|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
|Founded||7 June 1932(as Misr Airlines)|
|Commenced operations||July 1933|
|Hubs||Cairo International Airport|
|Frequent-flyer program||EgyptAir Plus|
|Destinations||78 (incl. subsidiaries)|
|Company slogan||Enjoy The Sky|
|Parent company||EgyptAir Holding Company|
|Headquarters||EgyptAir Administrative Complex
EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران, Miṣr liṭ-Ṭayarān) is the flag carrier airline of Egypt. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. With an extensive network of domestic services focused on Cairo, Egypt's capital, the airline is working to regain profitable operations following the revolution of 2011.
Egyptair is a member of Star Alliance, having joined on 11 July 2008. The airline's logo is Horus, the sky deity in ancient Egyptian mythology, chosen because of its ancient symbolism as a "winged god of the sun", and usually depicted as a falcon or a man with the head of a falcon.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Incidents and accidents
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
Early years: Misr Airwork (1932–1949)
Alan Muntz, chairman of Airwork, visited Egypt in 1931; at that time, he expressed his intention of starting a new airline in the country up. The new enterprise was named Misr Airwork, with ″Misr″ being the Egyptian for Egypt. On 31 December 1931, the government granted the new company the exclusivity of air transport operations. A division of Misr Airwork named Misr Airlines was established on 7 June 1932; the initial investment was EG£20,000, with ownership split between the Misr Bank (85%), Airwork (10%), and Egyptian private investors (5%). Operations started in July 1933 , initially linking Cairo with Alexandria and Mersa Matruh using de Havilland DH.84 Dragon equipment. By August that year, the frequency on the Cairo–Alexandria service was boosted to twice-daily. In late 1933, a twice-weekly Cairo–Aswan flight that called at Asyut and Luxor was inaugurated. Via Port Said, a flight from Cairo that served Lydda, Haifa and Palestine was launched in 1934. On 3 August 1935, a test service via Lydda with final destination in Cyprus began using D.H.86 aircraft; the run was terminated on 20 October that year. The Alexandria–Port Said–Cairo–Minia–Assiut run was opened in late 1935. This route and the Cairo–Cyprus–Haifa–Baghdad run were the two operative services the carrier had by 1936. Hadj flights commenced in 1937. Operations to Cyprus resumed in 1938 with a Cairo–Lydda–Haifa–Larnaka service. The carrier operated all-British aircraft in the early years,:588 and by April 1939 the fleet comprised one D.H. Dragon, one D.H. Dragonfly, five D.H. Rapìdes, two D.H.86s and one D.H.86B that worked on the Alexandria–Cairo, Alexandria–Port Said–Cairo–Minia–Assiut, Cairo–Assiut–Luxor–Assuan, Cairo–Lydda–Haifa–Baghdad and Cairo–Port Said–Lydda–Haifa routes.
Postwar the airline used the name Misrair and Beech C-45's were supplemented in 1948 by the larger Vickers VC.1 Viking which was operated until 1961. Misrair was renamed to Misrair SAE in May 1949 , when the government became the sole shareholder. 
By March 1960Beech D18S, four DC-3s, six Vikings and six Viscounts.:505 On 9 June,:588 the first Comet 4C was delivered. Operations using two of these aircraft started on 16 July the same year.:588 By October 1960 , Misrair had Comets deployed on the Cairo–Belgrade–Prague, Cairo–Rome–London, Cairo–Jeddah and Cairo–Khartoum runs,:588 DC-3s on the Cairo–Alexandria–Mersa Matruh, Cairo–Assiut–Luxor, Cairo–Luxor–Aswan and Cairo–Port Said–Alexandria services, and Viscounts were used for the non-stop flights that linked Cairo and Alexandria.:589 Despite the company being renamed United Arab Airlines (UAA) in the autumn of 1960 following the merger of Misrair and Syrian Airways, Misrair had been using the ″United Arab Airlines″ title since 1958. Syria's association with UAA ended in October 1961 , when Syrian Arab Airways was established by the Syrian government in Damascus; the route network and fleet that had been taken over by UAA was returned to the new company., the airline had 579 employees. At that time, the fleet comprised one
Routed via Bangkok and Hong Kong, the Bombay service was extended to Tokyo in May 1962 . By March 1965 , seven Comet 4Cs and four Viscounts worked on a route network across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, along with the Cairo–Prague–Moscow run and a service to Lagos and Accra.
