|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
|Founded||7 June 1932(as Misr Airlines)|
|Commenced operations||July 1933|
|Hubs||Cairo International Airport|
|Frequent-flyer program||EgyptAir Plus|
|Destinations||78 (incl. subsidiaries)|
|Company slogan||Enjoy the Sky (Arabic: تمتع بالسماء)|
|Parent company||EgyptAir Holding Company|
|Headquarters||EgyptAir Administrative Complex
EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران, Miṣr liṭ-Ṭayarān) is the flag carrier airline of Egypt. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. With an extensive network of domestic services focused on Cairo, Egypt's capital, the airline is working to regain profitable operations following the revolution of 2011.
Egyptair is a member of Star Alliance, having joined on 11 July 2008. The airline's logo is Horus, the sky deity in ancient Egyptian mythology, chosen because of its ancient symbolism as a "winged god of the sun", and usually depicted as a falcon or a man with the head of a falcon.
Their frequent flyer program is called Egyptair Plus.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Employee affairs
- 6 Incidents and accidents
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Early years: Misr Airwork (1932–1949)
Alan Muntz, chairman of Airwork, visited Egypt in 1931; at that time, he expressed his intention of starting up a new airline in the country. The new enterprise was named Misr Airwork, with ″Misr″ being the Egyptian for Egypt. On 31 December 1931, the government granted the new company the exclusivity of air transport operations. A division of Misr Airwork named Misr Airlines was established on 7 June 1932 ″to promote the spirit of aviation among Egyptian youth″. The initial investment was EG£20,000, with ownership split between the Misr Bank (85%), Airwork (10%), and Egyptian private investors (5%). Operations started in July 1933 , initially linking Cairo with Alexandria and Mersa Matruh using de Havilland DH.84 Dragon equipment. By August that year, the frequency on the Cairo–Alexandria service had been boosted to twice-daily. In late 1933, a twice-weekly Cairo–Aswan flight that called at Asyut and Luxor was inaugurated. Via Port Said, a flight from Cairo that served Lydda, Haifa and Palestine was launched in 1934. On 3 August 1935, a test service via Lydda with final destination in Cyprus began using D.H.86 aircraft; the run was terminated on 20 October that year. The Alexandria–Port Said–Cairo–Minia–Assiut run was opened in late 1935. During 1935, the airline carried 6,990 passengers and 21,830 kilograms (48,130 lb) of freight; for the year, these regular services flew 419,467 miles (675,067 km).
The Alexandria–Assiut route, which called at Port Said, Cairo and Minia, and the Cairo–Cyprus–Haifa–Baghdad run were the two operative services the carrier had by 1936. Hadj flights commenced in 1937. Operations to Cyprus resumed in 1938 with a Cairo–Lydda–Haifa–Larnaka service. The carrier operated all-British aircraft in the early years,:588 and by April 1939 the fleet comprised one D.H. Dragon, one D.H. Dragonfly, five D.H. Rapìdes, two D.H.86s and one D.H.86B that worked on the Alexandria–Cairo, Alexandria–Port Said–Cairo–Minia–Assiut, Cairo–Assiut–Luxor–Assuan, Cairo–Lydda–Haifa–Baghdad and Cairo–Port Said–Lydda–Haifa routes. The Egyptian government took over all the routes in September 1939 . In 1940, a service to Beirut and Palestine was started. Three Avro 19s were incorporated into the fleet in 1944. Three accidents that took place in late 1945 prompted strikes for a fleet renewal and caused operations to come to a total halt since February 1946 ; services resumed in May, and by late 1946 the fleet included four Avro Ansons, one Beech AT-11, five Beech C-45s, four de Havilland D.H.89 Dragon Rapides, two North American AT-6 Texan. The carrier benefited from the Allies' regional aircraft disposal station that sold surplus military aircraft being located in Egypt. Two more Beech C-45s were delivered in 1947, and the Vickers Viking was incorporated in 1948. In May 1949 , all the capital and the aircraft park was acquired by the government. After the Egyptian state became the sole shareholder, the company changed its name to Misrair SAE.
Misrair continued to fly the same routes as it predecessor. In 1951, three Languedocs were acquired; these were intended for deployment on longer routes. The Languedocs replaced the Vikings on flights to Geneva, Khartoum and Tehran. Three Vickers Viscounts were ordered in early 1954. During that year, the carrier transported 64539 passengers. At March 1955 , Misrair's fleet comprised one Beechcraft, three Languedocs and seven Vikings; the three Viscounts were still pending delivery. Douglas DC-3s were subsequently purchased and deployed on domestic routes, as well as to neighbour Arab countries. Delivery of the first two Viscounts occurred in December 1955 ; they were put on service in March the following year. The number of passengers transported during 1955 had grown to 77050. A number of aircraft were lost during the Suez crisis. In February 1957 , Misrair was renamed United Arab Airlines. Late that year, two more Viscounts were ordered at a cost of £600,000–800,000, including spares. Prior to this, an aircraft of the type was lost while standing at Almaza Airport during an air raid.
