Passaic, New Jersey
Passaic, New Jersey
|City of Passaic|
|Coordinates: 40°51′27″N 74°07′45″W / 40.857552°N 74.129089°WCoordinates: 40°51′27″N 74°07′45″W / 40.857552°N 74.129089°W|
|Incorporated||April 2, 1873|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (mayor-council)|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Hector C. Lora (term ends June 30, 2025)|
|• Administrator||Rick Fernandez|
|• Municipal clerk||Weatherly Frias (acting)|
|• Total||3.24 sq mi (8.39 km2)|
|• Land||3.13 sq mi (8.11 km2)|
|• Water||0.11 sq mi (0.28 km2) 3.33%|
|• Rank||326th of 565 in state|
11th of 16 in county
|Elevation||98 ft (30 m)|
|• Rank||524th in country (as of 2019)|
16th of 565 in state
3rd of 16 in county
|• Density||22,514.2/sq mi (8,692.8/km2)|
|• Rank||7th of 565 in state|
1st of 16 in county
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (Eastern (EDT))|
|GNIS feature ID||0885342|
Passaic (/pəˈseɪ.ɪk/ pə-SAY-ik or locally /pəˈseɪk/ pə-SAYK) is a city in Passaic County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, the city was the state's 16th-most-populous municipality, with a population of 70,537, an increase of 756 (+1.1%) from the 2010 census count of 69,781, which in turn reflected increase of 1,920 residents (+2.8%) from the 2000 census population of 67,861. The Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that the city's population was 69,633 in 2021, ranking the city the 541st-most-populous in the country. Among cities with more than 50,000 people, Passaic was the fifth-most-densely-populated municipality in the United States, with more than 22,000 people per square mile.
Located north of Newark on the Passaic River, it was first settled in 1678 by Dutch traders, as Acquackanonk Township. The city and river get their name from the Lenape word "pahsayèk" which has been variously attributed to mean "valley" or "place where the land splits."
The city originated from a Dutch settlement on the Passaic River established in 1679 which was called Acquackanonk. Industrial growth began in the 19th century, as Passaic became a textile and metalworking center.
A commercial center formed around a wharf at the foot of present-day Main Avenue. This came to be commonly known as Acquackanonk Landing, and the settlement that grew around it became known as the Village of Acquackanonk Landing or simply Acquackanonk Landing Settlement. In 1854 Alfred Speer (later owner of the city's first newspaper and public hall) and Judge Henry Simmons were the principals in a political battle over the naming of village. Simmons wished to keep the old name while Speer wanted to simplify it to Passaic Village. Speer was losing the battle however he convinced the U.S. Postmaster General to adopt the name, and hung a Passaic sign at the local railroad depot. The de facto name change was effective.
Passaic was formed as an unincorporated village within Acquackanonk Township (now Clifton) on March 10, 1869. It was incorporated as an independent village on March 21, 1871. Passaic was chartered as a city on April 2, 1873.
The Okonite company owned an industrial site here from 1878 to 1993. It was the company's headquarters and primary manufacturing plant for most of the company's history. Early uses of the company's insulated wires include some of the earliest telegraph cables, and the wiring for Thomas Edison's first generating plant, Pearl Street Station in Lower Manhattan. The property was then turned into a furniture factory, whose owners have been attempting to redevelop the property into an upscale mall since 2015.
The 1926 Passaic Textile Strike led by union organizer Albert Weisbord saw 36,000 mill workers leave their jobs to oppose wage cuts demanded by the textile industry. The workers successfully fought to keep their wages unchanged but did not receive recognition of their union by the mill owners.
Passaic has been called "The Birthplace of Television". In 1931, experimental television station W2XCD began transmitting from DeForest Radio Corporation in Passaic. It has been called the first television station to transmit to the home, and was the first such station to broadcast a feature film. Allen B. DuMont, formerly DeForest's chief engineer, opened pioneering TV manufacturer DuMont Laboratories in Passaic in 1937, and started the DuMont Television Network, the world's first commercial television network, in 1946.
In 1992, the voters of Passaic Township in Morris County voted to change the name of their municipality to Long Hill Township, to avoid confusion between the City of Passaic and the largely rural community 22 miles (35 km) away, as well as association with the more urban city.
Passaic is served by two regional newspapers, The Record and Herald News which are both owned by the Gannett company and its predecessor North Jersey Media Group.
The city previously had many of its own newspaper companies, among them Speer's The Passaic Item (1870–1904), the Passaic City Herald (1872–1899), the Passaic Daily Times (1882–1887), the Passaic City Record (1890–1907), the Passaic Daily News (1891–1929), the Passaic Daily Herald (1899–1929), and the Passaic Herald News (1932–1987). The Passaic Herald News went through several mergers with other Passaic County newspapers to become the current Herald News.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.24 square miles (8.39 km2), including 3.13 square miles (8.11 km2) of land and 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) of water (3.33%).
Passaic's only land border is with neighboring Clifton, which borders Passaic to the north, south, and west. The Passaic River forms the eastern border of Passaic. Four additional neighboring municipalities in Bergen County immediately across the river from Passaic are East Rutherford, Garfield, Rutherford, and Wallington.
