Islam in the United Kingdom
(4.8% of the UK population, 2014)
|Regions with significant populations|
|London, West Midlands, North West England|
|English, Urdu, Sylheti, Bengali, Arabic, Punjabi, Somali, Turkish, Persian, Kurdish, Gujarati, Pashto|
|Majority Sunni, minority Shi'a and Ahmadiyyah|
Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom, with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population. The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England: 2,660,116 (5.02% of the population). 76,737 Muslims live in Scotland (1.45%), 45,950 in Wales (1.50%), and 3,832 in Northern Ireland (0.21%).
In 2014 the total population of Muslims in Great Britain was estimated to have increased to 3,115,000, of which about half (1,554,000) were born overseas. Across England and Wales the Muslim population numbered 3,047,000 (97.8% of all UK Muslims) or 5.4% of the total population.
In 2011 it was reported that the United Kingdom could have as many as 100,000 converts to Islam, of which 66% were women. Islam is the fastest growing religious confession in the UK and its adherents have the lowest average age out of all the major religious groups. Between 2001 and 2009 the Muslim population increased almost 10 times faster than the non-Muslim population. The majority of Muslims in United Kingdom belong to the Sunni denomination, while smaller numbers are Shia and Ahmadi. In terms of national heritage, the largest groups of British Muslims are Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Smaller groups are Indians, Arabs, Kurds, and Africans.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Branches
- 4 Associations
- 5 Position in society
- 6 Islamic scholars and leaders
- 7 Politics
- 8 Media
- 9 Identity
- 10 Sharia
- 11 Extremist ideology
- 12 Criticism
- 13 Notable mosques
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
In the 16th century, Muslims from North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia were present in London, working in a range of roles including as diplomats, translators, merchants, servants, prostitutes and musicians. The first group of Muslims to migrate to the UK in significant numbers, in the 18th century, were lascars (sailors) recruited from the Indian subcontinent (largely from the Bengal region) to work for the British East India Company. Due to the majority being lascars, the earliest Muslim communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks also came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of British India (now in Bangladesh). In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of 'all Indians outside India' (which included modern Pakistani and Bangladeshi territories) estimated that there were 7,128 Indians living in the United Kingdom One of the most famous early Asian Muslim immigrants to England was the Bengali Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the British East India Company who in 1810 founded London's first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostanee Coffee House. He is also reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom.
The Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking was the first purpose built mosque, built in 1889. In the same year Abdullah Quilliam installed a mosque in a terrace in Liverpool, which became the Liverpool Muslim Institute. The first mosque in London was the Fazl Mosque established in 1924, commonly called the London mosque. The growing number of Muslims resulted in the establishment of more than 1,500 mosques by 2007.
The publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses in 1988 caused major controversy. Muslims in Britain condemned the book for blasphemy. On 2 December 1988 the book was publicly burned at a demonstration in Bolton attended by 7,000 Muslims, followed by a similar demonstration and book-burning in Bradford on 14 January 1989.
|Number of Muslims in Great Britain:|
The Muslim population of England and Wales has grown consistently since the 1950s. Sophie Gilliat-Ray attributes the recent growth to "recent immigration, the growing birth rate, some conversion to Islam, and perhaps also an increased willingness to self-identify as 'Muslim' on account of the 'war on terror'."
England and Wales
(% of population)
|2014 (estimate)||3,047,000||–||5.4||1,750 (2015)||1,741|
The settlements with large number of Muslims are Bradford, Luton, Blackburn, Birmingham, London and Dewsbury. There are also high numbers in High Wycombe, Slough, Leicester, Derby, Manchester, Leeds and the mill towns of Northern England. There are also relatively large concentrations in the Scottish cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh.
The top 20 local authorities in England and Wales with the highest percent of Muslims in 2011 were:
- London Borough of Tower Hamlets 34.5% 87,696
- London Borough of Newham 32.0% 98,456
- Blackburn with Darwen 27.4% 38,817
- City of Bradford 24.7% 129,041
- Luton 24.6% 49,991
- London Borough of Redbridge 23.3% 64,999
- Slough 23.3% 32,655
- London Borough of Waltham Forest 21.9% 56,541
- Birmingham 21.8% 234,411
- Leicester 18.6% 61,440
- London Borough of Brent 18.6% 58,036
- City of Westminster 18.3% 40,073
- Metropolitan Borough of Oldham 17.7% 39,879
- Pendle 17.4% 15,579
- London Borough of Enfield 16.7% 52,141
- Manchester 15.8% 79,496
- London Borough of Ealing 15.7% 53,198
- Kirklees 14.5% 61,280
- London Borough of Haringey 14.2% 36,130
- London Borough of Hackney 14.1% 34,727
Several large cities have one area that is a majority Muslim even if the rest of the city has a fairly small Muslim population. In addition, it is possible to find small areas that are almost entirely Muslim: for example, Savile Town in Dewsbury.