United Arab Airlines (1957–1971)
Following the formation of the United Arab Republic by Egypt and Syria on 1 February 1958 , Misrair was renamed United Arab Airlines (UAA) in March that year.[nb 1] A Cairo–Athens–Rome–Zurich service was launched on 7 July. Syrian Airways merged into UAA on 23 December, with the latter absorbing both the routes and the equipment of the Syrian carrier. By March 1960 , the airline had 579 employees. At that time, the fleet comprised one Beech D18S, four DC-3s, six Vikings and six Viscounts.:505 One of the Viscounts crashed into the Mediterranean on 10 April, killing 17 passengers and a crew of three. With registration SU-ALC, the first of three Comet 4Cs was delivered on 9 June.:588 Operations using two of these aircraft started on 16 July the same year.:588 By October 1960 , Misrair had Comets deployed on the Cairo–Belgrade–Prague, Cairo–Rome–London, Cairo–Jeddah and Cairo–Khartoum runs,:588 DC-3s on the Cairo–Alexandria–Mersa Matruh, Cairo–Assiut–Luxor, Cairo–Luxor–Aswan and Cairo–Port Said–Alexandria services, and Viscounts were used for the non-stop flights that linked Cairo and Alexandria.:589 An order for two more Comets was placed in November 1960 . Syria's association with UAA ended in October 1961 , when Syrian Arab Airways was established by the Syrian government in Damascus; the route network and fleet that had been taken over by UAA was returned to the new company.
Two more Comets, the fourth and fifth ones, were ordered in early 1961. Three ex-SAS DC-6s were purchased in April 1961 . The Cairo–Lagos run was extended to Accra on 12 June and flights to Moscow commenced on 21 June. A contract with Boeing for the purchase of Boeing 707-320B aircraft, with delivery dates between November 1961 and April 1964 , was announced in September; the deal fell through when the airline could not find financing. On 1 November, a new flight to Karachi and Bombay was launched, and the sixth and seventh Comets were ordered in December; these were delivered in April 1962 . Also in 1961, the Cairo–Nicosia run, suspended since the Suez crisis in 1956, was restored, flown with Viscount equipment. Routed via Bangkok and Hong Kong, the Bombay service was extended to Tokyo in May 1962 . The three-strong crew of a DC-3 that crashed at Heliopolis on 16 May 1962 died, and 26 more people perished in an accident involving a Comet at Bangkok on 19 July the same year. Two more Comets were acquired in August, entering the fleet in September the same year and during 1963. On 15 February 1963, the route to Baghdad was resumed after a three-year hiatus, but the service was short-lived, as political tensions between Egypt, Iraq and Syria forced the disruption of flights to both this destination and to Damascus; on 1 April, a new service to Rhodesia was inaugurated. The carrier experienced two deadly accidents during 1963 that left a death toll of 93. The first one took place on 12 May when a DC-3 crashed near Alexandria, killing 27 passengers and a crew of four; the second accident occurred on 28 July and involved a Comet that crashed into the ocean near Bombay, killing 62. Short of aircraft to serve Tokyo, the route was terminated. In addition, another Comet, SU-ALM, resulted damaged in Benghazi on 12 September. The ninth and final Comet was delivered in 1964. Also that year, three ex-Pan Am DC-6Bs were purchased, and another three were acquired from Northwest Orient; these aircraft were put on service on domestic routes and began replacing the Viscounts. Also aimed at operating domestic services, seven Antonov An-24s were ordered for US$2.3 million.
