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Pan and Pfeil (2002) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Ethno-linguistic classifications
- 3 By country
- 4 History
- 5 European identity and culture
- 6 Immigration
- 7 European diasporas
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
There are eight peoples of Europe with more than 30 million members, the Russians (with some 90 million settling in the European parts of Russia), followed by the Germans (76 million), French (63 million), Italians (58 million), English (45 million), Spanish (42 million), Poles (42 million) and the Ukrainians (41 million). These eight groups between themselves account for some 460 million or about 63% of European population.
About 20-25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.
Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), some 85% or 630 million fall within three large ethno-linguistic super-groups, viz., Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic. The largest groups that do not fall within either of these are the Greeks (though as Indo-European speakers, are still related to the other three) and the Hungarians (about thirteen million each).
|phylum||super-group||ethno-linguistic group||subgroups||approx. number (millions)||notes|
|Indo-Europeans||Slavic, East||Russians||Pomors, presently Cossacks||90|
|Indo-Europeans||Slavic, East||Ukrainians||Rusyns[dubious ], Boykos, Hutsuls, Lemkos, Poleszuks||41|
|Indo-Europeans||Latin, Western||Francophonie||French, Walloons, Romands, Occitans||55|
|Indo-Europeans||Latin, Italo-Western||Italians||Sardinians, Furlans, Lombards, Venetians, Sicilians, Neapolitans||60|
|Indo-Europeans||Latin, Western||Spaniards||Castilians; non-Castilian ethno-linguistic groups: Andalusians, Asturians, Aragonese, Canarians, Catalans, Galicians||42|
|Indo-Europeans||Latin, Eastern||Eastern Romance (Vlachs)||Romanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Aromanians||25|
|Indo-Europeans||Germanic, West, Continental||German-speaking Europe||Germans, Austrians, Alemannic Swiss, Luxembourgers||90|
|Indo-Europeans||Germanic, West, North Sea||English||45||also subsumed under British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Germanic, North||Scandinavians||Norwegians, Swedes (Finland Swedes), Danes, Icelanders||22|
|Indo-Europeans||Germanic, West, Continental||Netherlandish||Dutch people, Flemish people||22|
|Indo-Europeans||Germanic, West, North Sea||Frisians||01.5|
|Indo-Europeans||Celtic Europe||*002-20||approx. 2 million speakers of Celtic languages, but depending on the definition, some 20 million may be considered "Celtic"|
|Indo-Europeans||Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic||Irish||Gaeltacht||06||Some living in Northern Ireland can also subsumed under British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic||Scots||Gàidhealtachd||06||also subsumed under British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Anglo-Celtic, Brythonic||Welsh||05||also subsumed under British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Franco-Celtic, Brythonic||Bretons||05||also subsumed under French.|
|Indo-Europeans||Anglo-Celtic, Brythonic||Cornish||0.2||also subsumed under English, British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Anglo-Celtic, Goidelic||Manx||0.04||also subsumed under British or White British.|
|Indo-Europeans||Armenian||Armenians||04.5||in Transcaucasia, not Europe proper, see below.|
|Indo-Europeans||Iranian||Ossetians||0.6||depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Oghuz||Turks||14||approx. 14 million in Turkish Thrace and Istanbul Province, with a large Turkish diaspora in other parts of Europe of over 3 million, principally in Germany|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak||Tatars||10|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Oghuz||Azerbaijanis||06|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Oghur||Chuvash||02|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak||Kazakhs||02||approx. 2 million; 1 million in the Atyrau and West Kazakhstan provinces of Kazakhstan and 1 million in Russia|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak||Bashkirs||01.6|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak||Karachays||01.3|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak / Oghuz||Crimeans||Tat Tatars, Yaliboyu Tatars, Noğay Tatars||0.3|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Oghuz||Gagauz||0.1|
|Turkic peoples||Turkic, Kypchak||Nogais||0.09|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Finno-Lappic||Finns||Karelians, Sweden Finns, Ingrian Finns, Kven people||06|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Finno-Lappic||Estonians||Setos, Võros||01|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Volgaic||Mordvins||Erzya/Shoksha, Moksha, Teryukhan, Qaratay||0.85|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Permic||Udmurts||0.64|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Volgaic||Mari||0.6|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Permic||Komi||Komi-Izhemtsy, Komi-Permyaks||0.4|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Finno-Lappic||Sami||0.1|