Initial limited mosque availability meant that prayers were conducted in small rooms of council flats until the 1980s when more and larger facilities became available. Some synagogues and community buildings were turned into mosques and existing mosques began to expand their buildings. This process has continued down to the present day with the East London Mosque recently expanding into a large former car park where the London Muslim Centre is now used for prayers, recreational facilities and housing. Most people regard themselves as part of the ummah, and their identity is based on their religion rather than their ethnic group. Cultural aspects of a 'Bengali Islam' are seen as superstition and as un-Islamic.
The 2001 census recorded that there were 179,733 Muslims who described themselves as 'white'. 65% of white Muslims described themselves as "other white", and would likely have originated from locations such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Adygea, Chechnya, Albania, Turkey, Bulgaria, the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia.[original research?] The remainder of white Muslims are converts and mostly identified themselves as White British and White Irish.
Islam is the third-largest religious group of British Indian people, after Hinduism and Sikhism. 8% of UK Muslims are of Indian descent, principally those whose origins are in Gujarat, West Bengal, Telangana and Kerala. Gujarati Muslims from the Surat and Bharuch districts started to arrive from the 1940s when India was under British colonial rule, settling in the towns of Dewsbury and Batley in Yorkshire and in parts of Lancashire.
The single largest group of Muslims in the United Kingdom are of Pakistani descent. Pakistanis from Mirpur District were one of the first South Asian Muslim communities to permanently settle in the United Kingdom, arriving in Birmingham and Bradford in the late 1940s. Immigration from Mirpur grew from the late 1950s, accompanied by immigration from other parts of Pakistan especially from Punjab, particularly from the surrounding villages of Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Sialkot, Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Gujrat, in addition to from the north-west Punjab including the chhachhi Pathans and Pashtuns from Attock District, and some from villages of Ghazi, Nowshera and Peshwar. There is also a fairly large Punjabi community from East Africa found in London. People of Pakistani extraction are particularly notable in West Midlands (Birmingham), West Yorkshire (Bradford), London (Waltham Forest, Newham and Redbridge), Lancashire/Greater Manchester, East Midlands/Nottingham and several industrial towns such as Luton, Slough, High Wycombe and Oxford.
People of Bangladeshi descent are the second largest Muslim community (after Pakistanis), 15% of Muslims in England and Wales are of Bangladeshi descent, one of the ethnic groups in the UK with the largest proportion of people following a single religion, being 92% Muslim. The majority of these Muslims come from the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, mainly concentrated in London (Tower Hamlets and Newham), Luton, Birmingham and Oldham. The Bangladeshi Muslim community in London forms 24% of the Muslim population, larger than any other ethnic group. There are groups which are active throughout Bangladeshi communities such as The Young Muslim Organization. It is connected to the Islamic Forum Europe, associated with the East London Mosque and the London Muslim Centre – all of which have connections with the Bangladesh Islamic party, the Jamaat-e-Islami. Other groups also attract a few people, the Hizb ut-Tahrir – which calls for the Khilafah (caliphate) and influences by publishing annual magazines, and lectures through mainly political concepts, and the other which is a movement within Sunni Islam is the Salafi – who view the teachings of the first generations as the correct one, and appeals to younger Muslims as a way to differentiate themselves towards their elders. Other large groups include another Sunni movement, the Barelwi – mainly of a Fultoli movement (led by Abdul Latif Chowdhury in Bangladesh), and the Tablighi Jamaat – which is a missionary and revival movement, and avoids political attention. All these groups work to stimulate Islamic identity among local Bengalis or Muslims and particularly focus on the younger members of the communities.
The United Kingdom, with 43,532 Somalia-born residents in 2001, and an estimated 101,000 in 2008, is home to the largest Somali community in Europe. A 2009 estimate by Somali community organisations puts the Somali population figure at 90,000 residents. The first Somali immigrants were seamen and traders who arrived in small numbers in port cities in the late 19th century, although most Somalis in the UK are recent arrivals. Established Somali communities are found in Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and London, and newer ones have formed in Leicester, Manchester and Sheffield.
There are large numbers of Gujarati Muslims in Dewsbury, Blackburn (including Darwen), Bolton, Preston, Nottingham, Leicester, Nuneaton, Gloucester and London (Newham, Waltham Forest and Hackney).
Turks first began to emigrate in large numbers from the island of Cyprus for work and then again when Turkish Cypriots were forced to leave their homes during the Cyprus conflict. Turks then began to come from Turkey for economic reasons. Recently, smaller groups of Turks have begun to immigrate to the United Kingdom from other European countries. In 2011, there was a total of about 500,000 people of Turkish origin in the UK, made up of approximately 150,000 Turkish nationals and about 300,000 Turkish Cypriots. Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a growing number of ethnic Turks with German, or Dutch citizenship immigrating to Britain. Turkish-speaking Muslims have also come to Britain from parts of the Balkans where they make up a large, indigenous ethnic and religious minority dating to the period of Ottoman rule, particularly Bulgaria, the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Although some of these Balkan Turks, like the Pomaks of southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece, are actually the descendants of Ottoman-era converts to Islam, and are therefore sometimes defined as (e.g.) Bulgarian Muslims and Greek Muslims; the vast majority are the descendants of Turkish settlers dating to the early Ottoman period. Even many of those of non-Turkish origin have adopted the Turkish language and identity, through a combination of educational links with Turkey, intermarriage with Turkish Muslims, and assimilation into mainstream Turkish culture. The majority of Turks live in the greater London area.