By March 1965Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, along with the Cairo–Prague–Moscow run and a service to Lagos and Accra. On 1 August, a subsidiary airline named Misrair started operations.[nb 2] A contract worth US$30 million for three Boeing 707-320Cs was signed with Boeing on 15 June 1966 and also included four additional machines on option. On 1 November, the airline suppressed the stop at Prague on the Cairo–Prague–Moscow service, and in January 1967 UAA started the Cairo–Frankfurt–Copenhagen run. On 22 June 1967, a Comet crashed in Kuwait while landing; there were no fatalities but the aircraft was written off. In August 1968 , the airline took delivery of two Ilyushin Il-18s. The first Boeing 707 was handed over by the aircraft manufacturer on 21 October the same year; it was later put into service on the Cairo–London corridor. One of the Il-18s was involved in a deadly crash while attempting to land at Aswan Airport on 20 March 1969. That March, the carrier started services to East Berlin with Il-18 equipment and in June the route to Tokyo via Kuwait, Bombay, Bangkok and Hong Kong was resumed., seven Comet 4Cs and four Viscounts worked on a route network across
A number of accidents occurred during the early 1970s. The first one took place on 14 January 1970 and involved a Comet 4C (SU-ANI) that crashed on landing at Addis Ababa from Cairo; no one of the 14 people on board resulted seriously injured. The second accident UAA went through in the year took place on 30 January when an Antonov An-24V, SU-AOK, experienced the collapse of the landing gear on touchdown at Luxor. On 19 February SU-ALE, another Comet, aborted takeoff from Munich Riem Airport at 30 feet (9.1 m), fell back to the runway, slid until the end of it and hit a fence. Another An-24V, SU-AOC, belly-landed at Cairo on 14 March. A third An-24V (SU-ANZ) was involved in an accident on 19 July; the aircraft was on a training flight and crashed near Cairo, killing the three occupants. On 2 January 1971, a Comet (SU-ALC) hit sand dunes on approach to Tripoli, with the loss of lives of the eight passengers on board and the crew of eight.
At March 1970An-24Bs, three Boeing 707-366Cs, six Comet 4Cs and three Il-18s. The fourth Boeing 707 was delivered in March 1970 . On 23 May 1971, the acquisition of two Ilyushin Il-62s was announced, scheduled for delivery in June the same year. June 1971 saw the airline using these aircraft on European routes, supplementing the services operated with the Boeing 707s. The Il-62s were introduced on Asian services on 9 July. The name of the airline was changed to Egyptair on 10 October 1971, following the country changing its name to Arab Republic of Egypt., UAA had 7,810 employees; the fleet comprised seven
EgyptAir inherited UAA's staff, equipment, assets and liabilities. On 19 March 1972, a Douglas DC-9-32 carrying Yugoslav registration YU-AHR crashed into the Shamsam Mountains, 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of Aden, killing all 30 occupants on board. On 16 June, an Ilyushin Il-62 (SU-ARN) was involved in a landing accident with no reported fatalities. In July, eight Tupolev Tu-154s were ordered for US$60 million, with three of them slated for delivery in July 1973 , three in March 1973 and two in November 1974 . Prior to firming the transaction up EgyptAir had also considered the Boeing 727, but financing for these US-manufactured aircraft could not be arranged. Under the terms of the contract, light maintenance was to be performed in Egypt, whereas airframe and engine overhauling was to be undertaken in the Soviet Union. In July 1972 , the acquisition of four Boeing 707-320Cs valued at US$40 million was announced. At this time, the airline had four Boeing 707s already in operation. The handover of the new aircraft had been arranged for March, May, June and September 1973 . On 5 December 1972, one of the four 707s already in the fleet (SU-AOW) crashed near Cairo while on a training flight. The crew of six perished in the accident. Reports indicating the airframe had been shot down were denied by the Egyptian government. An Ilyushin Il-18, registration SU-AOY, was involved in a deadly accident near Nicosia on 29 January 1973 when it crashed into mountainous terrain, killing all 37 occupants on board. Delivery of the four new Boeing 707s took place during the year, with two more 707-320Cs being ordered in September. In October the three Il-62s were returned to Aeroflot because of elevated operational costs and technical issues. Also that month, the first Tu-154 entered the fleet and was used for pilot training. From Moscow, the handover of the Tu-154s was made through London-Heathrow, where these aircraft were fitted with British-made seats.
The outbreak of the Yom Kippur War in 1973 had forced the carrier to suspend the Tokyo service; it was resumed on 15 March 1974 via Bombay, Bangkok and Manila. During 1974, the flight to Khartoum was extended to Kinshasa. One of the brand new Tu-154 aircraft, SU-AXO, crashed on 10 July 1974 after takeoff from Cairo International Airport during a training flight, killing a crew of six on board. Following the crash EgyptAir requested the return of its Tu-154 fleet to the Soviets and a refund for the price paid for them. The capacity shortage caused by the grounding of the Tu-154s was partly alleviated by the lease of aircraft. The airline had already been looking for other aircraft to replace them, and an order for six Douglas DC-9-50s was placed in November. On 9 December, an Il-18, registration YR-IMK, crashed into the Red Sea; there were nine fatalities. In January 1975 , the government turned the order with Douglas down and moved to Boeing for the provision of new equipment. An agreement with the Soviets for the return of the Tu-154s was struck on 10 February; early in the year the An-24s were traded back to the company that represented the Soviets as a partial repayment for the loan taken to acquire the aft-engined Tu-154s. The Boeing order was finalised by March and consisted of four Boeing 727-200s and six Boeing 737-200s. There were plans to trade the first three Boeing 707-320Cs in for the new aircraft as part of the deal with Boeing. Valued at US$60 million, the transaction was partly financed by the United Arab Emirates. In May, the order was homogenised to eight Boeing 737-200s with deliveries slated for April and May 1976 . Arrangements were made to sell the four Comets both to raise money to finance the new aircraft and to have an all-Boeing fleet.
