Ningxiang

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Ningxiang
宁乡市
County-level city
Ningxiang is located in Hunan
Ningxiang
Ningxiang
Location in Hunan
Coordinates: 28°10′58″N 113°20′26″E / 28.1827°N 113.3405°E / 28.1827; 113.3405Coordinates: 28°10′58″N 113°20′26″E / 28.1827°N 113.3405°E / 28.1827; 113.3405
Country  China
Province Hunan
Prefecture-level city Changsha
Established 627 (TangZhenguan)
Seat Yutan
Government
 • Communist Party Secretary Tan Xiaoping (谭小平)[2]
 • Chairman of Ningxiang People's Congress He Yinghui (贺应辉)[3]
 • Mayor Zhou Hui (周辉)[4]
 • Chairman of Ningxiang of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Yu Yajun (喻亚军)[5]
Area
 • County-level city 2,906 km2 (1,122 sq mi)
Population (August 2012)
 • County-level city 1,368,117[1]
 • Urban 300,000
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Website http://www.nxgov.com/zfmh/index.html

Ningxiang (simplified Chinese: 宁乡市; traditional Chinese: 寧鄉市; pinyin: Níngxiāng Shì; literally: "peaceful home") is a county-level city and the 2nd most populous county-level division in the Province of Hunan, China; it is under the administration of Changsha Prefecture-level City. the city is bordered to the north by Heshan District of Yiyang and Taojiang County, to the west by Anhua County and Lianyuan City, to the south by Louxing District of Loudi, Xiangxiang City, Shaoshan City and Yuhu District of Xiangtan,to the east by Yuelu and Wangcheng Districts. Located in the central east of Hunan Province, Ningxiang covers 2,906 km2 (1,122 sq mi)[8] with a registered population of 1,393,528 and a resident population of 1,218,400 (as of 2014).[8] The city has 4 subdistricts, 21 towns and 4 townships under its jurisdiction, the county seat is Yutan Subdistrict (玉潭街道).[9]

The city is famous for its tourism as the home of attractions like He Shuheng's Former Residence, Xie Juezai's Former Residence, Liu Shaoqi's Former Residence, Baiyun Temple, Miyin Temple, and Puji Temple.

Archeology[edit]

Ningxiang was a site of spectacular Shang archaeological finds[10]

In 2004, a Chinese team excavated ruins from the Western Zhou period (11th century-771BC) at Tanheli. The findings were of a city site that included two large yellow earth artificial building sites and two even larger sites that may have been palace dwellings. Remnants of moats were found both inside and outside the city. In the highlands outside the city were excavated seven small tombs for nobles and lords which contained many bronze culture implements as well as those made of jade. The site was listed in Beijing as one of the top ten archeological discoveries of 2004.[11]

Bronze square ding (cauldron) with human faces 02.jpg Dahe Renmianwen square ding: a ding vessel decorated with human face. It is a bronze vessel of the later Shang Dynasty and unearthed at Zhaizishan, Huangcai Town, Ningxiang County in 1959. It is displayed at the Hunan Provincial Museum.
四羊方尊.jpg Siyangfangzun or Four-goat Square Zun: a zun vessel of the later Shang Dynasty and Unearthed at Zhuanerlun hillside (转耳仑山腰), Huangcai town, Ningxiang County. Discovered by Jiang Jingsu (姜景舒) and his other two brothers in April 1938. It is displayed at the National Museum of China.

History[edit]

Human habitation in Ningxiang dates back to ancient times. The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed are the Four-goat Square Zun and Dahe Renmianwen Square Ding from Tanheli site at Huangcai Town, dating back to the late Shang dynasty (11th-10th century BC). In the Warring States (475-221 BC) period, Ningxiang was under the jurisdiction of Qianzhongjun (黔中郡) of Chu State (1115-223 BC).[12]

After conquering all the states, Emperor Qin Shi Huang implemented the system of prefectures and counties in 221 BC. Ningxiang belonged to Changshajun (长沙郡).[12]

In the Han dynasty (202 BC-220 AD), Ningxiang was under the jurisdiction of Yiyang County and Xiangyin County.[12]

In the Three Kingdoms period (220-280), king of Wu State (222-280), Sun Quan, seized Jingzhou, Ningxiang came under the jurisdiction of Wu State. In 257, the imperial court set up the Xinkang County, and Changqiao (now Hengshi) became the seat of the county administration.[12]