Aside from North African Arabs, often referred to as Maghrebis (mentioned below), people of Arab origin in Britain are the descendants of Arab immigrants to Britain from a variety of Arab states, including Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. Most British Arabs are Sunni Muslim, although some – such as those of southern Iraqi and southern Lebanese origin – are Shi'ite. A smaller number belong to one of the Eastern Christian denominations, such as Coptic Orthodox Egyptians and Maronite or Syrian Orthodox Arabs from the Levant. The main Arab Muslim communities in the UK live in the Greater London area, with smaller numbers living in Manchester, Liverpool, and Birmingham. There are also sizable and very long-established communities of Muslim Yemenis in the United Kingdom in among other places Cardiff and the South Shields area near Newcastle.
North African both Berbers & Arabs from the Maghreb (English: western) Although data is scarce, Maghrebis make up a substantial community in Europe and the United Kingdom. Britain has far fewer of Maghrebis than France, The Netherlands or Spain, where the majority of Muslims are Maghrebi.
A 2009 government paper estimated the Nigerian Muslim community as 12,000 to 14,000. The community is concentrated in London.
There are 2.3 million Sunnis in the UK.
The majority of British mosques are Sunni, including Deobandi, Barelvis and Salafi. In 2010 the affiliation of the mosques was: 44.6% Deobandi, 28.2% Barelvi and other Sufi, 5.8% Salafi, 2.8% Maudoodi-inspired; of the remainder many were part of other Sunni traditions or unaffiliated, while 4.2% were Shi'a (4%). The majority of mosque managers are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin, with many Gujarati, and fewer Arab, Turkish and Somali managed entities.
Shia mosques are usually Twelvers but also cater for Zaydis and the 50,000-strong Ismaili community; they usually include facilities for women. Various Shia mosques include the Husseini Islamic Centre in Stanmore, Harrow which acts as one of the main Shia Muslim mosques in Britain. Others include Al Masjid ul Husseini in Northolt, Ealing, and Imam Khoei Islamic Centre in Queens Park, Brent.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (AMC) established itself in the UK in 1912 and is thus the longest standing Muslim community in the UK. The UK and worldwide headquarters of the AMC are currently situated on the grounds of 'The London Mosque' (Masjid Fazl), London's first Mosque (1926), in the Southfields area of South-West London. The AMC also has the largest Muslim youth organisation, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Youth Association (Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya) in the UK (membership of 7,500) and the largest Muslim women's organisation, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Women's Association (Lajna Imaila), in the UK (membership of 10,000).
- Ahmadiyya Muslim Association
- Association of British Muslims, the oldest organisation of British Muslims, created in 1889 as the English Islamic Association by Abdullah Quilliam.
- Association of Muslim Lawyers
- British Muslim Forum
- Civil Service Islamic Society
- Dawatul Islam
- Islamic Forum of Europe
- Islamic Party of Britain
- Islamic Society of Britain
- Minhaj-ul-Quran UK
- Mosques & Imams National Advisory Board
- Muslim Association of Britain
- Muslim Council of Britain
- Muslim Educational Trust
- Muslim Parliament of Great Britain
- Muslim Public Affairs Committee UK
- Muslim Safety Forum
- Sufi Muslim Council
- The Young Muslims UK
- UK Islamic Mission
- World Islamic Mission
- Young Muslim Organisation
Position in society
According to analysis based on the 2011 census, Muslims in the United Kingdom face poor standards of housing, poorer levels of education and are more vulnerable to long-term illness, and that Muslims in the UK had the highest rate of unemployment, the poorest health, the most disability and fewest educational qualifications among religious groups. The figures were, to some extent, explained by the fact that Muslims were the least well-established group, having the youngest age profile.
Conversely, it was estimated in 2008 that there were approximately 10,000 Muslim millionaires in the UK.
In 2011, 24.0 per cent of British Muslims had degree level qualifications, compared to 27.2 per cent of the population as a whole. 25.6 per cent of Muslims had no qualifications, compared to the national average of 22.7 per cent. In 2006, it was found that approximately 53% of British Muslim youth chose to attend university. This was higher than the figure for Christians (45%) and the non-religious (32%) but lower than for Hindus (77%) and Sikhs (63%).
There are around 140 Muslim faith schools in the UK, twelve of them being state-funded. These schools regularly outperform those of other faiths. For example, in 2008, 86.5% of pupils attending Muslim schools achieved five GCSEs, compared to a figure of 72.8% of Roman Catholic schools and 64.5% of secular schools.
In 2016, Tauheedul Islam Girls' High School in Blackburn with Darwen was ranked first in the Government's new Progress 8 league table, with Tauheedul Islam Boys' High School coming in second place.