A link between Cairo and Milan began in January 1976 and a new flight to Vienna started in April. Following allegations from the Egyptian parliament that airline officials had been bribed by Boeing to favour the 1975 order, the chairman Gamal Erfan resigned in February. On 22 April, a Boeing 737 flying from Cairo to Luxor was hijacked by three Palestinians; an Egyptian commando team regained control of the aircraft with no damages to its structure. The four Comets were sold to Dan-Air on 9 October. During the year, seven Boeing 737 Advanced entered the fleet. A serious accident involving a Boeing 707 took place on 25 December when a non-regular flight from Cairo to Tokyo crashed into a textile mill while on approach to Bangkok, killing all 43 passengers and a crew of nine; fatalities and injured people on the ground were also reported.
EgyptAir is a state-owned company with special legislation permitting the management to operate as if the company were privately owned without any interference from the government. The company is self-financing without any financial backing by the Egyptian government.
The airline underwent a major corporate re-engineering in 2002, when its structure was changed from a governmental organization into a holding company with subsidiaries. The move coincided with establishment of the Egyptian Minister of Civil Aviation and the government's ambitious strategy to modernize and upgrade its airports and airline. The airline was given the right to operate without any interference from the government and the duty to do so without any financial backing
In 2004, EgyptAir became the first IOSA certified airline in Africa.
The airline launched a regional subsidiary called EgyptAir Express with a fleet of new Embraer E-170 jets.[when?] The carrier links Cairo with Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, Luxor, Aswan, Marsa Alam, Abu Simbel and Alexandria (Egypt) in addition to secondary regional destinations to complement the parent company's pattern of service. In June 2009 the subsidiary received the last of the 12 Embraer E-170 aircraft on order.
The EgyptAir Holding Company has recorded substantial profits in past years, reaching US$170 million during the 2007/2008 financial year. This is fortified by huge assets of more than US$3.8 billion. The airline's financial year is from July to June. For the fiscal year ending 31 July 2007, EgyptAir achieved a record total revenue of US$1.143 billion. Total group revenue grew by 14%, as compared with the previous year.
In early 2007, the airline partnered with the Egyptian Ministry of Civil Aviation and 'Egyptian Holding Company for Airports & Air Navigation' to form a new corporate airline, Smart Aviation Company, based at Cairo Airport.
In 2009, EgyptAir's operations at its Cairo International Airport hub (where it holds 61% of the airport's departure slots) were notably overhauled due to the inauguration of the new Terminal 3 in April 2009. The airline transferred all its operations (international and domestic) to the new terminal that has more than doubled the airport's capacity. Under the Star Alliance “Move Under One Roof” concept at Cairo Airport, all Star Alliance member carriers serving Cairo have moved to the new Terminal 3. In 2010 the airline will overhaul operations at its Alexandria base by transferring operations from the older facilities at Alexandria International Airport to the brand new airport in Borg El Arab Airport. The airline's CEO also stated the company was evaluating whether to set up a low cost carrier subsidiary for its Alexandria operations to address the growth of LCCs in the city.
During the 2009-2010 Paris Airshow, the airline announced a new venture with US lessor Aviation Capital Group (ACG) and other Egyptian private and public shareholders to establish a leasing joint venture focusing on the Middle East and Northern Africa region. The new joint venture - named Civil Aviation Finance and Operating Leases (CIAF-Leasing) will initially focus on narrowbody aircraft.
Disruption caused by civil unrest - 2011
Following the revolution of 2011, Egyptair is reported to have suffered considerable losses. Egypt's civil aviation minister Wael El Maadawi said the airline lost an estimated 1.3 billion Egyptian pounds, or around $185 million, over the 2012/13 fiscal year, mainly due to an increase in fuel prices, the devaluation of the Egyptian currency and continuous strikes within the company. Losses for 2011/12 were apparently around double the 2012/13 figures. The carrier has reportedly suffered total losses of more than 7bn pounds, or nearly $1bn, since the 2011 uprising.
