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Williamson County, Texas

Coordinates: 30°40′N 97°37′W / 30.66°N 97.61°W / 30.66; -97.61
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Williamson County
The Williamson County Courthouse in 2019
The Williamson County Courthouse in 2019
Flag of Williamson County
Official seal of Williamson County
Map of Texas highlighting Williamson County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°39′20″N 97°35′02″W / 30.6555°N 97.5839°W / 30.6555; -97.5839
Country United States
State Texas
FoundedMarch 13, 1848
Named forRobert McAlpin Williamson
Largest cityRound Rock
 • Total1,134 sq mi (2,940 km2)
 • Land1,118 sq mi (2,900 km2)
 • Water16 sq mi (40 km2)  1.4%
 • Total609,017
 • Estimate 
671,418 Increase
 • Density378/sq mi (146/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts10th, 17th, 31st, 37th
Confederate statue at Williamson County courthouse
A part of Courthouse Square in Georgetown

Williamson County (sometimes abbreviated as "Wilco")[1] is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 609,017.[2] Its county seat is Georgetown.[3] The county is named for Robert McAlpin Williamson (c. 1804–1859), a community leader and a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto.[4]

Williamson County is part of the Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos metropolitan statistical area. It was included with Austin in the Best Cities to Live in for 2009 by the Milken Institute.[5] Located in Central Texas, it is on both the Edwards Plateau to the west, rocky terrain and hills, and Texas Blackland Prairies in the east, rich, fertile farming land. The two areas are roughly bisected by Interstate 35.




This Clovis point is from a period of habitation of about 11,200 years ago.

Much of Williamson County has been the site of human habitation for at least 11,200 years. The earliest known inhabitants of the area lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age), and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9,200 BC based on evidence found at Bell County's much-studied Gault Site.[6] One of the most important discoveries in recent times is the ancient skeletal remains dubbed the "Leanderthal Lady" because of its age and proximity to Leander, Texas.[7] It was discovered by accident by the Texas Department of Transportation workers while drilling core samples for a new highway. The site has been extensively studied for many years, and samples from this site carbon date to the Pleistocene period around 10,500 years ago. Prehistoric and Archaic "open occupation" campsites are also found throughout the county along streams and other water sources, including Brushy Creek in Round Rock and the San Gabriel River in Georgetown. Such evidence of Archaic-period inhabitants is often in the form of relics and flint tools recovered from burned rock middens. Many such sites were inundated when the San Gabriel River was dammed to create Lake Granger.[8]

The earliest known historical Native American occupants, the Tonkawa, were a flint-working, hunting people who followed the buffalo on foot and periodically set fire to the prairie to aid them in their hunts. During the 18th century, they made the transition to a horse culture and used firearms to a limited extent. After they were crowded out by white settlement, the Comanches continued to raid settlements in the county until the 1860s. Also, small numbers of Kiowa, Yojuane, Tawakoni, and Mayeye Indians apparently were living in the county at the time of the earliest Anglo settlements.[8]

Thrall flood


On September 9 and 10, 1921, the remnants of a hurricane moved over Williamson County. The center of the storm became stationary over Thrall, a small farming town in eastern Williamson County, dropping a storm total of 39.7 in (1,010 mm) of rain in 36 hours.[9] The 24-hour rainfall total ending 7 am on September 10, 1921 (38.2 in (970 mm)) at a U.S. Weather Bureau station in Thrall remains the national official 24-hour rainfall record. Thrall's rainfall was 23.4 in (590 mm) during 6 hours, 31.8 in (810 mm) during 12 hours, and 36.4 in (920 mm) during 18 hours.[10] Eighty-seven people drowned in and near Taylor, and 93 in Williamson County. This storm caused the most deadly floods in Texas, with a total of 215 fatalities.