Islamic scholars and leaders
Several notable Muslim religious leaders and scholars are based in the UK, including:
- Allama Qamaruzzaman Azmi, Leader of World Islamic Mission
- Muhammad Imdad Hussain Pirzada of Muslim Charity and Jamia Al-Karam
- Shaykh Muhammad al-Ya’qoubi of Al-Mustafa Centre
- Waqar Azmi OBE, EU Ambassador of Intercultural Dialogue
- Muhammad Arshad Misbahi Imam of Manchester Central Mosque
- Sheikh Abdul Qayum, Chief Imam of East London Mosque
- Muhammad Abdul Bari, secretary of Muslim Aid
- Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq, khateeb of Birmingham Central Mosque
- Dr. Mahmudul Hasan, khateeb of Essex Mosque
- Abdur Rahman Madani television presenter and Chief Imam of Darul Ummah Mosque
- Faiz-ul-Aqtab Siddiqi, principal of Hijaz College
- Ajmal Masroor, imam and politician
- Dr. Timothy Winter, Dean of Cambridge Muslim College and Director of Studies at Cambridge University
- Mirza Masroor Ahmad, fifth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Muslims are playing an increasingly prominent role in political life. Fifteen Muslim MPs were elected in the June 2017 general election, and there are twelve Muslim peers in the House of Lords (there have historically been about fourteen, starting with Lord Stanley, a peer that lived in the 19th century). The majority of British Muslims vote for the Labour Party, however there are some high-profile Conservative Muslims, including former Minister for Faith and Communities and former Co-Chairman of the Conservative Party Sayeeda Warsi and Economic Secretary to the Treasury Sajid Javid, described by The Guardian as a 'rising star' in the Tory party. The Guardian stated that "The treasury minister is highly regarded on the right and would be the Tories' first Muslim leader." Salma Yaqoob is the former leader of the left-wing Respect Party. Sayeeda Warsi, who was the first Muslim to serve in a British cabinet, was appointed by David Cameron in 2010 as a minister without portfolio. She was made a senior minister of state in 2012. In August 2014 she resigned over the government's approach to the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict.
Muslim political parties in Britain have included the People's Justice Party (UK), a Pakistani and Kashmiri party that won city council seats in Manchester in the 2000s, and the unsuccessful Islamic Party of Britain, an Islamist party in Bradford in the 1990s.
British Muslims are well represented in various media positions across different organisations. Notable examples include Mehdi Hasan, the political editor of the UK version of The Huffington Post and the presenter of Al Jazeera English shows The Café and Head to Head, Mishal Husain, a British news presenter for the BBC, currently appearing on BBC World News and BBC Weekend News, Rageh Omaar, special correspondent with ITV and formerly Senior Foreign Correspondent with the BBC and a reporter/presenter for Al Jazeera English, and Faisal Islam, economics editor and correspondent for Channel 4 News.
There are several Islamic television channels operating in the UK, including British Muslim TV, Muslim Television Ahmadiyya International (MTA International), Ummah Channel, Ahlebait TV, and Fadak.
According to one survey from 2006, around 81% of Muslims think of themselves as Muslim first. Muslims living in Muslim-majority countries also tend to think of themselves as Muslim first rather than identifying with nation states (for example 87% of Pakistanis identify themselves as Muslim first rather than Pakistani). However around 83% of Muslims are proud to be a British citizen, compared to 79% of the general public, 77% of Muslims strongly identify with Britain while only 50% of the wider population do, 86.4% of Muslims feel they belong in Britain, slightly more than the 85.9% of Christians, 82% of Muslims want to live in diverse and mixed neighbourhoods compared to 63% of non-Muslim Britons. In polls taken across Europe 2006, British Muslims hold the most negative view of westerners out of all Muslims in Europe, whilst overall in Britain 63% of British hold the most favourable view of Muslims out of all the European countries (down from 67% the year before).
On religious issues a poll reported that 36% of 16- to 24-year-olds believe if a Muslim converts to another religion they should be punished by death, compared to 19% of 55+ year old Muslims. A poll reported that 59% of Muslims would prefer to live under British law, compared to 28% who would prefer to live under sharia law. 61% of respondents agreed with the statement that homosexuality is wrong and should be illegal. This appeared to be borne out by a Gallup poll in 2009 of 500 British Muslims, none of whom believed that homosexuality was morally acceptable. Such polls suggest that British Muslims have strongly conservative views on issues relating to extra-marital and/or homosexual sexual acts compared with their European Muslim counterparts – who are markedly more liberal. However, a poll conducted by Demos in 2011 reported that a greater proportion of Muslims (47% – slightly higher than the 46.5% of Christians who agreed with the statement) than other religions agreed with the statement "I am proud of how Britain treats gay people", with less than 11% disagreeing. On 18 May 2013, just as the bill to legalize same-sex marriages was being prepared to pass into law, over 400 leading Muslims including head teachers and senior representatives of mosques across the country, published an open letter opposing the bill on the grounds that "Muslim parents will be robbed of their right to raise their children according to their beliefs, as homosexual relationships are taught as something normal to their primary-aged children". A recent 2016 poll has shown an increasing accepts of homosexuality from 61 to 52
A 2013 survey indicated that immigrants from Muslim countries were perceived as integrating less well into British society than immigrants from other countries were. Another poll revealed that 28% of British Muslims hoped that Britain would one day become an Islamic state, while 52% disagreed, and 20% did not venture an opinion either way.