Ownership and structure
There are three carriers, which operate under the same AOC but are managed separately and have their own profit and loss accounts:
- EgyptAir Airlines, the core airline company
- EgyptAir Cargo, a dedicated cargo airline (established in 2002)
- EgyptAir Express, the domestic and regional airline (launched in June 2007)
Other companies within EgyptAir Holding Company are:
- EgyptAir Maintenance & Engineering, originally an in-house operation but now also carrying out 3rd party business; EASA Part 145 and FAA Certified
- EgyptAir Ground Services, providing services to over 75% of the air carriers flying to Egypt
- EgyptAir In-flight Services
- EgyptAir Tourism & Duty Free Shops
- EgyptAir Medical Services
- EgyptAir Supplementary Industries Company (formed in 2006)
Subsidiaries and associates
The airline has stakes in:
- Air Cairo (60%)
- Smart Aviation Company (13.33%)
- Air Sinai (100%)
- Egypt Aero Management Service (50%)
- LSG Sky Chefs Catering Egypt (70%)
- Civil Aviation Finance and Operating Leases - 'CIAF-Leasing' (Ownership % - TBD)
Trends for recent years, for the EgyptAir Holding Company and for its main subsidiary Egyptair Airlines, are shown below (for years ending 30 June):
|EgyptAir Holding Company|
|Net Profits (E£m)||579||695||573||533||−2,059||−3,106|
|Number of employees||20,734||29,285||31,725||35,000|
|Number of passengers (m)||7.8||8.2||8.7||8.0||N/A|
|Passenger load factor (%)||72||68||N/A|
|Cargo carried (tons m)||127||121||122|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||45||50||59||66||76||79|
|Net Profits (E£m)||161||232||208||130||−2,205||−3,069|
|Number of employees||7,600||N/A|
|Number of passengers (scheduled & non-scheduled) (m)||5.7||6.7||6.8||7.3||6.8||7.2|
|Passenger load factor (%)||63||67||68||72||68||65|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||38||40||48||50||63||64|
Trends for EgyptAir Express and EgyptAir Cargo are shown on the relevant articles. Figures for the year ending 30 June 2011, and the lack of detailed accounts since, reflect the disruption that occurred because of the Egyptian Revolution in early 2011.
As of June 2013, EgyptAir serve 81 destinations; 12 in Egypt, 19 in Africa, 20 in the Middle East, 7 in Asia, 21 in Europe and 2 in the Americas.
In October 2007Star Alliance voted to accept EgyptAir as a future member, the first airline from an Arab country and the second African one —after South African Airways— to join the airline alliance. In a ceremony held at Cairo International Airport on 11 July 2008, the carrier became the 21st member of this alliance, nine months after it started the joining process., the Chief Executive Board of
- Aegean Airlines
- Air Canada
- Air China
- Air India
- Austrian Airlines
- Brussels Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- Gulf Air
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Singapore Airlines
- South African Airways
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Portugal
- Thai Airways International
- Tunis Air
- Turkish Airlines
- United Airlines
EgyptAir became Airbus A330/340's 37th customer in June 1995 when it ordered three Airbus A340s, scheduled for delivery in December 1996 . The first, 260-seater aircraft entered the fleet in late 1996, and operated along a -300 version that was on lease from Gulf Air. Also in 1995, the carrier purchased three 308-seater Boeing 777-200s for US$400 million. These GE-90 powered aircraft, along with the A340-200s, were ordered for replacement of the Airbus A300B4 and Boeing 767-200 fleet.
Aimed to replace the Airbus A300-600R fleet, the airline placed an order for seven Airbus A330-200 aircraft in early 2003, slated for delivery in June 2004 , and cancelled two Airbus A340-600s it had previously ordered. In June 2003 , EgyptAir signed a deal worth US$150 million with Rolls-Royce for the provision of Trent 700 engines to power these seven A330s.
Egyptair's commercial relationship with Boeing started in 1968 when a Boeing 707 was delivered. Six Boeing 737-800s were acquired in August 2005 , with handovers starting in September the following year and a delivery span of three years. On lease from GECAS, EgyptAir took delivery of its first 346-seater Boeing 777-300ER in March 2010 . In June 2011 , the airframer delivered the airline's 50th Boeing aircraft, a 737-800.
