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The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe.

Pan and Pfeil (2002) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.[1]


There are eight peoples of Europe with more than 30 million members, the Russians (with some 90 million settling in the European parts of Russia), followed by the Germans (76 million), French (63 million[2]), Italians (58 million), English (45 million), Spanish (42 million), Poles (42 million) and the Ukrainians (41 million). These eight groups between themselves account for some 460 million or about 63% of European population.

About 20-25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.

Ethno-linguistic classifications[edit]

Distribution of major languages of Europe.

Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), some 85% or 630 million fall within three large ethno-linguistic super-groups, viz., Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic. The largest groups that do not fall within either of these are the Greeks (though as Indo-European speakers, are still related to the other three) and the Hungarians (about thirteen million each).

phylum super-group ethno-linguistic group subgroups approx. number (millions) notes
Indo-European Indo-European **665
Indo-Europeans Slavic Europe *230
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Russians Pomors, presently Cossacks 90
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Poles 42
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Ukrainians Rusyns[dubious ], Boykos, Hutsuls, Lemkos, Poleszuks 41
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Czechs 11
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Serbs 12
Indo-Europeans Slavic, East Belarusians 10
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Bulgarians 08
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Croats 06
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Slovaks 05
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Macedonians 02
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Bosniaks 02
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Slovenes 02
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Silesians 02
Indo-Europeans Slavic, South Montenegrins 0.8
Indo-Europeans Slavic, West Sorbs 0.06
Indo-Europeans Latin Europe *200
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Francophonie French, Walloons, Romands, Occitans 55
Indo-Europeans Latin, Italo-Western Italians Sardinians, Furlans, Lombards, Venetians, Sicilians, Neapolitans 60
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Spaniards Castilians; non-Castilian ethno-linguistic groups: Andalusians, Asturians, Aragonese, Canarians, Catalans, Galicians 42
Indo-Europeans Latin, Eastern Eastern Romance (Vlachs) Romanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Aromanians 25
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Portuguese 15
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Romansh 0.07[4]
Indo-Europeans Latin, Western Gibraltarians 0.03
Indo-Europeans Germanic Europe *200
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, Continental German-speaking Europe Germans, Austrians, Alemannic Swiss, Luxembourgers 90
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, North Sea English 45 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Germanic, North Scandinavians Norwegians, Swedes (Finland Swedes), Danes, Icelanders 22
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, Continental Netherlandish Dutch people, Flemish people 22
Indo-Europeans Germanic, West, North Sea Frisians 01.5
Indo-Europeans Celtic Europe *002-20 approx. 2 million speakers of Celtic languages, but depending on the definition, some 20 million may be considered "Celtic"
Indo-Europeans Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic Irish Gaeltacht 06 Some living in Northern Ireland can also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic Scots Gàidhealtachd 06 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Anglo-Celtic, Brythonic Welsh 05 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Franco-Celtic, Brythonic Bretons 05 also subsumed under French.
Indo-Europeans Anglo-Celtic, Brythonic Cornish 0.2 also subsumed under English, British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic Manx 0.04 also subsumed under British or White British.
Indo-Europeans Greek Greeks 13
Indo-Europeans Albanian Albanians 08-10
Indo-Europeans Indo-Aryan Roma people 05-10
Indo-Europeans Baltic 04.8
Indo-Europeans Lithuanians 03.15
Indo-Europeans Latvians 01.5
Indo-Europeans Latgalians 0.15
Indo-Europeans Armenian Armenians 04.5 in Transcaucasia, not Europe proper, see below.
Indo-Europeans Iranian Ossetians 0.6 depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.
Turkic Turkic *038
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Turks 14 approx. 14 million in Turkish Thrace and Istanbul Province, with a large Turkish diaspora in other parts of Europe of over 3 million, principally in Germany[5][6][7]
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak Tatars 10
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Azerbaijanis 06
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghur Chuvash 02
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak Kazakhs 02 approx. 2 million; 1 million in the Atyrau and West Kazakhstan provinces of Kazakhstan and 1 million in Russia
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak Bashkirs 01.6
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak Karachays 01.3
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak / Oghuz Crimeans Tat Tatars, Yaliboyu Tatars, Noğay Tatars 0.3
Turkic peoples Turkic, Oghuz Gagauz 0.1
Turkic peoples Turkic, Kypchak Nogais 0.09
Finno-Ugric Finno-Ugric *025
Finno-Ugric peoples Ugric Hungarians 15
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Finns Karelians, Sweden Finns, Ingrian Finns, Kven people 06
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Estonians Setos, Võros 01
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Volgaic Mordvins Erzya/Shoksha, Moksha, Teryukhan, Qaratay 0.85
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Permic Udmurts 0.64
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Volgaic Mari 0.6
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Permic Komi Komi-Izhemtsy, Komi-Permyaks 0.4
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Sami 0.1
Finno-Ugric peoples Finnic, Finno-Lappic Livonians 0.000176
Caucasian Caucasian *06
Caucasian South Caucasian Georgians 5 depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.
Caucasian Northeast Caucasian Chechens 1 depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.
Basque Basque Basques 02.5
Semitic Semitic 0.4-3
Semitic Semitic, Hebrew Ethnic Jews 2 also subsumed under various other, see below.
Semitic Semitic, Maltese Maltese 0.4 ethno-linguistic classification is difficult, since there is significant historical admixture of Italian, Sicilian, Siculo-Arabic and French influence.
Mongolic Mongolic Kalmyks 0.17