Although sharia is not part of the British legal system, several British establishment figures have supported its use in areas of dispute resolution in Islamic communities. For example, in February 2008 Rowan Williams the Archbishop of Canterbury (the head of the Church of England) lectured at the Royal Courts of Justice on Islam and English Law. In this lecture he spoke of the possibility of using sharia in some circumstances.
[...] it might be possible to think in terms of [...] a scheme in which individuals retain the liberty to choose the jurisdiction under which they will seek to resolve certain carefully specified matters, so that 'power-holders are forced to compete for the loyalty of their shared constituents'
Several months later, Lord Phillips, then Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales supported the idea that sharia could be reasonably employed as a basis for "mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution", and explained that "It is not very radical to advocate embracing sharia law in the context of family disputes, for example, and our system already goes a long way towards accommodating the archbishop's suggestion."
In March 2014, The Law Society issued guidance on how to draft sharia-compliant wills for the network of sharia courts which been established to deal with disputes between Muslim families. The guidance was withdrawn later in 2014 following criticism by solicitors and by Chris Grayling, the Justice Secretary.
During recent years sharia councils have been used increasingly in the UK and there are claims some of them act unfairly to women including legitimizing forced marriages and issuing discriminatory divorces to women. There are claims that some women were victims of inequitable decisions. In 2106 the Home Secretary Theresa May said "There is only one rule of law in our country, which provides rights and security for every citizen." An independent review due to be completed in 2017 will investigate whether Sharia discriminates against women, also "whether, and to what extent, the application of Sharia law may be incompatible with the law in England and Wales".
In June 2017, Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the Labour Party, said that difficult conversations are needed, starting with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states that have funded and fuelled extremist ideology. Tom Brake, Liberal Democrat, foreign affairs spokesman has said that Saudi Arabia provides funding to hundreds of mosques in the UK, espousing a very hardline Wahhabist interpretation of Islam.
The British media has been criticised for propagating negative stereotypes of Muslims and fueling anti-Muslim prejudice. In 2006, British cabinet ministers were criticised for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a study commissioned by the Home Office on white and Asian-Muslim youths demonstrating otherwise: that Asian-Muslim youths "are in fact the most tolerant of all" and that white British youths "have far more intolerant attitudes," concluding that intolerance from the white British community was a greater "barrier to integration." Another survey by Gallup in 2009 also found that the Muslim community feels more patriotic about Britain than the general British population, while another survey found that Muslims assert that they support the role of Christianity in British life more so than Christians themselves. A survey by ICM Research found that 52% of the Muslims said they believe homosexuality should be illegal which contrasted with the non-Muslim public at 22%. In January 2010, the British Social Attitudes Survey found that the general British public "is far more likely to hold negative views of Muslims than of any other religious group," with "just one in four" feeling "positively about Islam," and a "majority of the country would be concerned if a mosque was built in their area, while only 15 per cent expressed similar qualms about the opening of a church." The "scapegoating" of Muslims by the media and politicians in the 21st century has been compared in the media to the rise of antisemitism in the early 20th century.
There has also been discrimination by orthodox Sunni Muslims against Ahmadiyya Muslims. In 2014, on the 125 anniversary of the establishment of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Community published an advertisement in the Luton on Sunday. Following a written complaint from Dr Fiaz Hussain, co-ordinator of the Preservation of Finality of Prophethood Forum (PFPF), stating that the Ahmadiyya community should not be called "Muslim" because it rejected some of the basic principles of Islam, the paper received a delegation of 'Community Leaders' and shortly afterwards printed an apology disassociating itself from the Ahmadiyya advertisement. Tell MAMA responded by identifying attempts to intimidate or discriminate against Ahmadiyya Muslims "as anti-Muslim in nature". The newspaper received a lot of criticism for this apology, to some oberservers it appeared that it had taken the stance of Islamic extremists.
There have been cases of threats, one alleged fatal attack, and non-fatal attacks on Muslims and on Muslim targets, including attacks on Muslim graves and mosques. In January 2010, a report from the University of Exeter's European Muslim Research Centre noted that the number of anti-Muslim hate crimes has increased, ranging from "death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling," for which the media and politicians have been blamed with fueling anti-Muslim hatred. However, Met Police figures showed an 8.5 per cent fall in anti-Muslim crimes between 2009 and 2012, with a spike in 2013 due to the murder of Lee Rigby.
The emergence of the English Defence League has resulted in demonstrations in English cities with large Muslim populations. The EDL is a far-right, anti-Muslim street protest movement which opposes what it considers to be a spread of Islamism, Sharia law and Islamic extremism in the United Kingdom. The EDL has been described by The Jewish Chronicle as Islamophobic. The group has faced confrontations with various groups, including supporters of Unite Against Fascism (UAF) and Anonymous.