Passaic and Wallington are connected via the Gregory Avenue, Market Street, and Eighth Street bridges. The city connects with Garfield at the Monroe Street Bridge and Passaic Street Bridge. The connection with Rutherford is via the Union Avenue Bridge, which is located on an extension off of the northbound lanes of Route 21. One cannot cross from Passaic into East Rutherford by vehicle directly, however, as there is no bridge connecting the two municipalities. Drivers wanting to cross from Passaic to East Rutherford must use either the Gregory Avenue Bridge which is located near Wallington's border with East Rutherford, or the Union Avenue Bridge, where East Rutherford can be accessed via surface streets.
Passaic is located 10 miles (16 km) from New York City, and 12 miles (19 km) from Newark Airport.
Passaic has several business districts: Main Avenue begins in Passaic Park and follows the curve of the river to downtown. Broadway runs east–west through the center of the city, ending at Main Avenue in downtown. Main Avenue has many shops, restaurants, and businesses reflecting the city's Latino and Eastern European populations.
The city is home to several architecturally notable churches, including St. John's Lutheran Church, First Presbyterian of Passaic, and St. John's Episcopal Church.
Many residents of Southwest Passaic, also known as Passaic Park, are part of Orthodox Jewish communities. With over 1,300 families estimated at a total population of 15,000, Passaic is one of the state's fastest-growing Orthodox communities. It is home to over 20 yeshivas and other institutions as well as many kosher food and shopping establishments.
The Passaic Park section is noted for its large park and large homes of various architectural styles, especially Queen Anne and Tudor. Several condominium and cooperative apartment complexes are also located here including:
- Carlton Tower, a condominium of 21 stories, the city's tallest structure
- The Towers, rental across the street from Carlton Towers
- Barry Gardens, co-operative garden apartments next door to The Towers
- Presidential Towers, condominium
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Passaic has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
|Population sources: 1880–1920|
1880–1890 1880–1900 1890–1910
1910 1880–1930 1930–1990
2000 2010 2020
Among the speakers of Polish in Passaic are many Gorals.
The 2010 United States census counted 69,781 people, 19,411 households, and 14,597 families in the city. The population density was 22,179.6 per square mile (8,563.6/km2). There were 20,432 housing units at an average density of 6,494.2 per square mile (2,507.4/km2). The racial makeup was 45.06% (31,440) White, 10.64% (7,425) Black or African American, 1.07% (745) Native American, 4.36% (3,040) Asian, 0.04% (27) Pacific Islander, 33.37% (23,284) from other races, and 5.47% (3,820) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 71.02% (49,557) of the population. The city's Hispanic population represented the fourth-highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey as of the 2010 Census.
Of the 19,411 households, 42.8% had children under the age of 18; 41.7% were married couples living together; 23.7% had a female householder with no husband present and 24.8% were non-families. Of all households, 19.5% were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 4.02.
31.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.2 years. For every 100 females, the population had 100.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 99.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $31,135 (with a margin of error of +/− $1,280) and the median family income was $34,934 (+/− $2,987). Males had a median income of $30,299 (+/− $1,883) versus $25,406 (+/− $2,456) for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,424 (+/− $581). About 25.0% of families and 27.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.9% of those under age 18 and 25.5% of those age 65 or over.
Same-sex couples headed 107 households in 2010, a decline from the 142 counted in 2000.
As of the 2000 United States census, there were 67,861 people, 19,458 households, and 14,457 families residing in the city of Passaic, New Jersey. The population density was 21,804.7 people per square mile (8,424.8/km2). There were 20,194 housing units at an average density of 6,488.6 per square mile (2,507.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 35.43% White, 13.83% African American, 0.78% Native American, 5.51% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 39.36% from other races, and 5.04% from two or more races. The cultural groupings for Hispanic or Latino of any race were 62.46% of the population.
As of the 2000 census, 59.3% of residents spoke Spanish at home, while 28.9% of residents identified themselves as speaking only English at home. An additional 2.5% were speakers of Gujarati and 2.4% spoke Polish. There were 31,101 foreign-born residents of Passaic in 2000, of which 79.4% were from Latin America, with 31.3% of foreign-born residents from Mexico and 27.2% from the Dominican Republic.
There were 19,458 households, of which 42.0% had children under the age of 18, 43.7% were married couples living together, 21.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.7% were non-families. 8.2% of Passaic households were same-sex partner households. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.46 and the average family size was 3.93.The city population comprised 30.8% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 16.9% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,594, and the median income for a family was $34,935. Males had a median income of $24,568 versus $21,352 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,874. About 18.4% of families and 21.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 16.0% of those age 65 or over.
Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone (UEZ), one of 32 zones covering 37 municipalities statewide. The city was selected in 1994 as one of a group of 10 zones added to participate in the program. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the UEZ, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+5⁄8% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. Established in August 1994, the city Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in August 2025. Overseen by the Passaic Enterprise Zone Development Corporation, the program generates $1.2 million annually in tax revenues that are reinvested into the local zone.
Passaic is governed by the Faulkner Act system of municipal government, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council (Plan B), enacted by direct petition as of July 1, 1973. The city is one of 71 municipalities (of the 564) statewide governed under this form. Under this form of government, the governing body is comprised of a mayor and a city council. The mayor is elected directly by the voters for a four-year term of office. The seven members of the city council serve four-year terms on a staggered basis, with either three seats (together with the mayoral seat) or four seats up for election in odd-numbered years. Elections are non-partisan, with all positions selected at-large in balloting held in May.