|Finno-Ugric peoples||Finnic, Finno-Lappic||Livonians||0.000176|
|Caucasian||South Caucasian||Georgians||5||depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.|
|Caucasian||Northeast Caucasian||Chechens||1||depends on what part of the Caucasus is considered European, see below.|
|Semitic||Semitic, Hebrew||Ethnic Jews||2||also subsumed under various other, see below.|
|Semitic||Semitic, Maltese||Maltese||0.4||ethno-linguistic classification is difficult, since there is significant historical admixture of Italian, Sicilian, Siculo-Arabic and French influence.|
Europe has a population of about 2 million ethnic Jews (mostly also counted as part of the ethnic group of their respective home countries):
- Ashkenazi Jews (about 1.4 million, mostly German and Polish)
- Sephardi Jews (about 0.3 million, mostly French)
- Mizrahi Jews (about 0.3 million, mostly French)
- Italian Jews (some 50,000, mostly Italian)
- Romaniotes (some 6,000, mostly Greek)
- Armenians: approx. 4.5 million
- Georgians: approx. 4 million
- Chechens: over 2 million
- Abkhazians: est. 1 million
- Ossetians: approx. 600,000.
Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in a sovereign state geographically situated in Europe.  These majorities range from nearly homogenous populations as in Poland or Albania to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are multiethnic states in which no group forms a majority.
|country||majority||%||regional majorities||other minorities|
|Albania||Albanians||95%||Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma, Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians)|
|Austria||Austrians||91.1%||South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats, Carinthian Slovenes, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs, Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)|
|Belarus||Belarusians||81.2%||Russians 11.4%, Poles 3.9%, Ukrainians 2.4%, other 1.1% (1999 census)|
|Belgium||Flemings||58%||Walloon 31%, Germans 1%||mixed or other 10%|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||—||Bosniak 48%, Serbs 37.1% Croats 14.3%||other 0.6% (2000)|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarians||83.9%||Turks 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)|
|Croatia||Croats||89.6%||Serbs 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovenes, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)|
|Czech Republic||Czechs||90.4%||Moravians 3.7%||Slovaks 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)|
|Denmark||Danes||81%||Faroese||other Scandinavian 9%, Germans 5%, Frisians 1%, other European 3%|
|Estonia||Estonians||67.9%||Estonian Swedes||Baltic Russians 25.6%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.3%, Finns 0.9%, other (Baltic Germans) 2.2% (2000 census)|
|Finland||Finns||93.4%||Swedes 5.6%||Russians 0.5%, Estonians 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)|
|France||French||84%||(includes Bretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Basques)||other European 7%, North African 7%, Indochinese |
|Germany||Germans||91.5%||includes Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, Frisians, Sorbs, Silesians||Turks 2.4%, other 6.1% (mostly Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Spanish)|
|Greece||Greeks||93%||includes linguistic minorities 3%||Albanians 4%, other 3% (2001 census)|
|Hungary||Hungarians||92.3%||Roma 1.9%, Germans 1.2% other or unknown 4.6% (2001 census)|
|Iceland||Icelanders||94%||other (non-native) 6%|
|Ireland||Irish||87.4%||other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census)|
|Italy||Italians||95%||includes Sicilians, Sardinians, Lombards and other subgroups||other European (mostly Albanian, Romanian, Ukrainian) 2.5%, African (mostly North African Arab) 1.5%, others 1% |
|Kosovo||Albanians||88%||Serbs 7%||other 5% (Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turk, Ashkali, Egyptian)|
|Latvia||Latvians||57.7%||Baltic Russians 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002)|
|Lithuania||Lithuanians||83.5%||Poles 6.74%, Russians 6.31%, Belarusians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars) 2.27% (2001 census)|
|Macedonia||Macedonians||64.2%||Albanians 25.2%||Turks 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)|
|Moldova||Moldovan/Romanian||78.2%||Ukrainians 8.4%||Russians 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarians 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)|
|Montenegro||—||Montenegrins 43%, Serbs 32%||Bosniaks 8%, Albanians 5%, other (Croats, Roma) 12% (2003 census)|
|Netherlands||Dutch||80.7%||other EU 5%, Indonesians 2.4%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Netherlands Antilles & Aruba 0.8%, other 4.8% (2008 est.)|
|Norway||Norwegians||93.1%||Sami 1.3%||other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)|
|Poland||Poles||96.7%||Germans 0.4%, Belarusians 0.1%, Ukrainians 0.1%, other and unspecified (Silesians) 2.7% (2002 census)|
|Romania||Romanians||89.5%||Hungarians 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Germans 0.3%||Ukrainians 0.3%, Russians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)|