1997 tornado outbreak


On May 27, 1997, Williamson County was hit by the worst tornado outbreak in county history. The 1997 Central Texas tornado outbreak caused 20 tornadoes including an F-5 (the strongest rating used for tornadoes on the Fujita scale), which remains the only F-5 to strike Williamson County. The F-5 tornado killed 27 people and completely destroyed the Double Creek Estates neighborhood in the city of Jarrell, Texas, located in far northern Williamson County. Another strong tornado, an F-3, struck Cedar Park, killing one person. Two F-2 tornadoes also struck Williamson County. The outbreak cost the county over $190 million in damages and a total of 30 fatalities.[11]

Modern growth


Williamson County's fast growth rate is due in large part to its location immediately north of Austin coupled with Austin's rapid expansion northward; Austin's city limits cross into Williamson County. Most of the growth has been residential, but large employers, such as Dell's international headquarters, have also changed Williamson County from a bedroom community into a community where citizens can live and work in the same general vicinity. This has transformed the county over recent years into a dynamic, self-sustaining community with less dependency on Austin. Major retail and commercial developments began appearing from 1999 to present, including the Rivery in Georgetown, and the Premium Outlet Mall, the IKEA-area retail, and the La Frontera mixed-use center in Round Rock. Health care and higher education have also become major factors in the county's growth. Two new colleges and two new hospitals have opened since 2015. Another significant factor has been the opening of the North Loop 1 and Texas State Highway 45 toll roads, which have made Williamson County more accessible to Austin.



According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,134 sq mi (2,940 km2), of which 1,118 square miles (2,900 km2) is land and 16 square miles (41 km2), comprising 1.4%, is water.[12]

The area is divided into two regions by the Balcones Escarpment, which runs through the center from north to south along a line from Jarrell to Georgetown to Round Rock. The county's western half is an extension of the Western Plains and considered to be within the eastern fringes of Texas Hill Country; it has an average elevation of 850 ft (260 m). It features undulating, hilly brushland with an abundance of Texas live oak, prickly pear cactus, and karst. The county's eastern half is part of the Coastal Plains and is flat to gently rolling with an average elevation of 600 ft (180 m). It has dark clay and rich, fertile soils for agriculture, but is quickly being developed as the county's population continues to increase and expand out.[8] Williamson County is drained in the center and south by the San Gabriel River, the county's only river, and in the north by creeks that run into the Lampasas and Little Rivers north of the county line.[8]



Williamson County's eastern portion lies within the low-lying prairie areas east of the Balcones Escarpment (also known as the Balcones Fault, though it is not an active fault). It begins a piedmont, a foot-friendly fall line of slightly sloping land downward to the coastal area, an area of the Blackland Prairie consisting of rich, fertile, clay-containing soils, where the land is still used for agriculture, growing cotton and other crops and raising cattle. These prairie lands essentially run from Williamson County to the Gulf Coast, and have a rich heritage of being farmed by German, Polish, and other settlers.

West of the escarpment is the beginning of the "upland" Texas Hill Country, characterized by rocky terrain with thin layers of soil on top of limestone.[13] Some ranching occurs in the uplands, but mostly it has been the target of residential development because of the rolling terrain, vistas, hardwood trees, abundant wildlife, and rivers and streams (the same reason early Indians camped in the area). The Hill Country areas are characterized by their porous "vugular" (honeycombed) rock, where rainwater percolates down to replenish the Edwards Aquifer. For that reason, development restrictions are in place and several endangered species are protected by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).Interstate 35, the county's main artery, runs along the fault line dividing the two distinct regions.

Environmentally protected areas


Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge is in the Texas Hill Country northwest of Austin, including parts of western Williamson County.[14] The refuge was formed in 1992 to conserve habitat for two endangered songbirds, the golden-cheeked warbler and the black-capped vireo, and to preserve Texas Hill Country habitat for other wildlife species.[15] The refuge augments a similarly named preserve in Austin, the Balcones Canyonlands Preserve. The vegetation found in the Hill Country includes various oaks, elms, and Ashe juniper trees (often called "cedar" in Texas). The golden-cheeked warbler and black-capped vireo depend on different successional stages of this vegetation, and both nest in the Edwards Plateau, the warbler exclusively so.[16] Some protected areas are open to visitors, such as the Berry Springs Park.