In the Tang dynasty (618-907), the imperial court established a granary in today's Laoliangcang Town. Buddhism was introduced into Ningxiang some time in the 9th century. According to Wu Deng Hui Yuan (《五灯会元》), in 806, the prime minister Pei Xiu submitted a written statement to the imperial court, which was approved to found the Miyin Temple at the foot of Mount Wei. His son, Pei Wende (裴文德), a former zhuangyuan, received ordination as a monk with the Dharma name of "Jinshan Fahai" (金山法海). The character of Fahai in the Legend of the White Snake is based on him. Liu Dui, the first jinshi in the history of Ningxiang, also known as "jinshi of Ningxiang for the first time" (破天荒进士).[12]

In the 2nd year of Tiancheng Period (927) of the Later Tang dynasty (923-936), the king of Chu, Ma Yin, founded the Chu Kingdom (927-963). He set up three counties of Yiyang, Changsha and Xiangxiang in Ningxiang area. Xinkangyi (新康驿) was renamed Yutan Town, when it has a pond like a jade.[12]

In the Song dynasty (960-1279), Yi Fu, the first Ningxiang people won the title of "wenzhuangyuan" 文状元, and he was appointed as the title of "Founding Man of Ningxiang" (宁乡开国男).[12]

In the early Yuan dynasty (1271-1368), Ningxiang came under the jurisdiction of Tanzhou (潭州), and then under the jurisdiction of Tanzhoulu (潭州路).[12]

In June of the 5th year of Hongwu Period (1372) of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Tanzhou was renamed as Changshafu (长沙府), and Ningxiang under its jurisdiction.[12]

In the 4th year of Shunzhi Period (1647) of the Qing dynasty (1944-1911), Gao Shijun (高士浚) led his army to conquer Changsha and Ningxiang was incorporated into the territory of Qing Empire. Changshafu was set up, affiliated to Hu-Guang province and possessed 12 counties, including Ningxiang. In the late Qing dynasty, Zhu Yidian (朱衣点) joined the Taiping Army in Zhushi Bridge with his troops, he had fought many battles in Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Fujian, and was awarded the title of "Xiaotian Yiwang" (孝天义王) and "Fuchao Tianjun" (扶朝天军).[12]

In 1922, Ningxiang belonged to Hunan province.[12]

On June 18, 1944, Changsha was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army. The Imperial Japanese Army attacked Ningxiang from Yiyang and Qiaokou (乔口), a battalion of 58th Division of 74th Army of the Chinese Nationalist Army held the Wei River bank, they blazed away at the enemy until the supplies were exhausted. They fought hand to hand with the enemy, but they were practically wiped out in the battle, known as the "Battle of Hill of Du Family" (血战杜家山).[12]

On February 9, 1949, Jiang Yaxun (姜亚勋) and Li Shiqiu (李石秋) led the Huang-Tang Uprising (黄唐起义) in both towns of Huangcai and Tangshi. They published the Letter to the People of Central Hunan (《告湘中人民书》) and the Open Letter to Cheng Qian (《致程潜的公开信》). On August 4, Ningxiang was liberated by the 436th Regiment of 146th Division of 49th Army of the PLA 4th Field Army, which was led by Cui Rongtai (崔荣泰) and Wang Qiao (王侨). On August 27, the People's Government of Ningxiang County was set up.[12]

After the establishment of the Communist State in October 1949, Ningxiang was under the jurisdiction of Yiyang Zhuanqu (益阳专区). From 1952 to November 1962, Ningxiang belonged to Xiangtan Zhuanqu (湘潭专区), and then belonged to Yiyang Zhuanqu till June 1983, while the county was under jurisdiction of Changsha.[12]

Administrative division[edit]

According to the result on adjustment of township-level administrative divisions of Ningxiang county on November 19, 2015,[9] The divisions of Ningxiang County, according to the result on adjustment of township-level administrative divisions of Ningxiang county on November 19, 2015:[13] Fengmuqiao township and Xieleqiao town merged to Huitang town, Nantianping township merged to Batang town, Zhuliangqiao township merged to Shuangjiangkou town, Ningxiang county has 4 townships, 21 towns and 4 subdistricts under its jurisdiction.