- Shah Jahan Mosque, Woking - Britain's first mosque
- Fazl Mosque, London's first mosque
- Baitul Futuh Mosque, London - Britain's largest mosque
- Ghamkol Shariff Masjid, Birmingham
- Manchester Central Mosque, Manchester
- Madina Mosque (Sheffield), Sheffield
- Green Lane Masjid, Birmingham
- Markazi Mosque, Dewsbury
- Al-Rahma Mosque, Liverpool
- Jamea Masjid, Preston
- Birmingham Central Mosque
- East London Mosque, London
- Leeds Grand Mosque, Leeds
- Finsbury Park Mosque, London
- Abbey Mills Mosque, London
- Glasgow Central Mosque, Glasgow
- International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism
- Islam by country
- Islam in Birmingham
- Islam in England
- Islam in London
- Islam in Northern Ireland
- Islam in Scotland
- Islam in Wales
- Islamism in the United Kingdom
- List of British Muslims
- Muslims in Western Europe
- Religion in England
- The Office for National Statistics records "Muhammad" as the twelfth most popular name for baby boys in 2015. "Mohammed" was 29th, "Mohammad" 68th and "Muhammed" 121st. However, according to the ONS all variations are treated separately and ranked as they appear on their birth certificates. "This has been our longstanding approach and it is consistent with international practice."
- CT0341_2011 Census - Religion by ethnic group by main language - England and Wales ONS.
- "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 270Kb)" (xls). Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Scotland's Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland Table KS209SCa – Religion (UK harmonised)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Religion – Full Detail: QS218NI" (xls). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Muslims in UK top 3 million for first time... with over 50% born outside Britain: Number in country doubles in a decade as immigration and birth rates soar". Dailymail.co.uk. 2016-01-30. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "BBC News – Converting to Islam – the white Britons becoming Muslims". BBC News.
- 'UK Census: religion by age, ethnicity and country of birth' 16 May 2013, Ami Sedghi, The Guardian
- Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society' 30 January 2009, Richard Kerbaj, The Sunday Times
- UK Masjid Statistics Muslims In Britain (2010-08-18)
- Shaw, Alison (4 April 2011). "Review of Crime and Muslim Britain: Culture and the Politics of Criminology among British Pakistanis by Marta Bolognani". Journal of Islamic Studies. Oxford Journals. 22 (2): 288–291. doi:10.1093/jis/etr020. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Muslims in Britain: an Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.xvii + 318, ISBN 978-0-521-83006-5
- Brotton, Jerry (21 March 2016). "The First Muslims in England". BBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006). Counterflows to Colonialism. Orient Blackswan. pp. 111–9, 129–30, 140, 154–6, 160–8, 181. ISBN 81-7824-154-4.
- "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Sardais, Louise (August 2003). "The 'little mosque'". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute". Open University. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Dominic Casciani (29 November 2007) The battle over mosque reform BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Lustig, Robin; Bailey, Martin; de Bruxelles, Simon; Mather, Ian (19 February 1989). "War of the Word". The Observer. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Hindu, Muslim and Sikh populations". http://www.brin.ac.uk/figures. External link in
- "Datablog: UK Census: religion by age, ethnicity and country of birth". The Guardian. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (2010). Muslims in Britain. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780521536882., reported in Field, Clive. "How Many Muslims?". British Religion in Numbers. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England and Wales" (xls). United Kingdom Census 2011. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-25. paragraph 4.3
- Lizzie Dearden (2 September 2016). "Why Muhammad may be the most common baby boys’ name in England and Wales". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "The popularity of the name Muhammad/Mohammed/Mohammad". ONS Digital. 2 September2016. Check date values in:
- Eade, John (1996). "Nationalism, Community, and the Islamization of Space in London". In Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520204042. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
As one of the few mosques in Britain permitted to broadcast calls to prayer (azan), the mosque soon found itself at the center of a public debate about "noise pollution" when local non-Muslim residents began to protest.
- "Bangladeshi Diaspora in the UK: Some observations on socio-culturaldynamics, religious trends and transnational politics" (PDF). University of Surrey. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "bdirectory: Islamist politics among Bangladeshis in the UK". David Garbin – Cronem, University of Surrey. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- "Genetics, Religion and Identity: A Study of British Bangladeshis – 2004–2007" (PDF). School of Social Sciences – Cardiff University – funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
- 
- "Office for National Statistics (ONS) – ONS". statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 18 March 2007.
- "2001 Census Profiles: Bangladeshis in London" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2004.