Operations since 2002
EgyptAir is a state-owned company with special legislation permitting the management to operate as if the company were privately owned without any interference from the government. The company is self-financing without any financial backing by the Egyptian government.
The airline underwent a major corporate re-engineering in 2002, when its structure was changed from a governmental organization into a holding company with subsidiaries. The move coincided with establishment of the Egyptian Minister of Civil Aviation and the government's ambitious strategy to modernize and upgrade its airports and airline. The airline was given the right to operate without any interference from the government and the duty to do so without any financial backing
In 2004, EgyptAir became the first IOSA certified airline in Africa.
The airline launched a regional subsidiary called EgyptAir Express with a fleet of new Embraer E-170 jets. The carrier links Cairo with Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, Luxor, Aswan, Marsa Alam, Abu Simbel and Alexandria (Egypt) in addition to secondary regional destinations to complement the parent company's pattern of service. In June 2009 the subsidiary received the last of the 12 Embraer E-170 aircraft on order.
The EgyptAir Holding Company has recorded substantial profits in past years, reaching US$170 million during the 2007/2008 financial year. This is fortified by huge assets of more than US$3.8 billion. The airline's financial year is from July to June. For the fiscal year ending 31 July 2007, EgyptAir achieved a record total revenue of US$1.143 billion. Total group revenue grew by 14%, as compared with the previous year.
In early 2007, the airline partnered with the Egyptian Ministry of Civil Aviation and 'Egyptian Holding Company for Airports & Air Navigation' to form a new corporate airline, Smart Aviation Company, based at Cairo Airport.
In 2009, EgyptAir's operations at its Cairo International Airport hub (where it holds 61% of the airport's departure slots) were notably overhauled due to the inauguration of the new Terminal 3 in April 2009. The airline transferred all its operations (international and domestic) to the new terminal that has more than doubled the airport's capacity. Under the Star Alliance “Move Under One Roof” concept at Cairo Airport, all Star Alliance member carriers serving Cairo have moved to the new Terminal 3. In 2010 the airline will overhaul operations at its Alexandria base by transferring operations from the older facilities at Alexandria International Airport to the brand new airport in Borg El Arab Airport. The airline's CEO also stated the company was evaluating whether to set up a low cost carrier subsidiary for its Alexandria operations to address the growth of LCCs in the city.
During the 2009-2010 Paris Airshow, the airline announced a new venture with US lessor Aviation Capital Group (ACG) and other Egyptian private and public shareholders to establish a leasing joint venture focusing on the Middle East and Northern Africa region. The new joint venture - named Civil Aviation Finance and Operating Leases (CIAF-Leasing) will initially focus on narrowbody aircraft.
On 10 March 2010 the airline took delivery of its largest aircraft, the Boeing 777-300ER in Cairo Airport, with a seat capacity of 346. The aircraft is equipped with a new on-board product and the largest business cabin to-date. This is the first aircraft to enter the fleet on an operating lease (from GECAS). All other mainline aircraft are owned. The airline is initially operating the aircraft to London Heathrow and Tokyo Narita followed by John F. Kennedy International Airport from 31 October 2010. In August 2010 EgyptAir will also receive new Airbus A330-300, which will replace the Boeing 777-300ER on the London Heathrow route from 1 September 2010.
Disruption caused by civil unrest - 2011
Following the revolution of 2011, Egyptair is reported to have suffered considerable losses. Egypt's civil aviation minister Wael El Maadawi said the airline lost an estimated 1.3 billion Egyptian pounds, or around $185 million, over the 2012/13 fiscal year, mainly due to an increase in fuel prices, the devaluation of the Egyptian currency and continuous strikes within the company. Losses for 2011/12 were apparently around double the 2012/13 figures. The carrier has reportedly suffered total losses of more than 7bn pounds, or nearly $1bn, since the 2011 uprising.