As of 2022[update], Passaic's mayor is Hector Carlos Lora, whose term of office ends June 30, 2025. Lora was appointed in 2016 to fill a vacancy that followed the resignation of Democratic mayor Dr. Alex Blanco after he was indicted on federal corruption charges; Lora was the Director of the Passaic County Board of Chosen Freeholders at the time and was forced to resign his position. He served the remainder of Blanco's unexpired term and was elected to a full term in 2017. Members of the Passaic City Council are Council President Gary Schaer (term ends 2023), Jose R. "Joe" Garcia (2025), Terrence L. Love (2025), Thania Melo (2023), Chaim M. Munk (2023) and Daniel J. Schwartz (2025), with one seat declared vacant.
The seat expiring in June 2023 that had been held by Salim Patel was declared vacant in June 2022 after it was determined that he had missed more council meetings than allowed by statute.
In addition to his role as council president, Schaer also holds a seat in the New Jersey General Assembly. This dual position, often called double dipping, is allowed under a grandfather clause in the state law enacted by the New Jersey Legislature and signed into law by Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine in September 2007 that prevents dual-office-holding but allows those who had held both positions as of February 1, 2008, to retain both posts.
Corruption charges over the past decades have resulted in the federal convictions of two mayors, seven councilman and other public officials, all members of the Democratic Party. Passaic Business Administrator Anthony Ianoco was terminated in February 2011 after he was charged with cocaine possession, following his arrest in Hoboken, where police arrested him after he was caught driving the wrong way in a Passaic city vehicle.
Alex Blanco became the first Dominican-American elected as mayor in the United States winning a special election in November 2008 to succeed acting mayor Gary Schaer, who as City Council president automatically moved into the position upon the resignation by previous mayor Samuel Rivera, after Rivera pleaded guilty to corruption charges. Blanco was elected to serve the remainder of Rivera's term, and was re-elected to a full term on May 12, 2009, with 53.1% of votes cast. He won running against Passaic Board of Education member Vinny Capuana.
Federal, state, and county representation
Passaic is located in the 9th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 36th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Passaic had been part of the 8th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
For the 118th United States Congress, New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is represented by Bill Pascrell (D, Paterson). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2027) and Bob Menendez (Harrison, term ends 2025).
For the 2022–2023 session, the 36th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Paul Sarlo (D, Wood-Ridge) and in the General Assembly by Clinton Calabrese (D, Cliffside Park) and Gary Schaer (D, Passaic).
Passaic County is governed by Board of County Commissioners, comprised of seven members who are elected at-large to staggered three-year terms office on a partisan basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle. At a reorganization meeting held in January, the board selects a Director and Deputy Director from among its members to serve for a one-year term. As of 2022[update], Passaic County's Commissioners are: Director Bruce James (D, Clifton, term as commissioner ends December 31, 2023; term as director ends 2022), Deputy Director Cassandra "Sandi" Lazzara (D, Little Falls, term as commissioner ends 2024; term as deputy director ends 2022), and  John W. Bartlett (D, Wayne, 2024), Theodore O. "T.J." Best Jr. (D, Paterson, 2023), Terry Duffy (D, West Milford, 2022), Nicolino Gallo (R, Totowa, 2024), and Pasquale "Pat" Lepore (D, Woodland Park, 2022). Constitutional officers, elected on a countywide basis are: County Clerk Danielle Ireland-Imhof (D, Hawthorne, 2023), Sheriff Richard H. Berdnik (D, Clifton, 2022), and Surrogate Zoila S. Cassanova (D, Wayne, 2026).
As of March 2011, there were a total of 24,227 registered voters in Passaic, of which 8,753 (36.1% vs. 31.0% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 2,063 (8.5% vs. 18.7%) were registered as Republicans and 13,408 (55.3% vs. 50.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 3 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 34.7% (vs. 53.2% in Passaic County) were registered to vote, including 50.7% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 70.8% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 77.1% of the vote (12,011 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 22.1% (3,447 votes), and other candidates with 0.8% (119 votes), among the 15,755 ballots cast by the city's 27,433 registered voters (178 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 57.4%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 12,386 votes (72.7% vs. 58.8% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 4,012 votes (23.6% vs. 37.7%) and other candidates with 93 votes (0.5% vs. 0.8%), among the 17,033 ballots cast by the city's 25,496 registered voters, for a turnout of 66.8% (vs. 70.4% in Passaic County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 9,539 votes (66.3% vs. 53.9% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 4,291 votes (29.8% vs. 42.7%) and other candidates with 62 votes (0.4% vs. 0.7%), among the 14,391 ballots cast by the city's 23,389 registered voters, for a turnout of 61.5% (vs. 69.3% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 59.6% of the vote (4,109 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 39.1% (2,697 votes), and other candidates with 1.3% (88 votes), among the 7,143 ballots cast by the city's 28,209 registered voters (249 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 25.3%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 5,958 ballots cast (68.7% vs. 50.8% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 2,319 votes (26.7% vs. 43.2%), Independent Chris Daggett with 124 votes (1.4% vs. 3.8%) and other candidates with 52 votes (0.6% vs. 0.9%), among the 8,672 ballots cast by the city's 24,219 registered voters, yielding a 35.8% turnout (vs. 42.7% in the county).
The Passaic City School District is a comprehensive community public school district serving students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide that were established pursuant to the decision by the New Jersey Supreme Court in Abbott v. Burke which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. As of the 2018–19 school year, the district, comprised of 17 schools, had an enrollment of 14,504 students and 839.8 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 17.3:1.
