List of the oldest mosques in the world
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The designation of the oldest mosque in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist.
To be listed here a site must:
- be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
- be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).
- 1 Oldest mosques
- 2 By country
- 2.1 Afghanistan
- 2.2 Armenia
- 2.3 Australia
- 2.4 Bangladesh
- 2.5 Brazil
- 2.6 Canada
- 2.7 China
- 2.8 France
- 2.9 Germany
- 2.10 Ghana
- 2.11 India
- 2.12 Indonesia
- 2.13 Iran
- 2.14 Iraq
- 2.15 Jerusalem territory
- 2.16 Malaysia
- 2.17 Netherlands
- 2.18 Niger
- 2.19 Nigeria
- 2.20 Oman
- 2.21 Pakistan
- 2.22 Saudi Arabia
- 2.23 Singapore
- 2.24 Somalia
- 2.25 South Africa
- 2.26 Spain
- 2.27 Sri Lanka
- 2.28 Syria
- 2.29 Taiwan
- 2.30 Tanzania
- 2.31 Thailand
- 2.32 Tunisia
- 2.33 Turkey
- 2.34 United Arab Emirates
- 2.35 United States
- 2.36 Yemen
- 3 See also
- 4 External links and references
|Masjid al-Haram||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||unknown||Abrahamic religion||Site of Haj pilgrimage and direction (Qibla) of Muslim formal prayers; rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans and late 20th century by Saudis, further radical enlargement under way since 2010.|
|Quba Mosque||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||Islam||Oldest mosque site (after the building of Masjid-al-Haram) but building largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.|
|Al-Masjid al-Nabawi||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||Islam||Site of pilgrimage. Contains Muhammad's tomb. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome.|
|Masjid al-Qiblatain||Medina||Saudi Arabia||623||Islam||Mosque of the two Qiblas|
|Palaiya Jumma Palli||Kilakarai||India||628||Sunni||Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the pre-Islamic period in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Baadhan (Bazan ibn Sasan), Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad, after they accepted Islam in (625-628)AD. This mosque was rebuilt in the 11th century after Saheed War. It is the oldest mosque in India. Bazan Ibn Sasan, Tamim Ibn zayd al ansari, Ibnu Batutah, Nagoor Abdul Cadir, ervadi Ibrahim Sahib, Sultan of Ottoman Murad and other Islamic scholars visited this mosque and Ibnu batutah said in his travel notes "it is the place where most Arab settlers live and I am surprised to see them living as in an Arab land"|
|Huaisheng Mosque||Guangzhou||China||7th Century||Islam||The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627AD by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and was named in memory of Muhammad.|
|Jawatha Mosque||Al-Kilabiyah||Saudi Arabia||629||n/a||Has recently been renovated and prayers are still held in this mosque.|
|Cheraman Juma Masjid||Kodungallur||India||629||Islam||The first mosque in Kerala. Named for Cheraman Perumal|
|Great Mosque of Kufa||Kufa||Iraq||639||Shia||The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim Ibn‘ Aqīl - first cousin of Husayn ibn ‘Alī, his companion Hānī ibn ‘Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtār al-Thaqafī.|
|Mosque of Uqba||Kairouan||Tunisia||670||Sunni||rebuilt in 800s|
|Imam Hussain Mosque||Karbala||Iraq||680||Shia||reconstructed several times, including in 1016|
|Al-Aqsa Mosque||Jerusalem||Israel||705||Sunni and shia||Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site on which the silver domed mosque sits, along with the Dome of the Rock|
|Umayyad Mosque||Damascus||Syria||715||Shia, Sunni||National Mosque|
|Imam Ali Mosque||Najaf||Iraq||977||Shia, Sunni||Shrine of first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, and fourth Sunni Rashidun Caliph.|
|Great Mosque of Xi'an||Xi'an, Shaanxi||China||742||Although remains date mostly from the 18th century, the Mosque was founded in 742|
|Kazimar Big Mosque||Madurai||India||1284||Sunni, Hanafi Shadhili||Second Mosque in Tamil Nadu.|
|Juma Masjid Mosque||Durban||South Africa||1881||Islam||First Mosque to be built in Kwazulu Natal.|
- Haji Piyada, built in the second half of the 9th century, oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan 
- Blue Mosque, Yerevan, built in The Yerevan region had been under the control of various Muslim rulers since the incursions of Timur in the 14th century. From the second third of the 18th century, it had been a province of Iran (ruled successively by Nadir Shah, Karim Khan Zand and the Iranian Qajar Dynasty), before it fell to the Russian empire in 1827.