Europe has a population of about 2 million ethnic Jews (mostly also counted as part of the ethnic group of their respective home countries):

Depending on what parts of the Caucasus are considered part of Europe, various peoples of the Caucasus may also be considered "European peoples":

By country[edit]

Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in a sovereign state geographically situated in Europe.[9] [10] These majorities range from nearly homogenous populations as in Poland or Albania to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are multiethnic states in which no group forms a majority.

country majority  % regional majorities other minorities[11]
Albania Albanians 95% Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma, Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians)
Austria Austrians 91.1% South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats, Carinthian Slovenes, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs, Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Belarus Belarusians 81.2% Russians 11.4%, Poles 3.9%, Ukrainians 2.4%, other 1.1% (1999 census)
Belgium Flemings 58% Walloon 31%, Germans 1% mixed or other 10%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniak 48%, Serbs 37.1% Croats 14.3% other 0.6% (2000)
Bulgaria Bulgarians 83.9% Turks 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)
Croatia Croats 89.6% Serbs 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovenes, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)
Czech Republic Czechs 90.4% Moravians 3.7% Slovaks 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)
Denmark Danes 81% Faroese other Scandinavian 9%, Germans 5%, Frisians 1%, other European 3%
Estonia Estonians 67.9% Estonian Swedes Baltic Russians 25.6%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.3%, Finns 0.9%, other (Baltic Germans) 2.2% (2000 census)
Finland Finns 93.4% Swedes 5.6% Russians 0.5%, Estonians 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
France French 84% (includes Bretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Basques) other European 7%, North African 7%, Indochinese [6]
Germany Germans 91.5% includes Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, Frisians, Sorbs, Silesians Turks 2.4%, other 6.1% (mostly Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Spanish)
Greece Greeks 93% includes linguistic minorities 3% Albanians 4%, other 3% (2001 census)[12]
Hungary Hungarians 92.3% Roma 1.9%, Germans 1.2% other or unknown 4.6% (2001 census)
Iceland Icelanders 94% other (non-native) 6%
Ireland Irish 87.4% other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census)
Italy Italians 95% includes Sicilians, Sardinians, Lombards and other subgroups other European (mostly Albanian, Romanian, Ukrainian) 2.5%, African (mostly North African Arab) 1.5%, others 1% [7]
Kosovo Albanians 88% Serbs 7% other 5% (Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turk, Ashkali, Egyptian)
Latvia Latvians 57.7% Baltic Russians 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002)
Lithuania Lithuanians 83.5% Poles 6.74%, Russians 6.31%, Belarusians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars) 2.27% (2001 census)
Macedonia Macedonians 64.2% Albanians 25.2% Turks 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Malta Maltese 95.3%[13].
Moldova Moldovan/Romanian 78.2% Ukrainians 8.4% Russians 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarians 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
Montenegro Montenegrins 43%, Serbs 32% Bosniaks 8%, Albanians 5%, other (Croats, Roma) 12% (2003 census)
Netherlands Dutch 80.7% other EU 5%, Indonesians 2.4%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Netherlands Antilles & Aruba 0.8%, other 4.8% (2008 est.)
Norway Norwegians 93.1% Sami 1.3% other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)
Poland Poles 96.7% Germans 0.4%, Belarusians 0.1%, Ukrainians 0.1%, other and unspecified (Silesians) 2.7% (2002 census)
Portugal Portuguese 92%