Schools in the district (with 2018–19 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Vincent Capuana School No. 15 (277; Pre-K), Sallie D. Gamble School No. 16 (465; Pre-K), Thomas Jefferson School No. 1 (788; K–8), George Washington School No. 2 (172; K–1), Mario J. Drago School No. 3 (formerly Franklin School) (803; Pre-K–8), Benito Juárez School No. 5 (472; K–8), Martin Luther King Jr. School No. 6 (1,124; Pre-K–8), Ulysses S. Grant School No. 7 (391; Pre-K–1), Casimir Pulaski School No. 8 (%32; Pre-K–8), Etta Gero School No. 9 (690; 2–8), Theodore Roosevelt School No. 10 (905; Pre-K–8), William B. Cruise Veterans Memorial School No. 11 (1,253; K–8), Daniel F. Ryan School No. 19 (874; Pre-K/2–8), Passaic Gifted and Talented Academy School No. 20 (959; 2–8), Sonia Sotomayor School No. 21 (; Pre-K–5), Passaic Academy for Science and Engineering (702; 6–11), Passaic Preparatory Academy, (701; 6–11) and Passaic High School (2,618; 9–12).
Passaic County Community College opened a new campus in the city in September 2008, which will allow PCCC to reach the 15% of its students who come from the city of Passaic. The college's nursing program will be relocated and expanded at the new campus to provide a qualified program to help fill the longstanding nursing shortage.
St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic School is an elementary school founded in 1943 that operates under the supervision of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson and the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia.
Established in 1895, the Collegiate School is a private coeducational day school located in Passaic which serves students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade.
The Yeshiva Gedola of Passaic is an institute of Talmudic learning for post-high-school-age men. It is led by Rosh Yeshiva Rabbi Meir Stern. Passaic has two primary Orthodox K–8 elementary schools, Yeshiva Ketana and Hillel, each of them has a boys and girls division.
Noble Leadership Academy is an Islamic school located downtown, serving students 320 students from pre-kindergarten to 12th grade.
In October 2016, Deputy Chief Luis Guzman became the first Dominican-American to be selected to lead the city's police department.
The Passaic Fire Department (PFD) is a paid fire department with over 100 firefighters. The PFD was organized in November 1869 and became a paid department in 1909. There are two fire houses equipped with four engines and two ladder trucks. Passaic also operates a large foam tanker truck, a Quick Attack Response Vehicle (QRV), a haz-mat decon trailer, a utility unit, a rehab unit, and a Zodiac rescue boat.
In October 2015, the city approved a contract under which ambulance service in the city is covered by Monmouth Ocean Hospital Service Corporation (MONOC), a non-profit consortium which also provides paramedic services to other municipalities in the area. Under the plan Passaic laid off 30 EMS workers who had been employed by the city.
Hatzolah of Passaic/Clifton EMS is a volunteer service that primarily covers the Passaic Park section of town and parts of Clifton, in addition to assisting Passaic Police and EMS when requested in other parts of the city. Hatzolah operates two ambulances strategically parked throughout the community with a third on standby and available to assist neighboring chapters.
Office of Emergency Management
The OEM coordinates emergency response by all of the city's agencies—Police, Fire, Ambulance, health, and public works—to disasters and other emergencies, including large storms. The city OEM is affiliated with the Passaic County and New Jersey State OEM agencies and with the state's Emergency Management Association.
OEM also manages street traffic at all large events in the city, including festivals and parades.
The office is run by representatives of the Police and Fire departments. In addition to city staff, it makes use of volunteers from Passaic's Community Emergency Response Team and other community organizations.
Passaic, with over 20 synagogues and an Orthodox Jewish population of 15,000, has one of the largest Orthodox Jewish communities in New Jersey along with the townships of Lakewood, Teaneck, and Jackson.
- Passaic Torah Institute
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 70.14 miles (112.88 km) of roadways, of which 53.20 miles (85.62 km) were maintained by the municipality, 13.82 miles (22.24 km) by Passaic County and 3.12 miles (5.02 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
The main highway directly serving Passaic is Route 21. New Jersey Route 3, the Garden State Parkway and I-80 are nearby. The city has six bridges in use spanning the Passaic River. A seventh bridge serves railroad traffic but is not currently in use.
Local bus transportation, much passing through the Passaic Bus Terminal, is provided by NJ Transit and Community Coach with service to Paterson, Rutherford, Newark, Clifton, Garfield, and Wallington among other locations on the 74, 702, 703, 705, 707, 709, 744, 758, 780 and 970 routes. NJ Transit bus routes 161 and 190 provide local service and interstate service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City.
NJ Transit's Passaic rail station is located in the Passaic Park section, providing service on the Main Line southbound to Hoboken Terminal, and to Secaucus Junction for NJ Transit connections to New York Penn Station in New York City, Newark Airport and points north and south. Northbound service is provided to Paterson, Ridgewood and New York City stations in Suffern and Port Jervis.
Passaic formerly had four train stations (Passaic Park, Prospect Street, Passaic and Harrison Street) on the Erie Railroad main line. In 1963, these stations were abandoned and the main line was moved to the Boonton Branch.
Commuter jitney buses operate along Main Avenue providing frequent non-scheduled service to Paterson, Union City, the George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal in Washington Heights, Manhattan, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, and points between.
Films shot in Passaic
- 2009: The NBC series Mercy was set at and filmed in the old St Mary's Hospital.
- 2006: Be Kind Rewind directed by Michel Gondry.
- ^ a b c d e 2019 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 1, 2020.
- ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- ^ a b City Council, City of Passaic. Accessed July 2, 2022.