- "Draft Constitution by Hizb ut-Tahrir". The Media office of Hizb-ut-Tahrir. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- "Compendium of Muslim texts – Volume 3, Book 48, Number 819". University of Southern California. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin Steven Simon, ISBN 0-8050-7941-6 – Page 55
- M. Jawed Iqbal; Mufti Ebrahim Desai (9 June 2007). "Inviting to Islam". Ask Imam. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- "East London Mosque and London Muslim Centre". East London Mosque. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- "Bangladeshis in east London: from secular politics to Islam". Delwar Hussain – openDemocracy: free thinking for the world. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2009. Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
- Dissanayake, Samanthi (2008-12-04). "British Somalis play politics from afar". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- Casciani, Dominic (2006-05-30). "Somalis' struggle in the UK". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- "Born abroad: Somalia". BBC News. 2005-09-07. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- http://www.liverpoolpct.nhs.uk/Library/Impact/IA0073.doc[permanent dead link]
- "Integration of the Somali Community into Europe". Federation of Adult Education Associations. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- Lytra & Baraç 2009, 60
- Travis, Alan (1 August 2011). "UK immigration analysis needed on Turkish legal migration, say MPs". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
- Hugh Poulton, The Balkans: Minorities and States in Conflict, Minority Rights Group Publications, London 2011
- Efraim Inbar; Hillel Frisch (January 2008). "Radical Islam and International Security: Challenges and Responses". ISBN 9780415444606. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Change Institute (April 2009). "The Nigerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities" (PDF). Communities and Local Government. pp. 23–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Nigeria Muslim Forum – Nigeria Muslim Forum". nmfuk.org.
- "Ramadan ding-dong: Foreign conflicts stoke sectarian squabbles among British Muslims". The Economist. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- UK Masjid Statistics Muslims In Britain (2010-08-18). Mehmood Naqshbandi. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "Bagehot: Multicultural and aggrieved". The Economist. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Ahmadiyya Muslim Mosques Around The World - A Pictorical Presentation. Ahmadiyya Muslim Community; Khilafat Centenary Edition. 2008. p. 253. ISBN 978-1882494514.
- "Love for All, Hatred For None- An official website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community UK". www.loveforallhatredfornone.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
- Rosser-Owen, David (30 April 2010). "History". Association of British Muslims. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- John Carvel (12 October 2004). "Census shows Muslims' plight". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Collins, Nick (14 May 2006). "Christian and atheist children least likely to go to university". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 22 Jul 2011.
- Fran Abrams. "Islamic schools flourish to meet demand". the Guardian.
- "Research briefings" (PDF). UK Parliament.[dead link]
- "Muslims and Political Participation in Britain: Conference 2012". ed.ac.uk. 24 July 2012.
- "Exclusive: UK: Muslim MPs prominent in Labour resurgence". The Muslim News. Harrow, UK. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- David Sapsted. "Most UK Muslims will vote Labour". thenational.ae.
- Montgomerie, Tim (4 September 2012). "Junior Ministerial reshuffle rolling blog". ConservativeHome. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- Watt, Nicholas (31 January 2013). "Tory party: the rising stars and those fading fast". The Guardian. London.
- BBC News (8 April 2010). "Respect Party leader Salma Yaqoob". BBC. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "Baroness Warsi quits as Foreign Office minister over Gaza". BBC. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Prasad, Raekha (18 June 2002). "Tough Justice". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Dabrowska, Karen (16 November 1989). "British Islamic Party spreads its wings". New Straits Times. Malaysia. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Mehdi Hasan". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Mehdi Hasan – Profile". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Rageh Omaar". itv.com. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Faisal Islam". Channel4.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- "MTA International".
- "About Islam Channel". Islam Channel website. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Baddhan, Lakhvinder, ed. (12 August 2009). "Ummah Channel replaces 9X on Sky EPG". BizAsia.co.uk. Biz Asia. Archived from the original on 14 December 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Muslims in Europe: Economic Worries Top Concerns About Religious and Cultural Identity" (PDF). http://pewglobal.org. External link in
- "Muslims are well-integrated in Britain – but no one seems to believe it; Leon Moosavi | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Julian Borger. "Poll shows Muslims in Britain are the most anti-western in Europe". the Guardian.
- "radical islam" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Wilson, Graeme (2007-01-29). "Young, British Muslims 'getting more radical'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Stephen Bates and agencies (2007-01-29). "More young Muslims back sharia, says poll; UK news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Butt, Riazat (7 May 2009). "Muslims in Britain have zero tolerance of homosexuality, says poll". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Hundal, Sunny (27 June 2011). "UK Muslims prouder of gay rights than others". Liberal Conspiracy. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Poll says Muslims are ‘proud’ of Britain's gay rights". http://www.pinknews.co.uk. External link in
- "Britons more proud of the National Trust than the Royal Family". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013.
- "Muslim leaders stand against gay marriage". The Daily Telegraph. London. 18 May 2013.
- Rogers, Joel (4 June 2013). "British attitudes to integration". YouGov. London.
- "Attitudes to Living in Britain" (PDF). GfK NOP Social Research. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- Williams, Rowan (7 February 2008). "Civil and Religious Law in England: a religious perspective". Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Sharia law 'could have UK role'". BBC News. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
- "Islamic law is adopted by British legal chiefs". Telegraph.co.uk. 22 March 2014.
- Bowcott, Owen (24 November 2014). "Law Society withdraws guidance on sharia wills". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Sharia law review to focus on fairness to UK women - Theresa May
- "London Bridge attack: Jeremy Corbyn says Britain needs to have 'difficult' talks with Saudi Arabia". 5 June 2017.