Romania Romanians 89.5% Hungarians 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Germans 0.3% Ukrainians 0.3%, Russians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)
Russia Russians 79.8% Tatars 3.8%, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ossetians Ukrainians 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1% other or unspecified (Nogais, Mordvins, Komi) 12.1% (2002 census, includes Asian Russia)
Serbia[14] Serbs 82.9% Hungarians 3.9%, Roma 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census, includes Kosovo)
Slovakia Slovaks 85.8% Hungarians 9.7% Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Slovenia Slovenians 83.1% Serbs 2%, Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Spain Spanish 89% Various nationalities or sub-ethnicities (Castilians 25%; Basques 10%) 11% foreign nationals (South Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, other)
Sweden Swedes 88% Sweden-Finns , Sami people foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks [8][9]
Switzerland Swiss 79% regional linguistic subgroups Balkans (Serbs, Croats, Albanians) 6%, Italians 4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%.
Ukraine Ukrainians 77.8% Russians 17.3%, Belarusians 0.6%, Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians 0.3%, Poles 0.3%, Jews 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)
United Kingdom English 83.6% Scots 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9% (White British 92.1%) black (Nigerian) 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other (Iraqi, east Asian) 1.6% (2001 census)


Prehistoric populations[edit]

The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age (Corded ware, Beaker people). The Finnic peoples are indigenous to northeastern Europe.

Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.

Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.

Historical populations[edit]

Provinces of the Roman Empire in AD 117.

Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus:

Historical immigration[edit]

Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The Carolingian Empire (purple), the Byzantine Empire (orange) and the Caliphate of Córdoba (light green). (Borders are approximate.)
Distribution of ethnic groups in Europe on the eve of World War I (Ravenstein 1914).

Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:

Indigenous minorities[edit]

A Sami family in northern Scandinavia around 1900

In a more narrow sense of "indigenous peoples", ethnic minorities marginalized by historical expansion of their neighbour populations, Europe's present-day indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this Eurasian peninsula. Whilst there are numerous ethnic minorities distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, per se. The following groups can be considered "indigenous peoples" of Europe in this narrow sense:[19]

European identity and culture[edit]

Personifications of Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Otto III; from a gospel book dated 990.

The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures. Whether it is a question of West as opposed to East; Christianity as opposed to Islam; many have claimed to identify cultural fault lines across the continent.

European culture has had a very broad influence on the rest of the world, basically due to the widespread practice and legacy of colonialism. The exchange has not all been one way, some European features have been drastically changed by imports from elsewhere. Popular European foods such as chips (frites or French fries) and rice are derived from products that are not European, but indigenous to South America and Southern Asia respectively. Nearly all of the Americas and all of Africa were European colonies at one time or another - though in earlier times, European nations often colonized each other. Or were even colonized by Non-Europeans - Arabs and North African Moors colonized the Iberian peninsula leaving, for example, a significant Arabic influence on the Spanish language.