- ^ 2023 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, updated February 8, 2023. Accessed February 10, 2023.
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- ^ Municipal Clerk, City of Passaic. Accessed March 11, 2023.
- ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 154.
- ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
- ^ "City of Passaic". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- ^ a b c d e f QuickFacts Passaic city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 11, 2022.
- ^ a b c Total Population: Census 2010 - Census 2020 New Jersey Municipalities, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 1, 2022.
- ^ a b c Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in New Jersey: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 1, 2022.
- ^ a b c d Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 1, 2020. Note that townships (including Edison, Lakewood and Woodbridge, all of which have larger populations) are excluded from these rankings.
- ^ a b Population Density by County and Municipality: New Jersey, 2020 and 2021, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed March 1, 2023.
- ^ ZIP code lookup for Passaic, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 28, 2011.
- ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Passaic, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- ^ a b U.S. Census website, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- ^ Geographic Codes Lookup for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed April 1, 2022.
- ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- ^ AP-News Pronunciation Guide L-R, KRGV-TV, June 10, 2012. Accessed August 16, 2012. "Passaic -- puh-SAY'-ihk"
- ^ Page, Jeffrey. "Our towns challenge our tongues", The Record, June 17, 2005. Accessed May 19, 2021, via Newspapers.com. "Some people also add an extra syllable to Passaic. They say pa-SAY-ik, which renders them incomprehensible when speaking with residents, especially old-timers. 'The correct pronunciation is puh-SAKE,' said Mark Auerbach, the city historian. Very authoritative, but he himself says pa-SAY-ik. What is that all about? 'Yes, it's wrong,' he said, 'but I'm from Brooklyn and I'm too old to change habits now.'"
- ^ Jennings, Rob. "N.J. welcome center sign spelled P-A-S-S-A-I-C wrong", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, July 11, 2019. Accessed May 19, 2021. "Of New Jersey’s 21 counties, it is easy enough to understand why some persist in misspelling Passaic. Sure, the pronunciations -- 'puh-SAY-ik' or 'puh-sake' - provide a clear hint to the ordering of letters, yet it is not uncommon to spot the county mistakenly listed as 'Passiac.'"
- ^ Martin, Jim. "Jim Martin", Schenectady Gazette, June 3, 1970. Accessed May 19, 2021, via Newspapers.com "When you have to run 20 miles a day through a corridor of urban sprawl without bumping into Hackensack, South Orange (pronounced 'Arnj'), Passaic (pronounced 'Puh-sake'), Cedar Ave., Nutley or the Delaware-Lackawanna tracks, you are a human being of extraordinary determination."
- ^ Table1. New Jersey Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships: 2020 and 2010 Censuses, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 1, 2022.
- ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 - 2010 Demographic Profile Data Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- ^ a b c Municipalities Sorted by 2011-2020 Legislative District, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- ^ a b Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Passaic city Archived May 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 14, 2011.
- ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- ^ Maciag, Mike. "Population Density for U.S. Cities Statistics", Governing, November 29, 2017. Accessed December 4, 2020. "The following are the most densely populated cities with populations exceeding 50,000:... [5th] Passaic, N.J.: 22,424 persons/sq. mile"
- ^ Cunningham, John T. This is New Jersey, p. 67. Rutgers University Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-8135-2141-1. Accessed January 27, 2015. "Passaic was a Lenape word, too. Some say it meant 'place where the land splits' or 'place where the river splits'. Others claim the word meant 'valley' to the Lenape."
- ^ "Passaic" Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Lenape Talking Dictionary. Accessed January 27, 2015.
- ^ Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 16, 2015.
- ^ Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 239. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. "Passaic; county, city in same county, and river in New Jersey; derived either from the Indian word, passaic or passajeek, 'valley,' or from the Indian equivalent of 'peace'."
- ^ Daughan, George C. (June 13, 2016). Revolution on the Hudson: New York City and the Hudson River Valley in the American War of Independence. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 95. ISBN 9780393245738.
- ^ Scott, William Winfield (1922). History of Passaic and Its Environs ...: Historical-biographical. Lewis Historical Publishing Company.
- ^ Jailer, Mildred. "Map to Tell Story Of Passaic's Past", The New York Times, January 4, 1976. Accessed August 22, 2018. "Also to be depicted are such significant sites as the Acquackanonk Landing Settlement, now the city of Passaic, where a bridge to halt the progress of the British troops was dismantled, and Canalville, an 1828 residential subdivision on the Morris Canal in Clifton."
- ^ History of Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey: With Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men. Everts & Peck. 1882.
- ^ Smyk, Edward A.; Masiello, Robert J. (2004). Historic Passaic County: An Illustrated History. HPN Books. p. 18. ISBN 9780965499941.
Speer managed to outwit the judge by writing to Postmaster General James Campbell, requesting that the name of the local post office be changed. Campbell complied. Speer was not a man to leave loose ends. He painted a sign twelve feet long with the name 'Passaic.'
- ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 210. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- ^ Wire And Cable Manufacturers Since 1878 Archived September 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Okonite Company. Accessed August 28, 2011.
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- ^ "Okonite Co. buys General Felt Inc". Grand Prairie Daily News. 1968. p. 3. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ "Ling-Temco-Vought to Sell Two Firms, Hold Steel Mill". Tucson Daily Citizen. February 24, 1970. p. 34. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ "Hazard Workers at Wilkes-Barre on Strike Today". Pittston Gazette. November 1, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ "Contempo project aims to be kickstarter for rebirth of Passaic | NJBIZ". NJBIZ. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ Lurie, Maxine N.; and Mappen, Marc. "Passaic textile strike", Encyclopedia of New Jersey, p. 617. Rutgers University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8135-3325-2. Accessed August 28, 2011.
