL INFORMATION TO SUPPLEMENT SCHEDULE S, US Federal Communications Commission, 8 November 2018, accessed 23 November 2018.
  35. ^ SpaceX Services Application for Blanket-licensed Earth stations, SES-LIC-INTR2019-00217, SpaceX, 1 February 2019, accessed 9 February 2019.
  36. ^ Foust, Jeff (12 March 2018). "Musk reiterates plans for testing BFR". SpaceNews. Retrieved 15 March 2018. Construction of the first prototype spaceship is in progress. 'We’re actually building that ship right now,' he said. 'I think we’ll probably be able to do short flights, short sort of up-and-down flights, probably sometime in the first half of next year.'
  37. ^ Fernholz, Tim (24 June 2015). "Inside the race to create the next generation of satellite internet". Quartz. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  38. ^ a b c Elon Musk, Mike Suffradini (7 July 2015). ISSRDC 2015 - A Conversation with Elon Musk (2015.7.7) (video). Event occurs at 46:45–50:40. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  39. ^ Winkler, Rolfe; Pasztor, Andy (13 January 2017). "Exclusive Peek at SpaceX Data Shows Loss in 2015, Heavy Expectations for Nascent Internet Service". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  40. ^ Etherington, Darrell. "SpaceX hopes satellite Internet business will pad thin rocket launch margins". TechCrunch. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  41. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (23 February 2015). "Wall Street Grills Fleet Operators Over Mega-Constellation Threat". Space News. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  42. ^ SpaceX’s Gwynne Shotwell signals go-slow approach for Seattle satellite plan, Alan Boyle, 27 October 2015, retrieved 2015-10-28.
  43. ^ Axe, David (1 April 2016). "'SpaceX Stole Our Best Minds': Chip-Maker Sues Elon Musk Startup" – via
  44. ^ Grush, Loren (9 November 2018). "SpaceX wants to fly some internet satellites closer to Earth to cut down on space trash". The Verge. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  45. ^ Space Exploration Holdings, LLC (15 November 2016). "SPACEX NON-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE SYSTEM - ATTACHMENT A". FCC Space Station Applications. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  46. ^ Space Exploration Holdings, LLC (15 November 2016). "SAT-LOA-20161115-00118". FCC Space Station Applications. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  47. ^ Wiltshire, William M. (20 April 2017). "Re: Space Exploration Holdings, LLC, IBFS File No. SAT-LOA-20161115-00118". FCC Space Station Application. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  48. ^ Hull, Dana; Johnsson, Julie (14 January 2015). "SpaceX chief Elon Musk has high hopes for Seattle office". Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  49. ^ Alleven, Monica (22 February 2015). "In 5G proceeding, SpaceX urges FCC to protect future satellite ventures". FierceWirelessTech. Retrieved 3 March 2015. SpaceX pointed out that it recently announced plans to build a network of 4,000 non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) communications satellites, which it will manufacture, launch and operate.
  50. ^
  51. ^ "Elon Musk". 25 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  52. ^ "MicroSat 2a, 2b (Tintin A, B)". Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  53. ^ "MicroSat 1a, 1b". Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  54. ^ a b "SpaceX presentation at NOAA" (PDF).
  55. ^ Tintin A and Tintin B at
  56. ^ Kang, Cecilia; Davenport, Christian (9 June 2015). "SpaceX founder files with government to provide Internet service from space" – via
  57. ^ Kokalitcheva, Kia (3 June 2015). "SpaceX Has a Radical New Invention Idea". Time. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  58. ^ Henry, Caleb (22 February 2018). "SpaceX launches pair of its demo internet satellites with Spanish radar satellite". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  59. ^ Gershgorn, Dave (17 August 2015). "Samsung Wants To Blanket The Earth In Satellite Internet". Popular Science. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  60. ^ Khan, Farooq (2015). "Mobile Internet from the Heavens". arXiv:1508.02383 [cs.NI].
  61. ^ "Telesat to announce manufacturing plans for LEO constellation in coming months". 18 February 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  62. ^ Sheetz, Michael (4 April 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  63. ^ Sheetz, Michael (27 November 2018). "Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service". CNBC. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  64. ^ "Panasonic Avionics' surprising conversion into a satellite mega-constellation believer - Space Intel Report". 5 October 2017.

External links[edit]