Buildings in the city proper on the Wei River bank.
Buildings in the city proper of Ningxiang County.
Name Chinese character Population (2005) Area (Km2) Note
Qingshanqiao 青山桥镇 49,000 71.8
Liushahe 流沙河镇 69,000 140.57
Yutan Subdistrict 玉潭街道 200,000 20
Daolin 道林镇 56,000 135
Huaminglou 花明楼镇 51,000 112.4
Donghutang 东湖塘镇 47,000 138
Xiaduopu 夏铎铺镇 37,000 103.4
Xieleqiao 偕乐桥镇 21,000 72.5
Shuangfupu 双凫铺镇 47,000 62.9
Meitanba 煤炭坝镇 53,000 73.4
Batang 坝塘镇 41,000 107
Huitang 灰汤镇 23,000 43
Shuangjiangkou 双江口镇 38,000 89.5
Laoliangcang 老粮仓镇 63,000 121.8
Xiangzikou 巷子口镇 42,000 105.8
Longtian 龙田镇 21,000 72.5
Hengshi 横市镇 50,000 123
Huilongpu 回龙铺镇 37,000 71.8
Huangcai 黄材镇 62,000 220
Jinzhou 金洲镇 31,000 62.1
Dachengqiao 大成桥乡 43,000 106.2
Zhuliangqiao Township 朱良桥乡 33,000 82.72
Jinghuapu Township 菁华铺乡 32,000 65.8
Nantianping Township 南田坪乡 27,000 64
Zifu 资福镇 38,000 87.4
Fengmuqiao Township 枫木桥乡 38,000 72.6
Yujia'ao Township 喻家坳乡 39,000 96.85
Shatian Township 沙田乡 34,000 74.22
Baimaqiao Subdistrict 白马桥街道 50,000 22.8
Lijingpu Subdistrict 历经铺街道 34,000 35
Chengjiao Subdistrict 城郊街道 50,000 22.8
Weishan Township 沩山乡 14,000 42.8

Geography[edit]

Ningxiang County is located in the middle of Hunan province. The county has a total area of 2,903.52 square kilometres (1,121.06 sq mi). The county is bordered by Wangcheng District, to the east, Xiangtan County, to the Southeast, Shaoshan, Xiangxiang, Lianyuan, and Loudi, to the south, Anhua County, to the west, Taojiang County and Yiyang, to the North.

Climate[edit]

Ningxiang County is in the subtropical monsoon climate zone and exhibits four distinct seasons. Spring and fall are warm, while winter is chilly with cold winds. Winter temperatures average around 5 °C (41 °F). Summers are very hot and dry with a July daily average of 35 °C (95 °F).

Rivers[edit]

The Wei River flows through Ningxiang County and has seven major tributaries: Huangjuan River, Duan River, Mei River, Tiechong River, Yutang River, Chu River and Wu River.

The Jin River flows through Ningxiang County to Xiangtan, is one of the largest tributaries of the Xiang River.

Lakes and reservoirs[edit]

The Huangcai Reservoir, also known as "Qingyang Lake", is a large reservoir located in the northwestern part of Ningxiang County. It is the largest body of water in Ningxiang County and the largest reservoir in Ningxiang County.

The Tianping Reservoir, also known as "Qingshan Lake", is a large reservoir located in the western part of Ningxiang County. It is the second largest body of water in Ningxiang County and the second largest reservoir in Ningxiang County.

Mountains[edit]

The highest natural elevation in Ningxiang County is 1071m at Wazizhai (瓦子寨).

Economy[edit]

Ningxiang is one of the most developed counties in Hunan, it ranked the 62th in the Top100 of counties and county-level ciities of China by comprehensive strength in 2016.[14] It is one of the best developed manufacturing counties and county-level cities in the province, the manufacturing industry is its economic pillar. Ningxiang's economic engines are food and beverage, Advanced equipment manufacturing, new materials, modern services industry, machinery manufacture and clothing. For example, of 2015, the gross domestic product of Ningxiang County was CN¥100.22 billion (US$16.09 billion), Of this total, the value added of the manufacturing industry was CN¥61.31 billion (US$9.84 billion), shares 61.18 percentage of its GDP.[15]

Ningxiang County has a variety of industries, such as the Wangbuliao Clothing, Sundance Clothing, Tsingtao Brewery, Jiajia Food (zh), and Sany. The county's manufacturering products include paper, technological equipment, automobiles, food, clothing and other goods. The service sector of the county's economy includes things like banking, health care, construction, communications, education, tourism and government.

Tourism comprises a large part of Ningxiang County's economy, with 20 million visitors spending ¥2 billion in 2014.

Development zone[edit]

The Ningxiang Economic and Technological Development Zone (NETZ) consists of parts of Chengjiao, Shuangjiangkou and Jinghuapu of Ningxiang County. It was created on 10 January, 1998 and upgraded to an ETZ at state level On 11 November, 2010. The main industries in the zone consists of Food and Drink, Advanced Material, advanced equipment manufacturing, health product and cosmetics. As of 2016, its builtup area covers 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi), the total gross output of scale-sized industries hits 97.07 billion yuan (US$ 14.61 billion).[16]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As of 2012, the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China estimates the county's population now to be 1,368,117.