- ^ Lurie, Maxine N.; Mappen, Marc (2004). "Passaic Textile Strike". Encyclopedia of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press. p. 617. ISBN 9780813533254.
- ^ UCLA Film and Television Archive Television Programs Preserved 1988–2000 Archived January 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. University of California, Los Angeles. Accessed February 18, 2007.
- ^ Nieves, Evelyn. "How Green Was My Passaic, Now Long Hill", The New York Times, December 3, 1992. Accessed August 28, 2011. "No one used to mind when the City of Passaic and the Township of Passaic, 22 miles away, were confused.... Passaic Township, as bucolic as New Jersey gets, began to wear its name like an itchy sweater. Residents tired of explaining the difference between their remote green stretch of southern Morris County and urban blight."
- ^ "Passaic Daily Herald". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ Narvaez, Alfonso A. "2 Daily Papers, The Herald and The News, Merge in Jersey", The New York Times, September 22, 1987. Accessed August 22, 2018. "Two daily newspapers in Passaic County, The North Jersey Herald News and The News, merged today into a single newspaper, The North Jersey Herald & News."
- ^ "Passaic City record". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- ^ "Passaic daily news". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
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- ^ Areas touching Passaic, MapIt. Accessed March 2, 2020.
- ^ Passaic County Map, Coalition for a Healthy NJ. Accessed March 2, 2020.
- ^ New Jersey Municipal Boundaries, New Jersey Department of Transportation. Accessed November 15, 2019.
- ^ Berman, Rachel. "Passaic/Clifton - The New Jewish Boom Town", The Jewish Press, November 22, 2006, backed up by the Internet Archive as of February 10, 2008. Accessed June 21, 2015. "To the out-of-towner, it's a place exceedingly dense with Jews and Judaism, with 25 shuls and 2,500 families packed into three square miles, and a buzzing Main Avenue that with its baby carriages and bochurim on Friday afternoons almost resembles Jerusalem. To the Jewish world in general, it's the current It Community, sprawling out at a pace of 80 new families a year, with a reputation for being the fastest growing Jewish community next to Lakewood."
- ^ a b Adely, Hannan. "Clifton-Passaic Y gets ready to shut its doors, as donations plummet", The Record, July 5, 2011. Accessed August 28, 2011. "The Young Men's Hebrew Association formed in Passaic in 1904, adding a women's counterpart the following year, and moved to the 7-acre campus in Clifton in 1976. In that year, the Jewish population in Clifton and Passaic was estimated at 9,000, according to the American Jewish Year Book; in 2010, the figure was 12,000. While the Jewish population has grown, the historic population of Reform and Conservative Jews has been largely replaced by Orthodox practitioners, said local residents and Jewish leaders.... The growth of the Orthodox community can be seen throughout the southern end of Clifton and Passaic, which is home to about 20 Orthodox synagogues and minyans, or prayer groups, and to a cluster of kosher shops and Jewish schools."
- ^ Carlton Tower Archived July 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, The Shallis Group. Accessed January 14, 2013. "Carlton Tower, the city's tallest structure, is 22 stories with 228 units and a 24-hour doorman as well as secured assigned surface parking."
- ^ Climate Summary for Passaic, New Jersey
- ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 99. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- ^ Staff. Passaic, Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, W. & R. Chambers, 1901. Accessed November 25, 2011.
- ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 338. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- ^ Colby, Frank Moore; Williams, Talcott. "Passaic", pp. 140-1, New International Encyclopedia, Dodd, Mead and company, 1918. Accessed November 25, 2011.
- ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 711. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- ^ Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990 Archived May 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Passaic city, New Jersey Archived May 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Passaic city, Passaic County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- ^ The Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships in 2010 in New Jersey: 2000 and 2010 Archived February 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 19, 2011.
- ^ Strybel, Robert. "Gromada examines highlanders impact on Poland", Am-Pol Eagle. Accessed January 14, 2013. "They and their descendants can be encountered throughout the Northeast and Midwest, including in the author's own hometown of Passaic, NJ, but also in California and Colorado."
- ^ Mascarenhas, Rohan. "Census data shows Hispanics as the largest minority in N.J.", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2011. Accessed August 7, 2013.
- ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Passaic city, Passaic County, New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- ^ Lipman, Harvy; and Sheingold, Dave. "North Jersey sees 30% growth in same-sex couples", The Record, August 14, 2011, backed up by the Internet Archive as of February 3, 2013. Accessed September 21, 2014.
- ^ QT-P16; Language Spoken at Home: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- ^ QT-P15 - Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population: 2000 from the 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 14, 2013.
- ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Tax Questions and Answers, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, May 2009. Accessed October 28, 2019. "In 1994 the legislation was amended and ten more zones were added to this successful economic development program. Of the ten new zones, six were predetermined: Paterson, Passaic, Perth Amboy, Phillipsburg, Lakewood, Asbury Park/Long Branch (joint zone). The four remaining zones were selected on a competitive basis. They are Carteret, Pleasantville, Union City and Mount Holly."
- ^ Urban Enterprise Zone Program, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed October 27, 2019. "Businesses participating in the UEZ Program can charge half the standard sales tax rate on certain purchases, currently 3.3125% effective 1/1/2018"
- ^ Urban Enterprise Zones Effective and Expiration Dates, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed January 8, 2018.