Ownership and structure
There are three carriers, which operate under the same AOC but are managed separately and have their own profit and loss accounts:
- EgyptAir Airlines, the core airline company
- EgyptAir Cargo, a dedicated cargo airline (established in 2002)
- EgyptAir Express, the domestic and regional airline (launched in June 2007)
Other companies within EgyptAir Holding Company are:
- EgyptAir Maintenance & Engineering, originally an in-house operation but now also carrying out 3rd party business; EASA Part 145 and FAA Certified
- EgyptAir Ground Services, providing services to over 75% of the air carriers flying to Egypt
- EgyptAir In-flight Services
- EgyptAir Tourism & Duty Free Shops
- EgyptAir Medical Services
- EgyptAir Supplementary Industries Company (formed in 2006)
Subsidiaries and associates
The airline has stakes in:
- Air Cairo (60%)
- Smart Aviation Company (13.33%)
- Air Sinai (100%)
- Egypt Aero Management Service (50%)
- LSG Sky Chefs Catering Egypt (70%)
- Civil Aviation Finance and Operating Leases - 'CIAF-Leasing' (Ownership % - TBD)
Trends for recent years, for the EgyptAir Holding Company and for its main subsidiary Egyptair Airlines, are shown below (for years ending 30 June):
|EgyptAir Holding Company|
|Net Profits (E£m)||579||695||573||533||−2,059||−3,106|
|Number of employees||20,734||29,285||31,725||35,000|
|Number of passengers (m)||7.8||8.2||8.7||8.0||N/A|
|Passenger load factor (%)||72||68||N/A|
|Cargo carried (tons m)||127||121||122|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||45||50||59||66||76||79|
|Net Profits (E£m)||161||232||208||130||−2,205||−3,069|
|Number of employees||7,600||N/A|
|Number of passengers (scheduled & non-scheduled) (m)||5.7||6.7||6.8||7.3||6.8||7.2|
|Passenger load factor (%)||63||67||68||72||68||65|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||38||40||48||50||63||64|
Trends for EgyptAir Express and EgyptAir Cargo are shown on the relevant articles. Figures for the year ending 30 June 2011, and the lack of detailed accounts since, reflect the disruption that occurred because of the Egyptian Revolution in early 2011.
As of June 2013, EgyptAir serve 81 destinations; 12 in Egypt, 19 in Africa, 20 in the Middle East, 7 in Asia, 21 in Europe and 2 in the Americas.
In October 2007Star Alliance voted to accept EgyptAir as a future member, the first airline from an Arab country and the second African one —after South African Airways— to join the airline alliance. In a ceremony held at Cairo International Airport on 11 July 2008, the carrier became the 21st member of this alliance, nine months after it started the joining process., the Chief Executive Board of
- Aegean Airlines
- Air Canada
- Air China
- Air India
- Austrian Airlines
- Brussels Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- Gulf Air
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Singapore Airlines
- South African Airways
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Portugal
- Thai Airways International
- Tunis Air
- Turkish Airlines
- United Airlines
|1||0||174||174||Used on domestic flights and sometimes operated for Air Cairo|
|Airbus A330-300||4||1||3||0||36||265||301||Orders to be delivered in 2014|
Incidents and accidents
- On 27 July 1963, United Arab Airlines Flight 869, a de Havilland Comet, crashed into the sea on approach to Bombay Airport, India, all 62 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- On 18 March 1966, United Arab Airlines Flight 749, an Antonov An-24, crashed while attempting to land at Cairo International Airport. All 30 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- On 20 March 1969, a United Arab Airlines Ilyushin Il-18 crashed while attempting to land at Aswan Airport. 100 of the 105 passengers and crew on board were killed in the disaster.
- On 19 March 1972, EgyptAir Flight 763 crashed into a mountain on approach to Aden International Airport in Yemen killing all 30 passengers and crew on board.
- On 25 December 1976, EgyptAir Flight 864 crashed into an industrial complex in Bangkok, Thailand. All 52 persons on board plus 19 people on the ground were killed.
- On 23 November 1985, EgyptAir Flight 648 operated by a Boeing 737 was hijacked to Malta International Airport by three men from the Abu Nidal terrorist group. Omar Rezaq was among them. An Egyptian Sky Marshall on board shot and killed one of the hijackers before being gunned down himself. After several hours of negotiations, Egyptian troops stormed the aircraft and battled with the hijackers, who threw several hand grenades and shot / killed five Israeli and US passengers. The aircraft was severely damaged by the explosions and fire. Two of the six crew members and 59 of the 90 passengers were killed.