Endangered species


Williamson County is home to five endangered species. Two are songbirds protected by the Balcones Canyonlands Preserve in Travis and Williamson Counties. The other three are invertebrate species found only in Williamson County, which live in the cavelike fissures on the west side of the county. Karst topography is the name for the honeycomb-type limestone formations (including caves, sinkholes, and fissures) typical of the county's limestone geology west of Interstate 35. In the 1990s, a group of concerned landowners, individuals, and real-estate developers formed the Northern Edwards Aquifer Resource Council with the goal of obtaining a USFWS 10-A permit (known as an incidental take permit) for the county by identifying and preserving sufficiently many caves with endangered species to ensure survival of the species. These species would be preserved through voluntary donations of land rather than required setbacks, grants,[17] and other involuntary means typically enforced on landowners without an incidental take permit. The group transferred its successful work on an environmental impact statement to the county in 2002 and a county-wide 10-A permit was obtained in October 2008.[18] Property owners are able to participate in the county's 10-A permit by applying through the WCCF.

Adjacent counties



Historical population
2023 (est.)697,191[19]14.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[20]
1850–2010[21] 2010–2020[2]
Williamson County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[22] Pop 2020[23] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 269,481 336,410 63.76% 55.24%
Black or African American alone (NH) 24,744 38,557 5.85% 6.33%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,340 1,659 0.32% 0.27%
Asian alone (NH) 20,084 53,982 4.75% 8.86%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 354 592 0.08% 0.10%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 661 3,124 0.16% 0.51%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 7,981 27,605 1.89% 4.53%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 98,034 147,088 23.19% 24.15%
Total 422,679 609,017 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Municipal Population History [24]
# Largest Cities in Williamson County 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2022 (estimate)
1 Round Rock 1,438 1,878 2,811 11,812 30,923 61,136 99,887 119,468 126,697
2 Georgetown 4,951 5,218 6,395 9,468 14,842 28,339 47,400 67,176 86,507
3 Cedar Park 202 385 692 3,474 5,161 26,049 48,937 77,595 77,642
4 Leander - - - 2,179 3,398 7,596 26,521 59,202 74,375
5 Hutto 529 400 545 659 630 1,250 14,698 27,577 36,655
6 Taylor 9,071 9,434 9,616 10,619 11,472 13,575 15,191 16,267 16,975
7 Liberty Hill - - - - - 1,409 967 3,646 9,099
Williamson County total 38,853 35,044 37,305 76,521 139,551 249,967 422,679 609,017 671,418

2010 census


As of the census of 2010, there were 422,679 people, 152,606 households, and 111,514 families resided in the county. The population density was 373 people per square mile (144 people/km2). The 162,773 housing units averaged 144 units per square mile (56 units/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 80.9% White, 7.1% African American, 1.3% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 6.9% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. About 23.2% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 111,514 households, 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.9% were not families. Around 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the county, the age distribution was 28.7% under 18, 11.9% from 15 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.9% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $60,642, and for a family was $66,208. Males had a median income of $43,471 versus $30,558 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,547. About 3.40% of families and 4.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.40% of those under age 18 and 5.90% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics

Williamson County Precinct Map – Image courtesy of the Williamson County Commissioners Court

The Commissioners Court is the overall governing and management body of Williamson County, and is responsible for all budgetary decisions in addition to setting the tax rate each year. Among its duties is the administration of all county business, including the building and maintenance of county roads and bridges. Commissioners' courts are governing bodies of county government in several US states, including Texas. The principal functions of the commissioners' court are legislative and executive. Although called courts, commissioners' courts generally exercise only limited judicial powers. The commissioners' court consists of five members. The county judge presides as chairman, and is elected every four years by voters countywide. Four commissioners are elected by single-member precincts every four years.

County government


Williamson County elected officials

Position Name Party
  County Judge Bill Gravell Jr. Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 1 Terry Cook Democratic
  Commissioner, Precinct 2 Cynthia Long Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 3 Valerie Covey Republican
  Commissioner, Precinct 4 Russ Boles Republican
  District Attorney Shawn Dick Republican
  District Clerk Lisa David Republican
  County Attorney Doyle Hobbs Jr. Republican
  County Clerk Nancy Rister Republican
  Sheriff Mike Gleason Democratic
  Tax Assessor-Collector Larry Gaddes Republican
  Treasurer Scott Heselmeyer Republican
  Constable, Precinct 1 Mickey Chance Democratic
  Constable, Precinct 2 Jeff Anderson Republican
  Constable, Precinct 3 Matthew Lindemann Republican
  Constable, Precinct 4 Paul Leal Republican

Congressional and state representation


In recent decades, Williamson County has been a strongly Republican county. Before the 2018 elections, every federal and state elected official from the county was a Republican. It is in Texas Senate District 5, and is represented by State Senator Charles Schwertner (R). Williamson County includes three Texas House of Representatives Districts: 20, 52, and 136. District 20 is represented by Republican Terry Wilson, 52 by Caroline Harris, and 136 by Democrat John Bucy III.