For the mosque's construction, various dates from the mid-18th century are cited in literature. As reported by 19th-century traveller H.F.B. Lynch, the Blue Mosque was commissioned to be built during the reign of Iranian ruler Nadir Shah (1736–47) by Husayn Ali Khan. George Bournoutian names Husayn Ali Khan as the patron of the building, but places his reign in the years 1762-83. According to Vladimir M. Arutyunyan et al. construction started in 1760 and was completed under Husayn Ali Khan in 1764-68. The building was the main congregational mosque for the city. When Yerevan was captured by Russia in 1827 it was, according to the cataster drawn up by the Russians, the largest of its eight functioning mosques. The building consisted of the main prayer hall, a library, and a madrasa with 28 cells, all organised around a courtyard, with the overall complex occupying 7,000 square metres of land. There is a single minaret at the main portal, in keeping with contemporaneous mosques, and there is no evidence that there were more minarets. Due to the secularist policies of the Soviet government, religious services at the Blue Mosque were stopped and in 1931 it was used to house the Museum of the City of Yerevan. In the latter half of the 1990s the mosque underwent a heavy restoration, funded by Iran, that U.S. State Department employee and foreign service officer Brady Kiesling criticised for being aesthetically damaging in his travel book. Islamic religious services have now resumed within the Blue Mosque, which is the only operating mosque in Armenia. The Museum of the City of Yerevan is now housed in a purpose-built building on another site.
- Central Adelaide Mosque, the oldest major city mosque built in 1888. However, the ﬁrst mosque in Australia was built at Marree in northern South Australia in 1861.
- Sixty Dome Mosque, built in the 14th century, one of the oldest mosques in Bangladesh
- Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo), previous site built in 1929; current building inaugurated in 1952. First mosque in Brazil.
- Al-Rashid Mosque, built in 1938, first purpose built mosque
- Great Mosque of Xi'an, built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.
- Paris Mosque, built in 1926, oldest mosque in France
- Berlin Mosque, built in 1924, oldest mosque building in Germany
- Cheraman Juma Masjid, Built in 629 and first mosque in India
- Great Mosque of Demak, the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia dating to the 15th century.
- Jameh Mosque of Ferdows, built possibly in 7th century
- Great Mosque of Kufa, built in 639
- Kampung Laut Mosque, built in 1730s
- Mobarak Mosque (The Hague), built in 1955, first purpose built mosque in the Netherlands
- Masjid Mazin bin Ghadouba, foundations date to the 7th century, oldest mosque in Oman
- Nivin Masjid, Lahore - 1465
- Masjid al-Haram, First and oldest mosque in the world
- Quba Mosque, built in the 7th century
- Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, built in the 7th century; very old mosque in Saudi Arabia
- Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka, built in 1820
- Masjid al-Qiblatayn, built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijra; oldest mosque in the Horn region
- Fakr ad-Din Mosque, built in 1269; oldest mosque in Mogadishu
- Arba'a Rukun Mosque, built circa 1268/9 in Mogadishu, concurrently with the Fakr ad-Din Mosque
- Auwal Mosque, built in 1798 in Cape Town. This is the oldest mosque in South Africa.
- Juma Masjid Mosque, built in 1881, one of the oldest mosques in South Africa
- Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid, built in 1905, one of the oldest mosques in South Africa
- Córdoba Mosque, built between 780 and 785
- Masjid al-Abrar, built in the first century of Hijra in Beruwala, Sri Lanka. The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.
- Umayyad Mosque, built in 715
- Taipei Grand Mosque, built in 1960
- 300 Years Mosque, built in the 1600s, possibly oldest mosque in Thailand
- Mosque of Uqba, built in the 600s, possibly oldest mosque in Tunisia
- Hagia Sophia, built in 537 as a Christian church, later converted to a mosque in 1453, now a museum since 1931
United Arab Emirates
- Al Badiyah Mosque, built in the 15th century, oldest mosque in UAE.
- Al-Sadiq Mosque, commissioned in 1922, in Chicago, Illinois
- Great Mosque of Sana'a, built in the 7th century, possibly oldest mosque
- Al-Janad mosque, built in the 7th century, possibly oldest mosque
- List of mosques
- List of first mosques by country
- List of mosques in Africa
- List of mosques in the Americas
- List of mosques in Asia
- List of mosques in Europe
- List of mosques in Oceania
- List of the oldest buildings in the world
- Oldest churches in the world
- Oldest synagogues in the world
- Krishna, Nanditha. "KILAKARAI-THE OLDEST MOSQUE IN INDIA". Heritageonlinefoundation. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 814–815 Vol. 4.
- China By Shelley Jiang,pg. 274
- Fodor's China edited by Margaret Kelly, pg 618
- Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places By Britannica Educational Publishing, pg. 181-182, Kenneth Pletcher
- "City of Balkh (antique Bactria) - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
- "Afghan cameleers in Australia - Australia's Culture Portal". web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
- Mesquita Brasil: Nossa História in Portuguese.
- Britannica Educational Publishing; Kenneth Pletcher (2010). The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 181. ISBN 9781615301829. Retrieved 2014-10-18.