- "Jeremy Corbyn calls for 'difficult conversations' with Saudi Arabia and Gulf states over extremism funding". 5 June 2017.
- "'Sensitive' UK terror funding inquiry may never be published". 1 June 2017.
- Richardson, John E. (2004). (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet newspapers. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-2699-7.
- Vikram Dood (21 October 2006). "White pupils less tolerant, survey shows". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Muslim students 'more tolerant'". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Ian Dunt (7 May 2009). "Muslims more patriotic than Brits". Politics. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Poll: European Muslims more patriotic than average populace". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. May 7, 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Nick Allen (24 February 2009). "79 per cent of Muslims say Christianity should have strong role in Britain". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Britain divided by Islam, survey finds". The Daily Telegraph. London. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Henry, Robin (12 September 2009). "Fascism fears: John Denham speaks out over clashes". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Asif Arif (8 April 2014). "Lettre ouverte aux éditeurs du "Luton on Sunday"". Huffington Post (France). Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "UK: 'Luton on Sunday' newspaper bows to Luton Taliban". Ahmadiyya Times. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "The Luton on Sunday ‘Shuffle’ and Impacts on anti-Muslim hate". Tell Mama. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Muslims threatened after bombings BBC News 12 July 2005
- Vikram Dood (13 July 2005). "Islamophobia blamed for attack". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Muslim graves damaged in cemetery BBC News, 2 November 2006
- "Muslim teenager stabbed during attack on UK mosque". Arabic News. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Vikram Dood (28 January 2010). "Media and politicians 'fuel rise in hate crimes against Muslims'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Jonathan Githens-Mazer; Robert Lambert (28 January 2010). "Muslims in the UK: beyond the hype". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Jonathan Githens-Mazer; Robert Lambert. "Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: a London Case Study" (PDF). University of Exeter. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
- Gilligan, Andrew (9 June 2013). "Muslim hate monitor to lose backing". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Committee, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Communities and Local Government; (Na), Not Available (2010-03-30). Preventing violent extremism: sixth report of session 2009–10. ISBN 9780215545466. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Allen, Chris (2010). "Fear and Loathing: the Political Discourse in Relation to Muslims and Islam in the British Contemporary Setting" (PDF). Politics and Religion. 4: 221–236. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Garland, Jon; Treadwell, James (2010). "'No Surrender to the Taliban': Football Hooliganism, Islamophobia and the Rise of the English Defence League" (PDF). Papers from the British Criminology Conference. 10: 19–35. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Telegraph.co.uk". London: Telegraph.co.uk. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Helen Carter (21 October 2010). "Guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Preventing violent extremism: sixth report of session 2009–10. Google. 2010-03-30. ISBN 9780215545466. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "English Defence League says Pastor Terry Jones will not speak at rally". The Daily Telegraph. London. 14 December 2010.
- Helen Carter (21 October 2010). "Inquiry: Police, anti-fascist protester". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- O'Brien, Paraic (12 October 2009). "Under the skin of English Defence League". BBC Newsnight. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- Maryam Namazie (5 July 2010). "Sharia, Law, religious courts". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Bracchi, Paul; Stewart, Tim (13 December 2010). "Special Investigation: English Defence League and the hooligans spreading hate on the High Street". Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
The aim of the EDL – to counter what it perceives as the Islamification of Britain – is just a cover
- "English Defence League's Bradford march banned by Theresa May". Metro. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
The right-wing campaign group, which claims to be taking a stand against what it sees as the rise of radical Islam in England, had planned to march through the streets of Bradford on 28 August.
- "Violence erupts at far-right march in Birmingham". Reuters. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
A little-known nationalist group calling itself the English Defence League met in the town centre to protest against what they see as Islamic militancy in Britain
- Britain's fascists in a right state. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- Gunning (2010): p 151–152
- Morey, Peter; Yaqin, Amina. (2011). Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation After 9/11. Harvard University Press. p. 215.
- Anonymous-linked groups publish EDL supporters' personal information. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Koenig, Matthias. "Incorporating Muslim migrants in Western nation states—a comparison of the United Kingdom, France, and Germany." in Marian Burchardt & Ines Michalowski, eds., After Integration (Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2015) pp. 43–58.
- Lewicki, Aleksandra, and Therese O’Toole. "Acts and practices of citizenship: Muslim women’s activism in the UK. "Ethnic and Racial Studies 40#1 (2017): 152-171.
- Lewicki, Aleksandra. Social Justice Through Citizenship?: The Politics of Muslim Integration in Germany and Great Britain (Springer, 2014).
- Lewis, Valerie A., and Ridhi Kashyap. "Piety in a Secular Society: Migration, Religiosity, and Islam in Britain." International Migration 51#3 (2013): 57-66.
- Model, Suzanne, and Lang Lin. "The cost of not being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada." International Migration Review 36#4 (2002): 1061-1092.
- Peach, Ceri, and Richard Gale. "Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England." Geographical Review 93#4 (2003): 469-490.