United States Congress

Representatives Name Party First elected
  District 10 Michael McCaul Republican 2004
  District 17 Pete Sessions Republican 2020
  District 31 John Carter Republican 2002
  District 37 Lloyd Doggett Democratic 1994

Presidential election results


Williamson County was once a solidly Democratic county. In 1976 election, it voted for President Jimmy Carter by a higher percentage (55%) than did voters in Travis County (52%). In 1980 election, however, the county swung dramatically to support Ronald Reagan, giving him 56% of the vote, exceeding Carter's 1976 total. In subsequent years, the county became increasingly Republican, following a pattern similar to those of other suburban Texas counties. In 2004 election, President George W. Bush won 68% of the vote in Williamson County. John McCain received 55% of the vote to Barack Obama's 42% in the 2008 election. In 2012 election, Republican Mitt Romney defeated Obama, 59% to 38%. In 2016 election, Donald Trump beat Hillary Clinton, 51%-41%. However, the county narrowly swung Democratic in 2020, with Joe Biden winning a plurality over Trump, 49% to 48%.[25]

In recent years, Williamson County has again leaned toward the Democratic Party, with Beto O'Rourke edging out Ted Cruz in the 2018,[26] and James Talarico and John Bucy III both defeating Republican incumbents to win election to the 2022 in districts mostly in Williamson County.[27] However, in the same 2020 election election, county voters reelected Republican John Cornyn to the U.S. Senate as well as Republican John Carter to the U.S. House of Representatives.[25] Republican governor Greg Abbott won the county in 2022 by only one point, further showing that county has moved away from being safely Republican and become a competitive battleground.[28][29]

Election turnout reflects the county's tremendous growth. In 1960, only 7,870 votes were cast, compared to 289,555 in 2020.

United States presidential election results for Williamson County, Texas[30]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 139,729 48.15% 143,795 49.56% 6,644 2.29%
2016 104,175 50.90% 84,468 41.27% 16,016 7.83%
2012 97,006 59.22% 61,875 37.77% 4,923 3.01%
2008 88,323 55.49% 67,691 42.53% 3,152 1.98%
2004 83,284 64.97% 43,117 33.63% 1,797 1.40%
2000 65,041 67.80% 26,591 27.72% 4,303 4.49%
1996 36,836 55.37% 24,175 36.34% 5,511 8.28%
1992 26,208 42.79% 19,437 31.73% 15,609 25.48%
1988 27,322 57.85% 19,589 41.48% 319 0.68%
1984 25,774 72.03% 9,911 27.70% 99 0.28%
1980 15,035 56.39% 10,408 39.04% 1,218 4.57%
1976 7,481 43.98% 9,355 55.00% 174 1.02%
1972 6,998 64.40% 3,806 35.02% 63 0.58%
1968 2,923 28.87% 5,528 54.61% 1,672 16.52%
1964 1,766 19.19% 7,430 80.74% 6 0.07%
1960 2,429 30.86% 5,410 68.74% 31 0.39%
1956 2,947 40.00% 4,402 59.75% 18 0.24%
1952 3,646 42.09% 5,010 57.83% 7 0.08%
1948 1,094 15.57% 5,638 80.24% 294 4.18%
1944 1,239 16.67% 5,284 71.11% 908 12.22%
1940 1,714 22.34% 5,944 77.49% 13 0.17%
1936 375 6.97% 4,995 92.79% 13 0.24%
1932 418 5.79% 6,783 94.03% 13 0.18%
1928 1,833 33.14% 3,689 66.70% 9 0.16%
1924 934 12.33% 6,324 83.45% 320 4.22%
1920 819 16.21% 2,677 53.00% 1,555 30.79%
1916 656 19.01% 2,701 78.27% 94 2.72%
1912 246 9.57% 2,014 78.37% 310 12.06%