- ^ Passaic Enterprise Zone Development Corporation Archived February 3, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, City of Passaic. Accessed November 19, 2019. "Passaic currently receives about $1.2 million per year in these revenues. The municipal UEZ is administered by a special entity set up specially for that purpose. In Passaic, the UEZ is administered by the Passaic Enterprise Zone Development Corporation."
- ^ "The Faulkner Act: New Jersey's Optional Municipal Charter Law" Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey State League of Municipalities, July 2007. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- ^ Inventory of Municipal Forms of Government in New Jersey, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, July 1, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2019.
- ^ Mayor's Office, City of Passaic. Accessed July 2, 2022.
- ^ Na, Myles; and Attrino, Anthony G. "Anger in Passaic as acting mayor replaces corrupt one", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, November 17, 2016. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Freeholder Hector Lora was sworn in as interim mayor Thursday night, hours after Mayor Alex Blanco pleaded guilty to a federal bribery charge. Lora resigned as Passaic County freeholder Thursday, a position he had held since 2013, and for which he had been re-elected last year.... Blanco, a podiatrist and father of four, admitted in court Thursday that he received $110,000 in payments from developers in exchange for directing federal housing funds to their projects."
- ^ 2021 Municipal Data Sheet, City of Passaic. Accessed July 2, 2022.
- ^ Passaic County 2020 Directory, Passaic County, New Jersey, April 2021. Accessed July 1, 2022.
- ^ May 11, 2021 Summary Report Passaic County Official Results, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated May 18, 2021. Accessed July 2,2022.
- ^ May 14, 2019 Summary Report Passaic County Official Results, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated June 7, 2019. Accessed July 2, 2022.
- ^ Fagan, Matt. "Passaic councilman's seat vacated after he misses months of meetings", The Record, June 21, 2022. Accessed July 2, 2022. "After he missed too many consecutive Passaic City Council meetings, it was announced at Tuesday's meeting that Councilman Salim Patel had vacated his council seat. City Council President Gary Schaer noted that Patel had missed the majority of meetings, all of which were virtual, since the first of the year."
- ^ via Associated Press. "N.J. Lawmakers keep double dipping" Archived March 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, WPVI-TV, March 4, 2008. Accessed June 4, 2009.
- ^ Hanley, Robert. "The Mayor Of Passaic Is Convicted Of Corruption", The New York Times, November 29, 1992. Accessed January 14, 2013. "Joseph Lipari, the Mayor of Passaic, N.J., was convicted today on two charges of extortion and five counts of income tax evasion after a five-week corruption trial in Federal District Court."
- ^ Siemaszko, Corky; and Sanderson, Bill. "Passaic's Alston Indicted", The Record, July 15, 1992. Accessed August 28, 2011. "Former Passaic City Councilman Wayne Alston was indicted Tuesday on federal and state charges of conspiring to take $6,000 in bribes from a landlord in return for preferential treatment in a program administered by the city-based anti-poverty agency Alston headed."
- ^ Conte, Michaelangelo. "Fired Passaic Business Administrator Anthony Iacono makes first court appearance on DWI, drug charges", The Jersey Journal, February 25, 2011. Accessed August 28, 2011. "Iacono, 48, of Lyndhurst, was arrested at 10:36 p.m. Feb. 10 by Hoboken police officers who spotted him driving the wrong way down a one-way street in a City of Passaic-owned car with a flashing light on the top, police said at the time.... The day after Iacono's arrest, Passaic Mayor Alex Blanco announced Iacono's termination from his post as City of Passaic business administrator."
- ^ Coyne, Kevin. "Dominican Wins City Hall and a Community's Pride", The New York Times, November 28, 2008. Accessed July 28, 2016. "On the same night that President-elect Barack Obama broke one electoral barrier, Dr. Blanco broke another, becoming the first Dominican elected to a mayor's office in the United States.... 'He's a classic American success story,' said Assemblyman Gary S. Schaer, the longtime city council president who has been acting mayor since Mr. Rivera's resignation, and who encouraged Dr. Blanco to run."
- ^ Pizarro, Max. "Blanco's win reconfirms Schaer alliance as the mayor reaches out to Capuana", PolitickerNJ, May 13, 2009. Accessed July 28, 2016. "Mayor Alex Blanco's victory over city supervisor Vincent Capuana last night concretized the alliance between Blanco and Assemblyman/Council President Gary Schaer (D-Passaic), as Blanco secured a full, four-year term. After prevailing in a special election last November, Blanco beat Capuana last night, 4,988 (53.1%) to 4,409 (46.1%)."
- ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- ^ 2019 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed October 30, 2019.
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- ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 3, 2019.
- ^ Biography, Congressman Bill Pascrell. Accessed January 3, 2019."A native son of Paterson, N.J., Congressman Bill Pascrell, Jr. has built a life of public service upon the principles he learned while growing up on the south side of the Silk City."
- ^ U.S. Sen. Cory Booker cruises past Republican challenger Rik Mehta in New Jersey, PhillyVoice. Accessed April 30, 2021. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
- ^ Home, sweet home: Bob Menendez back in Hudson County. nj.com. Accessed April 30, 2021. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- ^ Legislative Roster for District 36, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 11, 2022.
- ^ a b Board of County Commissioners, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022. "Passaic County is governed by a seven-member Board of County Commissioners. Each County Commissioner is elected at large for a three-year term. The board is headed by a director, who is selected for a one-year term at the board's annual reorganization meeting (at the first meeting of the year in January)."