Various parts of the Americas are also considered overseas territories of France which are considered integral parts of the French Republic. A large proportion of the population of the Americas are descended from European emigrants (in some cases fleeing harsh economic times or religious intolerance). As a consequence most people in the Americas speak languages that are to varying degrees, derived from European languages. These include Latin American Spanish, American English, Caribbean English, Brazilian Portuguese, Haitian Kreyol and Papiamento. There are still significant cultural, economic and political ties between the former European colonial nations (Spain, Britain, the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium and France) and the former colonies around the world.

Pan-European identity refers to both the sense of personal identification with Europe, and to the identity possessed by 'Europe' as a whole. 'Europe' is widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national.


Predominant religions in Europe
  Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy

Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe has been dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Germanic regions, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia. Catholicism, while centered in the Latin parts, has a significant following also in Germanic, Slavic and Celtic regions.

Islam has some tradition in the Balkans (the European dominions of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries), in Albania, Former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Turkish East Thrace. European Russia has the largest Muslim community, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority.

Judaism has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is comprised primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ashkenazi Jews migrated to Europe as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jewish European history was notably affected by the Holocaust and resulting emigration in the 20th century.

In modern times, significant secularization has taken place, notably in laicist France in the 19th century and in Communist Eastern Europe in the 20th century. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll[20] found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.


Populations of non-European origin in Europe (approx. 22 - 29+ million, or approx. 3% to 4%+ [depending on definition of non-European origin], out of a total population of approx. 730 million):

  • Middle East
    • Turks: approx. 6 million (outside of the Republic of Turkey), mostly in German speaking countries and the Balkans, but found in sizeable communities throughout Europe.
    • Jews: approx. 2 million (both religious and non-religious persons by ethnoreligious descent), found throughout Europe.
    • Armenians (sometimes considered European, see above): approx. 1.5 million. The largest communities are found in France, Russia, Ukraine and the UK.
    • Kurds: approx. 1.5 million, mostly in Germany and Sweden.
    • Aramean-Syriac people: approx. 130,000, mostly in Sweden.
    • Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.
  • Africa
  • Latin Americans (mainly Mestizos): approx. 2.2 million, with the largest groups in Spain and Italy.[23]
    • Plus Latin American Britons number between 80,000[24] and 1 million and are of European, African, Native South American and many other races.
    • Brazilians: 200,000 - 300,000 in the UK, around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each
    • Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the former East Germany and the Netherlands.
  • South Asians (many ethnicities): approx. 3 - 4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany and France.
    • Indians: Between 1 and 2 million, mostly in the UK
    • Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK.
    • Tamils: approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK.
    • Bangladeshi residing in Europe estimated at 200,000, the bulk live in the UK.
  • East Asia

European diasporas[edit]

Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry[25]:



Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry [25]:

National diasporas:


  1. ^ Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil,Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen (2002).[1]
  2. ^ Recensement officiel de l'Insee [2]
  3. ^ Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate S. (2003). "The Peoples of Europe by Demographic Size, Table 1". National Minorities in Europe: Handbook. Wien: Braumueller. p. 11f. ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1.  (a breakdown by country of these 87 groups is given in Table 5, pp. 17-31.)
  4. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Switzerland
  5. ^ CIA factbook. Turkey is a transcontinentalc country, with 80% of its population Turkish and 20% Kurdish.
  6. ^ CIA factbook Statistics for Germany.
  7. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute
  8. ^ As a transcontinental country, Georgia may be considered to be in Asia and/or Europe. The UN classification of world regions places Georgia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook [3], National Geographic, and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Georgia in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place Georgia in Europe such as the BBC [4], Oxford Reference Online [5], Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, and
  9. ^ Ethnic group swhich form the majority in two states are the Vlachs (in Romania and Moldova), and the Albanians (in Albania and the partly-recognized Republic of Kosovo). Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the Serbo-Croats in the states of Former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.
  10. ^ including the European portions of Russia and Turkey, not including Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.
  11. ^ percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
  12. ^ note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
  13. ^
  14. ^ excluding Kosovo and Metohija
  15. ^ My Jewish Learning - European Origins
  16. ^ Almoravides - LoveToKnow 1911
  17. ^ Spain - AL ANDALUS, U.S. Library of Congress
  18. ^ The Last Christians Of North-West Africa
  19. ^ see also Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples.
  20. ^ ReportDGResearchSocialValuesEN2.PDF
  21. ^ Youths bring violence from a war-torn land
  22. ^ France's blacks stand up to be counted
  23. ^ Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe
  24. ^ Born Abroad - Countries of birth, BBC News
  25. ^ a b Ethnic groups by country. Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.
  26. ^ Western North Africa, 1–500 A.D., The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  27. ^ Archaeologists Find Celts In Unlikely Spot: Turkey, New York Times
  28. ^ The Mummies of Xinjiang, DISCOVER Magazine
  29. ^ A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's celtic mummies, The Independent
  30. ^ Diversity in the Desert: Daily Life in Greek and Roman Egypt, 332 B.C.E. - 641 C.E.
  31. ^ Alexander the Great and precious stones in Afghanistan, The Toronto Times
  32. ^ Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs
  33. ^ The Fate of Greenland's Vikings
  34. ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, "The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant", in The Crusades: The Essential Readings, ed. Thomas F. Madden, Blackwell, 2002, pg. 244. Originally published in Muslims Under Latin Rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell, Princeton University Press, 1990. Kedar quotes his numbers from Joshua Prawer, Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem, tr. G. Nahon, Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 498, 568-72.
  35. ^ Crusaders 'left genetic legacy', BBC News
  36. ^ South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  37. ^ Namibia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  38. ^ Réunion Island
  39. ^ Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  40. ^ Senegal, About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
  41. ^ Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  42. ^ Morocco: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  43. ^ Tunisia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  44. ^ Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold?, The Globalist, 23 February 2004
  45. ^ Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  46. ^ Kyrgyzstan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  47. ^ Turkmenistan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  48. ^ Southern Caucasus: Facing Integration Problems, Ethnic Russians Long For Better Life
  49. ^ Georgia: Ethnic Russians Feel Insulated From Tensions, Radio Free Europe
  50. ^ HK Census. "HK Census." Statistical Table. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  51. ^ Crusaders 'left genetic legacy', BBC NEWS | Science/Nature
  52. ^ Greenland
  53. ^ Canadian Census 2006
  54. ^ North America - Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
  55. ^ Mexico :: Ethnic groups - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  56. ^ Mexico: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  57. ^ Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  58. ^ Bahamas: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  59. ^ Barbados: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  60. ^ Bermuda: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  61. ^ Bolivia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  62. ^ Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  63. ^ "5.2.6. Estructura racial". La Universidad de Chile. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  64. ^ Colombia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  65. ^ "Costa Rica; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-21. white (including mestizo) 94%  = 3.9 million whites and mestizos
  66. ^ "Tabla II.3 Población por color de la piel y grupos de edades, según zona de residencia y sexo". Censo de Población y Viviendas (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  67. ^ Dominican Republic: People: Ethnic groups. World Factbook of CIA
  68. ^ "Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  69. ^ El Salvador: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  70. ^ French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  71. ^ Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  72. ^ "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  73. ^ "Panama; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  74. ^ Puerto Rico: People: Ethnic Groups World Factbook of CIA
  75. ^ Peru: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  76. ^ Trinidad French Creole
  77. ^ Uruguay: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  78. ^ Fact Sheet on St. Barthélemy
  79. ^ French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  80. ^ Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA


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  • Marcus Banks, Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions, Routledge (1996).
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External links[edit]