Sun City Texas


One of the most significant growth factors of modern Williamson County is the location of a new Sun City community in Georgetown. Opened in June 1995, and originally named "Sun City Georgetown", Sun City Texas is a 5,300-acre (21-km2) age-restricted community about 10 mi (16 km) west of IH-35 on Andice Road (RR 2338). It is part of the chain of Sun City communities started by Del E. Webb Construction Company (now a division of PulteGroup).[31] Residency is restricted to persons over age 55 (at least one person in a couple has to be 55 or older) and the community is generally oriented toward retirees.[32]

Sun City Texas pool at one of several recreation centers

As originally planned, the project would double the size of Georgetown's population.[33] Sun City Texas is made up mostly of single-family dwellings, but also has duplexes. The Sun City project includes three golf courses (Legacy Hills, White Wing, and Cowan Creek).[32] Although the community attracts residents from all over, most come from within Texas to stay close to their original homes. Vocal opposition to the project has occurred, especially at the start during the zoning process, with arguments against the size of the community, its effect on Georgetown as a family-oriented town, concerns about the costs of providing city utilities, concern about lowered city and Williamson County property taxes, which are fixed for retirees under Texas law, and the disproportionate effect of city voting.

By and large, though, the community has been welcomed and accepted by the Georgetown populace. In the 2008 city elections, for example, two residents of Sun City were the only candidates for mayor of Georgetown. They also were both formerly elected city council members.[34]


Cotton bolls ready for harvest



Williamson County was an agrarian community for most of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Cotton was the dominant crop in the area between the 1880s and the 1920s, and Williamson County was the top producer of cotton in Texas.[35] Primarily to transport bales of cotton, the county was served by two national railroads, the International-Great Northern Railroad, which eventually merged into the Missouri Pacific, and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. The town of Taylor in eastern Williamson County became the primary center for cotton production, cotton ginning, and compressing cotton into bales to transport by rail.

Other agriculture activities, farming, and dairying were also a part of rural Williamson County east of the Balcones Fault, and ranching occurred to the west in the Hill Country area. Both gradually gave way to more modern business, services, and retail as the area became more urban, but cattle ranching is still a major business in some areas of the county, and cotton is still a significant crop eastward toward Hutto and Taylor.



Williamson County's largest employer was once Dell Computer in Round Rock, employing roughly 16,000 employees.[citation needed] Retail and health care, including St. David's Hospital, Scott & White, Seton Medical Center Williamson hospital (a level II certified trauma center), and the A&M Health Science Center are among the area's largest employers. Other than Dell, retail is the second-most significant business group in the county. The new IKEA store and Premium Outlet Mall in Round Rock, as well as those in the La Frontera mixed-use project in Round Rock are significant to the county. Wolf Ranch and The Rivery are also major retail centers in Georgetown. In addition, higher education has a large positive effect on the county with the opening of the Texas State University Campus in Round Rock and the Austin Community College campus. The Round Rock campus is the single largest campus in the ACC system, providing two-year degrees and training in the high-tech sector, nursing, and other specialties.[citation needed]

County courthouse

Williamson County flag – Image courtesy of the Williamson County Commissioner's Court

The current courthouse, built in 1911, is an example of Neoclassical Revival architecture.[36] The courthouse has had a tumultuous past, surviving three major renovations and many modifications, including the demolition of its key architectural features in 1966. With the assistance of the Texas Historical Commission and preservation-minded county citizens and officials, the courthouse was returned to its original 1911 state during a major 2006–2007 renovation, once again becoming a focal point of the county.[37]



The stars on the flag surrounding the state of Texas represent the 33 viable communities identified by Clara Stearns Scarbrough in her 1973 book, Land of Good Water. [citation needed] In 1970, these communities ranged in population from 20 people in Norman's Crossing to more than 10,000 residents in Taylor. Establishing how many communities exist in Williamson County today is difficult, because the determination of "community" is subjective and without set criteria. However, in Williamson County as of 2004, 11 towns had populations over 1,000 people, and seven towns had populations above 5,000.[citation needed]



These school districts serve Williamson County:[38]

Higher education


Austin Community College is the designated community college for most portions of the county.[43]

  • Sites: Round Rock, Cedar Park[44] and Leander[45]
  • Austin Community College also purchased a site in Leander, Texas, in 2010 for an additional future Williamson County campus.[citation needed]