|Russia||Russians||79.8%||Tatars 3.8%, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ossetians||Ukrainians 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1% other or unspecified (Nogais, Mordvins, Komi) 12.1% (2002 census, includes Asian Russia)|
|Serbia||Serbs||82.9%||Hungarians 3.9%, Roma 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census, includes Kosovo)|
|Slovakia||Slovaks||85.8%||Hungarians 9.7%||Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)|
|Slovenia||Slovenians||83.1%||Serbs 2%, Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)|
|Spain||Spanish||89%||Various nationalities or sub-ethnicities (Castilians 25%; Basques 10%)||11% foreign nationals (South Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, other)|
|Sweden||Swedes||88%||Sweden-Finns , Sami people||foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks |
|Switzerland||Swiss||79%||regional linguistic subgroups||Balkans (Serbs, Croats, Albanians) 6%, Italians 4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%.|
|Ukraine||Ukrainians||77.8%||Russians 17.3%, Belarusians 0.6%, Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians 0.3%, Poles 0.3%, Jews 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)|
|United Kingdom||English||83.6%||Scots 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9% (White British 92.1%)||black (Nigerian) 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other (Iraqi, east Asian) 1.6% (2001 census)|
The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age (Corded ware, Beaker people). The Finnic peoples are indigenous to northeastern Europe.
Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.
Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.
- Aegean: Greek tribes, Pelasgians/Tyrrhenians and Anatolians.
- Balkans: Illyrians (list of Illyrian tribes), Dacians and Thracians.
- Italian peninsula: Italic peoples, Etruscans, Adriatic Veneti, Ligurians and Phoenician colonies.
- Western/Central Europe: Celts (list of peoples of Gaul), Rhaetians and Swabians.
- Iberian peninsula: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians) and Basques.
- British Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts/Priteni.
- Northern Europe: Germanic peoples (list of Germanic peoples).
- Southern Europe: Sicani.
- Eastern Europe: Scythians, Sarmatians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii and Balts.
Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:
- Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean, from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic War in 146 BC.
- Iranian influence: Achaemenid control of Thrace (512-343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes.
- the Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to before AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe (Gaul) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews in Europe).
- The Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire
- Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations, fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century.
- the Bulgars (or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs.
- the Magyars (Hungarians), an Ugric people, and the Turkic Pechenegs and Khazars, arrived in Europe in about the 8th century.
- the Arabs conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, southern Italy, Malta, Sardinia, and Hispania. Emirate of Sicily (831-1072) and Al-Andalus (711-1492)
- the Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and the Almohads ruled much of Spain and Portugal. Berber settlers made up as much as 20% of the population of Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain).
- exodus of Maghreb Christians
- the western Kipchaks known as Cumans entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century.
- the Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223-1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389-1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars.
- the Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages
- the Mongol Kalmyks arrived in Kalmykia in the 17th century.
In a more narrow sense of "indigenous peoples", ethnic minorities marginalized by historical expansion of their neighbour populations, Europe's present-day indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this Eurasian peninsula. Whilst there are numerous ethnic minorities distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, per se. The following groups can be considered "indigenous peoples" of Europe in this narrow sense:
- the northern indigenous peoples of Russia, marginalized by Russian expansion, mostly Finno-Ugric peoples such as the Komi and Mordvins of the western Urals, and Samoyedic peoples of the northern Russian Federation such as the Nenets.
- the Sami and the Kvens of northern Scandinavia (marginalized by Finnish and North Germanic expansion), formerly known as "Lapps" or "Lappish".
- the Basque people of northern Spain and southern France (marginalized by Latin/Western Romance expansion).