As of November 2013, the EgyptAir fleet consists of the following aircraft:
|1||0||174||174||Used on domestic flights and sometimes operated for Air Cairo|
|Airbus A330-300||4||1||3||0||36||265||301||Orders to be delivered in 2014|
|Boeing 777-200ER||4||—||—||12||21||286||319||two leased to Biman Bangladesh Airlines|
|Airbus A300B4-200F[not in citation given]||1||—||—||N/A|
|Airbus A300-600RF[not in citation given]||2||—||—|
In the middle of 2012 a group of flight attendants began asking for the right to wear hijabs as part of their work uniform. The company granted their request and hijab-wearing flight attendants first appeared in November 2012.
Incidents and accidents
- On 22 December 1951, SNCASE Languedoc SU-AHH of Misrair crashed west of Tehran, Iran killing all 20 people on board. The aircraft was operating an international scheduled passenger flight from Baghdad, Iraq to Tehran.
- On 30 July 1952, SNCASE Languedoc SU-AHX of Misrair was damaged beyond economic repair in a wheels-up landing at Almaza Air Base, Cairo. The aircraft was operating an international scheduled passenger flight from Almaza to Khartoum Airport, Sudan; it returned to Cairo following a fire in No. 1 engine.
- On 27 July 1963, United Arab Airlines Flight 869, a de Havilland Comet, crashed into the sea on approach to Bombay Airport, India, all 62 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- On 18 March 1966, United Arab Airlines Flight 749, an Antonov An-24, crashed while attempting to land at Cairo International Airport. All 30 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- On 20 March 1969, a United Arab Airlines Ilyushin Il-18 crashed while attempting to land at Aswan Airport. 100 of the 105 passengers and crew on board were killed in the disaster.
- On 19 March 1972, EgyptAir Flight 763 crashed into a mountain on approach to Aden International Airport in Yemen killing all 30 passengers and crew on board.
- On 25 December 1976, EgyptAir Flight 864 crashed into an industrial complex in Bangkok, Thailand. All 52 persons on board plus 19 people on the ground were killed.
- On 23 November 1985, EgyptAir Flight 648 operated by a Boeing 737 was hijacked to Malta International Airport by three men from the Abu Nidal terrorist group. Omar Rezaq was among them. An Egyptian Sky Marshall on board shot and killed one of the hijackers before being gunned down himself. After several hours of negotiations, Egyptian troops stormed the aircraft and battled with the hijackers, who threw several hand grenades and shot / killed five passengers. The aircraft was severely damaged by the explosions and fire. Two of the six crew members and 59 of the 90 passengers were killed.
- On 31 October 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a Boeing 767 en route from New York City to Cairo crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Nantucket; all 217 passengers were killed. The relief first officer of the flight, Gameel Al-Batouti, was suspected by U.S. authorities of committing suicide and intentionally crashing the plane. Egyptian officials have strongly disputed that claim.
- On 7 May 2002, EgyptAir Flight 843, a Boeing 737-500, crashed into terrain in heavy rain, fog, and a sandstorm on its approach to Tunis, Tunisia, killing 15 of 64 occupants.
- Despite the UAA renaming formally taking place in the autumn of 1960 following the merger of Misrair and Syrian Airways, Misrair had been using the ″United Arab Airlines″ title since 1958.
- The carrier was conceived to operated domestic and regional services. Four An-24s made up Misrair's fleet at the time operations started, and three more were expected by year end. One of these aircraft was lost in an accident at Aswan Airport on 2 February 1966; a second aircraft was involved in a deadly accident at Cairo on 19 March, killing 30. Alexandria–Athens, Cairo–Alexandria, Cairo–Luxor, Cairo–Nicosia and Cairo–Port Said–El Arish were among the routes operated by the carrier. Misrair ceased to exist on 1 June 1968 due to poor economic performance. Operations were absorbed by UAA.
- "EgyptAir plans further restructuring as losses mount. But outlook may brighten as Egypt stabilises". Centre for Aviation. 15 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014.
- http://www.egyptairplus.com/MS_Member_WebSite/frequent.jsp Archived June 25, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Guttery (1998), p. 51.
- "EgyptAir - 'pioneer of air travel'". BBC News. 7 May 2002. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.
- "Air transport – Cairo-Assuan air service". Flight XXV (1304). 21 December 1933. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. "A bi-weekly air service connecting up Cairo, Luxor and Assuan has been started by the Misr Airwork Co., of Cairo."
- "Commercial Aviation – A Misr Airwork Extension". Flight XXIX (1410): 23. 2 January 1936. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. "A new service has been opened by Misr Airwork between Alexandria, Port Said, Cairo, Minia and Assuit [sic] for the benefit of the cotton fraternity and to enable passengers to redirect from Alexandria to Palestine. This is made possible by the connection at Port Said with the Cairo-Haifa service. The Upper Egypt service will not be immediately reopened since the international situation has played havoc with the tourist industry."