Areas in Granger, Hutto, Taylor, and Thrall ISDs are within Temple Junior College District. Areas in Florence ISD are within Central Texas College District. Areas in Lexington ISD are within Blinn Junior College District.[43]



The newspapers that serve Williamson County include the Round Rock Leader, Williamson County Sun (Georgetown), Taylor Press, Hutto News, Hill Country News (Leander), Liberty Hill Independent, and Tribune-Progress (Bartlett).[46] In 2005 Community Impact Newspaper was founded.[47] The Austin American-Statesman also has significant coverage in Williamson County.[48]





Cities (multiple counties)




Census-designated places


Unincorporated communities


Ghost towns


Notable people

The original Chainsaw Massacre movie house was moved in 1993[citation needed] and restored to become a restaurant at The Antlers Hotel in Kingsland

See also



  1. ^ http://www.wilco.org Archived November 6, 2004, at the Wayback Machine --> Williamson County, TX Home Page
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 28, 2023.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "WILLIAMSON, ROBERT MCALPIN [THREE LEGGED WILLIE]". tshaonline.org. June 15, 2010. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  5. ^ "Austin-Round Rock, Texas MSA". The Milken Institute. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
  6. ^ "Handbook of Texas Online, "Gault Site" entry". June 15, 2010. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
  7. ^ Thompson, Karen R.; Jane H. Digesualado. Historical Round Rock Texas. Austin, Texas: Nortex Press (Eakin Publications). pp. 4, 7.
  8. ^ a b c d MARK, ODINTZ (June 15, 2010). "WILLIAMSON COUNTY". tshaonline.org. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  9. ^ "Significant Weather Events of the 1900s". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  10. ^ "Major and Catastrophic Storms and Floods in Texas". United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  11. ^ US Department of Commerce, NOAA. "May 1997 Tornado Outbreak". www.weather.gov. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  12. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  13. ^ Jordan, Terry G. "Hill Country". Handbook of Texas Online. Archived from the original on November 2, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  14. ^ United States Fish and Wildlife Service. "Overview". Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
  15. ^ U.S. Senate, Committee on Appropriations. 2006. Prepared statement of Friends of Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Senate Hearings, Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations, HR 2361, pp. 174–175.
  16. ^ United States Fish and Wildlife Service. "Welcome". Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  17. ^ Barrios, Jennifer (September 30, 2004). "Grant will help creepier residents. $2.35 million to save beetles, spiders and other endangered species". Austin American-Statesman. p. A1.
  18. ^ Doolittle, David (October 23, 2008). "Plan to protect species gets OK; U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service gives approval". Austin American-Statesman.
  19. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  20. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". United States Census Bureau.
  21. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  22. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Williamson County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  23. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Williamson County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  24. ^ Texas Almanac: City Population History from 1850–2000 Archived September 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Texas Almanac. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  25. ^ a b "Election Results". apps.wilco.org.
  26. ^ Essig, Chris; Murphy, Ryan; Formby, Brandon (November 7, 2018). "Where Ted Cruz's close victory over Beto O'Rourke stands among Texas' historical election results". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved April 27, 2024.
  27. ^ "Turning Williamson County a Bluer Shade of Purple". www.austinchronicle.com.
  28. ^ Khatib, Alexa Ura, Caroline Covington and Jade (November 11, 2022). "Republicans rebounded in some suburban counties that had been drifting blue". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved July 16, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ "Texas Governor Election Results". The New York Times. November 8, 2022. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 16, 2023.
  30. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  31. ^ Novak, Shonda. "Builders Pulte, Centex to combine in deal with national significance: Merger might be sign of industry rebound". Austin American-Statesman: B–07.
  32. ^ a b Ward, Pamela (December 29, 1996). "On course for a grand opening in sun city". Austin American-Statesman: B–1.
  33. ^ "Del". Archived from the original on June 18, 2012.
  34. ^ Banta, Bob (April 10, 2008). "Mayoral hopefuls let their work talk". Austin American-Statesman. pp. W–01.
  35. ^ McLemore, Andrew (August 15, 2010). "Cotton County". Williamson County Sun.
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30°40′N 97°37′W / 30.66°N 97.61°W / 30.66; -97.61