Language[edit]

Mandarin is the official language. The local people speak both Changsha dialect and Ningxiang dialect (zh).

Religion[edit]

The county government supports all religious. As of 2015, the majority of Ningxiang people are atheists. Most of Ningxiang people are worship Chinese folk religion. Only 3% of Ningxiang people belong to Buddhists, 1% are Taoists, 1% are Roman Catholics and Protestants.

Education[edit]

Jianfan Library of First High School of Ningxiang.

Ningxiang County has its own laws regulating education. The county government require young people to attend school. The age limits vary: six to fifteen. Every child in the county is guaranteed up to 9 years of education (Chinese: 九年义务教育). Filling classroom from kindergarten to the twelfth grade, they attend classes for an average of five hours a day, five days a week, until the beginning of the following summer.

Ningxiang County's students pass through several levels of schooling, and thus, several curricula, on their way to a high school diploma. They attend:

  • Elementary School. The Elementary School usually means grade 1 through 6. And grades 7, 8, and 9 make up what is called an "Elementary Middle School". Ningxiang County has more than 200 public schools and more than 100 public middle schools. Almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: Chinese language (it includes reading, grammar, composition, and literature), English language, mathematics, science, history, geography, biology, ideological and political, computer, art, music, and physical education.
  • Secondary School. The Secondary School generally means grade 10-12. These grades are popularly called "High School". Secondary schools offer these subjects: Chinese language, English language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, political, computer, and physical education. Ningxiang County has 16 public high schools.

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Luzan Railway, from Luoyang City, Henan Province to Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, through Ningxiang County.

Culture[edit]

Huaguxi is the most influence local theater.

Tourism[edit]

Ningxiang County's most visited Buddhism temple is Miyin Temple, which was built in Tang dynasty in Weishan Township, the county is also known for Puji Temple and Shangliu Temple in Qingshanqiao Town, and Baiyun Temple in Huilong Mountain.

Huitang Hot Spring is a popular attraction.

Liu Shaoqi's Former Residence, Xue Juezai's Former Residence and He Shuheng's Former Residence are well known tourist spot.

Notable people[edit]

Ningxiang County is the birthplace of:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ 宁乡县第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报. Ningxiang Government (in Chinese). 2012-08-30. 
  2. ^ 微长沙快讯:望城区委书记谭小平拟任宁乡县委书记. Xingchen Online (in Chinese). Changsha. 2015-03-31. 
  3. ^ 宁乡县十六届人大四次会议开幕. Red.net. Changsha. 2015-01-14. 
  4. ^ 宁乡县周辉. Red.net (in Chinese). Changsha. 2015. 
  5. ^ 政协宁乡县第十一届委员会主席、副主席、秘书长简历. Ningxiangdaily (in Chinese). 2012-11-23. 
  6. ^ 最新县及县以上行政区划代码(截止2013年8月31日) (in Chinese). 2014-01-17. 
  7. ^ 宁乡县被正式命名为“国家卫生县城”. Red.net (in Chinese). Changsha. 2014-01-04. 
  8. ^ a b Changsha Yearly Book 2015 (长沙统计年鉴2015)
  9. ^ a b According to the result on adjustment of township-level administrative divisions of Liuyang city on November 19, 2015: changshamca.gov (2015-11-27): 《长沙市人民政府关于调整望城区部分乡镇区划的通知》, rednet (2015-11-19): 《湖南省民政厅关于同意长沙市望城区乡镇区划调整方案的批复》(湘民行发〔2015〕39号), also see: rednet (2015-12-03): 《长沙正式对有关区县市下发通知调整乡镇行政区划》
  10. ^ Cambridge History of Ancient China, 1999:209
  11. ^ "Ruins from the Western Zhou Period, Tanheli, Ningxiang County, Hunan Province". www.china.org. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Huang Haichao; Jiang Hongzhao (2002). 《宁乡史地》 [History and geography of Ningxiang County] (in Chinese). Hainan: Nanfang Publishing House. ISBN 7-80660-538-X. 
  13. ^ rednet (2015-12-04): 《湖南省民政厅关于同意宁乡县乡镇区划调整方案的批复》(湘民行发〔2015〕40号) also see: rednet (2015-12-03): 《长沙昨日下发通知调整乡镇行政区划 合并乡镇20个》
  14. ^ xinhuanet (7-Nov-16): 2016年全国综合实力百强县 or people.com (7-Nov-16)
  15. ^ the economy of Ningxiang County in 2015: according to 宁乡县2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报
  16. ^ About Ningxiang ETZ - 宁乡经济技术开发区: nxdz.gov.cn

External links[edit]