- "Commercial Aviation – Misr Airwork's Year". Flight XXIX (1421): 314. 19 March 1936. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013.
- "Airline companies of the World – Misr Airwork S.A.E.". Flight XXXV (1583): 429. 27 April 1939. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013.
- Guttery (1998), p. 51–52.
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight International 87 (2927): 606. 15 April 1965. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
- Guttery (1998), p. 52.
- "Brevities". Flight LX (2234): 633. 16 November 1951. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. "The Egyptian airline, Misrair, is reported to have purchased three Languedoc 161s. Two more machines of this type will be acquired next year."
- "Civil aviation – Viscounts for Egypt". Flight 65 (2358): 414. 2 April 1954. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014.
- "World airline directory – Misrair S.A.E.". Flight 67 (2407): 307. 1955-3-11. Archived from the original on 2014-1-14.
- "World airline directory – Misrair S.A.E.—Egyptian Airlines". Flight 69 (2465): 475. 20 April 1956. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
- "More Viscounts for Egypt". Flight 72 (2533): 203. 9 August 1957. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014.
- Guttery (1998), p. 55.
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight 79 (2718): 512. 13 April 1961. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013.
- "Airlines of the World—Misrair SAE – United Arab Airlines (page 504)". Flight 77 (2665). 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "Airlines of the World—Misrair SAE – United Arab Airlines (page 505)". Flight. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
- "Misrair gets its first Comet". Flight 77 (2675): 850. 17 June 1960. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014.
- "Air commerce – Breaking-even on the Comets". Flight 78 (2698): 855. 25 November 1960. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "World airline survey—Syrian Arab Airways". Flight International 83 (2822): 542. 11 April 1963. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "Brevities". Flight 79 (2706): 100. 20 January 1961. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. "United Arab Airlines have placed a repeat order for two Comet 4Cs, for delivery this summer, as forecast in Flight for November 25."
- Guttery (1998), p. 55–56.
- Guttery (1998), p. 56.
- "Brevities". Flight 80 (2730): 27. 6 July 1961. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. "A United Arab Airlines Viscount has reopened the Nicosia - Cairo service, suspended since the Suez crisis of 1956."
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight International 83 (2822): 546. 11 April 1963. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013.
- Guttery (1998), p. 53.
- "Air transport – 707 for UAA Delivered". Flight International 94 (3112): 689. 31 October 1968. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. "The first of three Boeing 707-320Cs for United Arab Airlines (SU-AOU) made its delivery flight from Seattle to Cairo, via Heathrow Airport, London, on October 21. It enters service between Cairo and London tomorrow, November 1."
- Guttery (1998), p. 57.
- "World airlines 1970 – United Arab Airlines (UAA)". Flight International 97 (3185): 508. 26 March 1970. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014.
- "Air transport...". Flight International 100 (3253): 80. 15 July 1971. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. "United Arab Airlines is now supplementing its Boeing 707 services to Europe with its new llyushin ll-62s, one of which is seen in the departure area at Heathrow Airport, London"
- "Air Transport". Flight International 100 (3268): 677. 28 October 1971. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. "Egyptair is the new name of United Arab Airlines, adopted on October 10. The change follows the adoption by Egypt of the official name Arab Republic of Egypt, in place of United Arab Republic. The airline's flight prefix code, MS (unchanged), dates from an earlier period when it was known as Misrair."
- Guttery (1998), p. 48.
- "Air transport – Egyptair buys Russian". Flight International 101 (3289): 404. 23 March 1972. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014.
- "Air transport – Egyptair takes Tu-154s". Flight International 104 (3379): 978. 13 December 1973. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014.
- "World news – Aircraft losses". Flight International 102 (3327): 854. 14 December 1971. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. "Egyptair Boeing 707 SU-AOW crashed south-east of Cairo on December 5 during a training flight. The six crew members were killed. Reports that the aircraft had been shot down in error have been denied by Egyptian authorities."
- "World news – Aircraft loss". Flight International 103 (3335): 184. 8 February 1973. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. "An Il-18 of Egyptair, SU-AOY, crashed into mountains on the north coast of Cyprus on January 29 while positioning for a visual approach to Nicosia. All 30 passengers and seven crew were killed and the aircraft was destroyed by fire."
- "Public transport accidents". Flight International 106 (3410): 51. 18 July 1974. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. "A Tu-154 of Egyptair, SU-AXO, crashed during a training flight on July 10 after take-off from Cairo International. The six crew members were killed."