- On 31 October 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a Boeing 767 en route from New York City to Cairo crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Nantucket; all 217 passengers were killed. The relief first officer of the flight, Gameel Al-Batouti, was suspected by U.S. authorities of committing suicide and intentionally crashing the plane. Egyptian officials have strongly disputed that claim.
- On 7 May 2002, EgyptAir Flight 843, a Boeing 737-500, crashed into terrain in heavy rain, fog, and a sandstorm on its approach to Tunis, Tunisia, killing 15 of 64 occupants.
- Guttery (1998), p. 51.
- "Air transport – Cairo-Assuan air service". Flight XXV (1304). 21 December 1933. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. "A bi-weekly air service connecting up Cairo, Luxor and Assuan has been started by the Misr Airwork Co., of Cairo."
- "Commercial Aviation – A Misr Airwork Extension". Flight XXIX (1410): 23. 2 January 1936. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. "A new service has been opened by Misr Airwork between Alexandria, Port Said, Cairo, Minia and Assuit [sic] for the benefit of the cotton fraternity and to enable passengers to redirect from Alexandria to Palestine. This is made possible by the connection at Port Said with the Cairo-Haifa service. The Upper Egypt service will not be immediately reopened since the international situation has played havoc with the tourist industry."
- "Airline companies of the World – Misr Airwork S.A.E.". Flight XXXV (1583): 429. 27 April 1939. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013.
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight International 87 (2927): 606. 15 April 1965. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
- "Airlines of the World—Misrair SAE – United Arab Airlines (page 504)". Flight 77 (2665). 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "Airlines of the World—Misrair SAE – United Arab Airlines (page 505)". Flight. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013.
- "Air commerce – Breaking-even on the Comets". Flight 78 (2698): 855. 25 November 1960. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight 79 (2718): 512. 13 April 1961. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013.
- "World airline survey—Syrian Arab Airways". Flight International 83 (2822): 542. 11 April 1963. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "World airline survey—United Arab Airlines – UAA". Flight International 83 (2822): 546. 11 April 1963. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013.
- "Air Transport". Flight International 100 (3268): 677. 28 October 1971. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. "Egyptair is the new name of United Arab Airlines, adopted on October 10. The change follows the adoption by Egypt of the official name Arab Republic of Egypt, in place of United Arab Republic. The airline's flight prefix code, MS (unchanged), dates from an earlier period when it was known as Misrair."
- "EgyptAir divides operations into six in effort to multiply earnings". Flightglobal. 9 July 2002. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
- NTSB Group Chairman's Factual Report, January 18, 2000
- "Annual Report 2010-2011". 2012.
- "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 2007-04-03. p. 76.
- "EgyptAir Airlines Annual Reports 2006-2007". EgyptAir. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2009-2010". EgyptAir. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2008-2009". EgyptAir. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2010-2011". EgyptAir. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir profile". Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2011-2012". EgyptAir. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "EgyptAir Annual Reports 2011-2012 Egyptair Airlines". EgyptAir. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "Egyptair Plus Hand Book." Egyptair. 6 of 10. Retrieved on 2 May 2010.
- "Egyptair[dead link]." Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved on 29 September 2009.
- "Government scraps EgyptAir privatisation". Flightglobal. 4 December 2007. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
- Dunn, Graham (23 October 2007). "Star Alliance entry to fuel EgyptAir expansion". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (11 July 2008). "EgyptAir formally joins Star Alliance". Flightglobal (London). Archived from the original on 13 December 2013.
- "Egyptair becomes 21st member of Star Alliance" (Press release). Star Alliance. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013.
- EGYPTAIR - About EGYPTAIR - Code Share Partners. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
- Worldwide codeshare list aug 2011[dead link]
- "EgyptAir fleet list". Retrieved 2010-12-16.
- HORUS - The In-Flight Magazine of EGYPTAIR
- "EgyptAir 864". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
- "EgyptAir Flight 990 Accident Information". 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- "Flight Safety Australia July/August 2002" (PDF– Globewatch). Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7.
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