European identity and culture
The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures. Whether it is a question of West as opposed to East; Christianity as opposed to Islam; many have claimed to identify cultural fault lines across the continent.
European culture has had a very broad influence on the rest of the world, basically due to the widespread practice and legacy of colonialism. The exchange has not all been one way, some European features have been drastically changed by imports from elsewhere. Popular European foods such as chips (frites or French fries) and rice are derived from products that are not European, but indigenous to South America and Southern Asia respectively. Nearly all of the Americas and all of Africa were European colonies at one time or another - though in earlier times, European nations often colonized each other. Or were even colonized by Non-Europeans - Arabs and North African Moors colonized the Iberian peninsula leaving, for example, a significant Arabic influence on the Spanish language.
Various parts of the Americas are also considered overseas territories of France which are considered integral parts of the French Republic. A large proportion of the population of the Americas are descended from European emigrants (in some cases fleeing harsh economic times or religious intolerance). As a consequence most people in the Americas speak languages that are to varying degrees, derived from European languages. These include Latin American Spanish, American English, Caribbean English, Brazilian Portuguese, Haitian Kreyol and Papiamento. There are still significant cultural, economic and political ties between the former European colonial nations (Spain, Britain, the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium and France) and the former colonies around the world.
Pan-European identity refers to both the sense of personal identification with Europe, and to the identity possessed by 'Europe' as a whole. 'Europe' is widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national.
Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe has been dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Germanic regions, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia. Catholicism, while centered in the Latin parts, has a significant following also in Germanic, Slavic and Celtic regions.
Islam has some tradition in the Balkans (the European dominions of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries), in Albania, Former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Turkish East Thrace. European Russia has the largest Muslim community, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority.
Judaism has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is comprised primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ashkenazi Jews migrated to Europe as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jewish European history was notably affected by the Holocaust and resulting emigration in the 20th century.
In modern times, significant secularization has taken place, notably in laicist France in the 19th century and in Communist Eastern Europe in the 20th century. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.
Populations of non-European origin in Europe (approx. 22 - 29+ million, or approx. 3% to 4%+ [depending on definition of non-European origin], out of a total population of approx. 730 million):
- Middle East
- Turks: approx. 6 million (outside of the Republic of Turkey), mostly in German speaking countries and the Balkans, but found in sizeable communities throughout Europe.
- Jews: approx. 2 million (both religious and non-religious persons by ethnoreligious descent), found throughout Europe.
- Armenians (sometimes considered European, see above): approx. 1.5 million. The largest communities are found in France, Russia, Ukraine and the UK.
- Kurds: approx. 1.5 million, mostly in Germany and Sweden.
- Aramean-Syriac people: approx. 130,000, mostly in Sweden.
- Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.
- North Africans (Arabs and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden
- Horn Africans: approx. 200,000 Somalis, mostly in the UK, Netherlands and Scandinavia.
- Sub-Saharan Africans (many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK, France, the Netherlands and Germany.
- Latin Americans (mainly Mestizos): approx. 2.2 million, with the largest groups in Spain and Italy.
- Plus Latin American Britons number between 80,000 and 1 million and are of European, African, Native South American and many other races.
- Brazilians: 200,000 - 300,000 in the UK, around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each
- Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the former East Germany and the Netherlands.
- South Asians (many ethnicities): approx. 3 - 4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany and France.
- East Asia
- Chinese: approx. 1 million, mostly in France, the UK and the Netherlands.
- Filipinos: approx. 500,000, mostly in the UK, France, Germany and Italy.
- Japanese: ca. 100,000, mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Dusseldorf, Germany.
- Southeast Asians of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands, Thais in the UK and Sweden,Vietnamese in former East Germany and Cambodians in France.
Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry:
- Middle Ages
Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry :
- Africa (see Whites in Africa)
- South Africa (Whites in South Africa) - 9.6% of the population
- Namibia - 6% of the population
- Réunion (Franco-Réunionnaise) approx. 25% of the population
- Zimbabwe (Whites in Zimbabwe)
- Kenya (Whites in Kenya)
- Algeria (Pied-noir)
- Mauritius (Franco-Mauritian)
- Canary Islands (Spaniards)
- Seychelles (Franco-Seychellois)
- Tristan da Cunha
- Swaziland - 3% of the population
- India (Anglo-Indian)
- Sri Lanka (Burghers)
- Siberia (Russians)
- Kazakhstan (Russians in Kazakhstan, Germans of Kazakhstan) - 30% of the population
- Uzbekistan - 5.5% of the population
- Kyrgyzstan - 13.5% of the population
- Turkmenistan - 4% of the population
- Georgia (Russians in Georgia)
- Hong Kong
- Macau (Macanese people)
- Singapore (Eurasians in Singapore)
- Philippines - Filipino mestizos, Filipino-Eurasians
- Indonesia (Indo people)
- North America
- Central America, the Caribbean and South America (see White Latin American)
- Argentina (White Argentine) - 97% of the population 
- Bahamas - 12% of the population
- Barbados (White Barbadian) - 4% of the population
- Bermuda - 34.1% of the population
- Bolivia - 15% of the population 
- Brazil (White Brazilian) - 53.7% of the population 
- Chile - 30% of the population
- Colombia - 20% of the population 
- Costa Rica
- Cuba - (White Cuban) 65% of the population
- Dominican Republic - 16% of the population 
- Ecuador - 7% of the population
- El Salvador - 9% of the population
- French Guiana - 12% of the population
- Martinique - 5% of the population
- Nicaragua - 17% of the population
- Panama 10% of the population
- Puerto Rico approx. 80% of the population 
- Peru - 15 % of the population 
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Venezuela - 20 % of the population
- Uruguay - 88% of the population 
- Saint Barthélemy
- Falkland Islands
- Oceania (see Europeans in Oceania)
- Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil,Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen (2002).
- Recensement officiel de l'Insee 
- Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate S. (2003). "The Peoples of Europe by Demographic Size, Table 1". National Minorities in Europe: Handbook. Wien: Braumueller. p. 11f. ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1. (a breakdown by country of these 87 groups is given in Table 5, pp. 17-31.)
- CIA - The World Factbook - Switzerland
- CIA factbook. Turkey is a transcontinentalc country, with 80% of its population Turkish and 20% Kurdish.
- CIA factbook Statistics for Germany.
- Turkish Statistical Institute
- As a transcontinental country, Georgia may be considered to be in Asia and/or Europe. The UN classification of world regions places Georgia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook , National Geographic, and Encyclopædia Britannica also place Georgia in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place Georgia in Europe such as the BBC , Oxford Reference Online , Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, and www.worldatlas.com.
- Ethnic group swhich form the majority in two states are the Vlachs (in Romania and Moldova), and the Albanians (in Albania and the partly-recognized Republic of Kosovo). Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the Serbo-Croats in the states of Former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.
- including the European portions of Russia and Turkey, not including Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.
- percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
- note: percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
- excluding Kosovo and Metohija
- My Jewish Learning - European Origins
- Almoravides - LoveToKnow 1911
- Spain - AL ANDALUS, U.S. Library of Congress
- The Last Christians Of North-West Africa
- see also Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples.
- Youths bring violence from a war-torn land
- France's blacks stand up to be counted
- Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe
- Born Abroad - Countries of birth, BBC News
- Ethnic groups by country. Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.
- Western North Africa, 1–500 A.D., The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Archaeologists Find Celts In Unlikely Spot: Turkey, New York Times
- The Mummies of Xinjiang, DISCOVER Magazine
- A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's celtic mummies, The Independent
- Diversity in the Desert: Daily Life in Greek and Roman Egypt, 332 B.C.E. - 641 C.E.
- Alexander the Great and precious stones in Afghanistan, The Toronto Times
- Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs
- The Fate of Greenland's Vikings
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white (including mestizo) 94%= 3.9 million whites and mestizos
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- Demography of Europe
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- Federal Union of European Nationalities
- Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
- Pan-European identity
- Genetic history of Europe
- White people
- White African
- White American
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- Peoples of the Caucasus
- List of ethnic groups
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
- Ron Balsdon, The Cultural Mosaic of the European Union: Why National Boundaries and the Cultures Inside Still Matter
- Migration Policy Institute - Country and Comparative Data
- Living Diversity, Federal Union of European Nationalities (FUEN) and the Youth of European Nationalities (YEN).