- "Commercial aircraft of the World – Tupolev Tu-154/154A". Flight International 106 (3423): 577. 24 October 1974. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. "A crash in Egypt earlier this year resulted in a request from Egyptair that its Tu-154s be returned to the Soviet Union and its money refunded."
- "Air transport". Flight International 106 (3423): 530. 24 October 1974. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. "Sterling Airways has leased one of its three Boeing 727-200s to Egyptair, which is currently short of capacity following its decision to ground its seven Tu-154s. These are due to be returned to the Soviet Union and Egyptair is seeking replacement capacity on the second-hand market. It hopes to buy up to nine Boeing 720Bs."
- Guttery (1998), p. 48–49.
- Guttery (1998), p. 49.
- "Airline accident". Flight International 111 (3539): 51. 8 January 1977. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. "An Egyptair 707 crashed onto a textile mill on December 25 while making an approach to Bangkok airport after a non-scheduled flight from Cairo. All 43 passengers and nine crew were killed and it is reported that among people in the mill there were 20 fatalities and 30 injuries."
- "EgyptAir divides operations into six in effort to multiply earnings". Flightglobal. 9 July 2002. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14.
- NTSB Group Chairman's Factual Report, January 18, 2000
- "EgyptAir Egypt's national airline loses $185 million". eTurboNews.com. 2013-06-16. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
- "Annual Report 2010-2011". 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30.
- "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 2007-04-03. p. 76.
- "EgyptAir Airlines Annual Reports 2006-2007". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2009-2010". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2008-2009". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2010-2011". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir profile". Arab Air Carriers Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-05-15. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2011-2012". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2014-04-28. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2011-2012 Egyptair Airlines". EgyptAir. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "Egyptair Plus Hand Book." Egyptair. 6 of 10. Retrieved on 2 May 2010. Archived October 30, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Egyptair." Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved on 29 September 2009. Archived February 1, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Government scraps EgyptAir privatisation". Flightglobal. 4 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14.
- Dunn, Graham (23 October 2007). "Star Alliance entry to fuel EgyptAir expansion". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (11 July 2008). "EgyptAir formally joins Star Alliance". Flightglobal (London). Archived from the original on 2013-12-13.
- "Egyptair becomes 21st member of Star Alliance" (Press release). Star Alliance. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16.
- EGYPTAIR - About EGYPTAIR - Code Share Partners. Retrieved 2013-12-14. Archived October 30, 2013 at the Wayback Machine[not in citation given]
- Worldwide codeshare list aug 2011
- "Egyptair Buys A340". Flightglobal. 26 July 1995. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014.
- "Aircraft news". Flightglobal. 1995-9-1. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. "Egyptair has ordered three A340-200s with options on two more. Delivery is scheduled for the end of 1996."
- "Egyptair introduces the A340-200". Flightglobal. 1 January 1997. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "Orders grow for 777s but 1995 deliveries show decline". Flightglobal. 30 August 1995. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "Marketplace". Flightglobal. 8 April 2003. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. "EgyptAir has ordered seven Airbus A330-200s to be delivered from June 2004 for operation on routes within the Middle East and to Europe, replacing A300-600Rs."
- "EgyptAir chooses Trent 700 for new A330 order". Flightglobal. 18 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "EgyptAir poised for A330-200". Flightglobal. 15 June 2004. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "Rolls-Royce wins EgyptAir order". BBC News. 17 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.
- "Boeing Delivers 50th Airplane to EGYPTAIR" (Press release). Boeing. 17 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "Egyptair orders six 737-800s, options six more". Flightglobal. 10 August 2005. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "Boeing Delivers EGYPTAIR's First 777-300ER for Long-Haul Fleet Upgrade" (Press release). Boeing. 9 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-01-16.
- "EgyptAir fleet list". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
- "EgyptAir looks to expand its way out of intensive care in 2013". Centre for Aviation. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-12-09.
- Biman gets 2 new aircraft Archived April 7, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "EgyptAir flight attendants fly with hijab for first time." Egypt Independent. Sunday November 11, 2012. Retrieved on March 18, 2014. Archived March 18, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "SU-AHH Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- "WORLD EVENTS IN EUROPE, ASIA AND AMERICA: A MISCELLANY OF NEWS". Illustrated London News (5881): p.25. 5 January 1952.
- "SU-AHX Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 2014-03-05. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "EgyptAir 864". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
- "EgyptAir Flight 990 Accident Information". 2007-09-07. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- "Flight Safety Australia July/August 2002" (PDF– Globewatch). Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-0495-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to EgyptAir.|