- ^ Bruce James, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Cassandra "Sandi" Lazzara, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ John W. Bartlett Esq., Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Theodore "T.J." Best, Jr., Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Terry Duffy, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Nicolino Gallo, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Pasquale "Pat" Lepore, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ 2022 County Data Sheet, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ a b Passaic County 2021 Directory, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated as of April 2021. Accessed April 29, 2022.
- ^ 2021 General Election November 2, 2021 Official Results, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated November 18, 2021. Accessed January 1, 2022.
- ^ November 3, 2020 Summary Report Official Results, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated November 20, 2020. Accessed January 1, 2021.
- ^ 2019 General Election November 5, 2019 Summary Report Passaic County Official Results, Passaic County, New Jersey, updated November 18, 2019. Accessed January 1, 2020.
- ^ County Clerk, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Clerks, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Sheriff Richard H. Berdnik, Passaic County Sheriff's Office. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Sheriffs, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Our Surrogate, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ Surrogates, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 21, 2022.
- ^ a b Voter Registration Summary - Passaic, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed January 16, 2013.
- ^ GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey Archived February 12, 2020, at archive.today, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 16, 2013.
- ^ "Presidential General Election Results - November 6, 2012 - Passaic County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 6, 2012 - General Election Results - Passaic County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Passaic County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed January 16, 2013.
- ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Passaic County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed January 16, 2013.
- ^ "Governor - Passaic County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast - November 5, 2013 - General Election Results - Passaic County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- ^ 2009 Governor: Passaic County Archived August 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed January 16, 2013.
- ^ District Policy 9001 - Identification, Passaic City School District. Accessed March 26, 2022. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-K through 12 in the City of Passaic Public Schools. Composition: The Passaic Public Schools is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of the City of Passaic."
- ^ What We Do: History, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022. "In 1998, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in the Abbott v. Burke case that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. According to the Court, aging, unsafe and overcrowded buildings prevented children from receiving the "thorough and efficient" education required under the New Jersey Constitution.... Full funding for approved projects was authorized for the 31 special-needs districts, known as 'Abbott Districts'."
- ^ What We Do, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022.
- ^ SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022.
- ^ District information for Passaic City School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
- ^ School Data for the Passaic City School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed April 1, 2020.
- ^ Vincent Capuana School No. 15 Archived June 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Sallie D. Gamble School No. 16, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Thomas Jefferson School No. 1, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Mario J. Drago School No. 3, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Benito Juárez School No. 5, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Martin Luther King Jr. School No. 6, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Ulysses S. Grant School No. 7, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Casimir Pulaski School No. 8, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Etta Gero School No. 9, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Theodore Roosevelt School No. 10 Archived June 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ William B. Cruise Veterans Memorial School No. 11, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Daniel F. Ryan School No. 19, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Passaic Gifted and Talented Academy School No. 20 Archived June 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Sonia Sotomayor School No. 21, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Passaic Academy for Science and Engineering, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Passaic Preparatory Academy, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ Passaic High School, Passaic City Schools. Accessed January 24, 2023.
- ^ District Map, Passaic City Schools. Accessed April 5, 2020.
- ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Passaic Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- ^ Passaic County 2018-19 Public School Directory Archived June 4, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic County, New Jersey. Accessed April 1, 2020.
- ^ Passaic Academic Center Archived August 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic County Community College. Accessed September 19, 2011.
- ^ St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic School Archived July 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson. Accessed April 22, 2012.
- ^ Passaic County Schools, Roman Catholic Diocese of Paterson Catholic Schools Office. Accessed August 14, 2015.
- ^ About Us, Collegiate School. Accessed June 28,2022.
- ^ Our School, Noble Leadership Academy. Accessed January 3, 2017.
- ^ Cowen, Richard. "Luis Guzman makes history as first Dominican police chief in Passaic", The Record, October 26, 2016. Accessed October 16, 2019. "Deputy Chief Luis Guzman made history when he assumed command of the Passaic Police Department on Wednesday, marking the first time that a Dominican has been chosen to lead the force."
- ^ Fire Department Archived October 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, City of Passaic. Accessed September 19, 2011.
- ^ Cowen, Richard. "Passaic ends city ambulance service, opts for privatization", The Record, October 1, 2015. Accessed October 6, 2015. "The city on Thursday quietly disbanded its ambulance squad, laying off 30 workers and handing over emergency medical services to MONOC, an Ocean County-based non-profit."
- ^ About, Hatzolah of Passaic/Clifton EMS. Accessed December 3, 2015.
- ^ Office of Emergency Management Archived October 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Passaic, New Jersey. Accessed October 24, 2017.
- ^ Passaic County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- ^ Passaic County Bus/Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed August 28, 2011.
- ^ Passaic County System Map Archived June 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Transit. Accessed August 14, 2015.
- ^ Passaic station, NJ Transit. Accessed June 28, 2022.
- ^ Rail System Map, NJ Transit, updated October 2021. Accessed June 28,2022.
- ^ Yanosey, Robert J. Lackawanna Railroad Facilities (In Color); Volume 1: Hoboken to Dover, p. 108. Morning Sun Books Inc., 2007, Scotch Plains, New Jersey. ISBN 1-58248-214-4.
- ^ Jitney Transportation Along New Jersey's Route 4 Corridor, Columbia University Urban Transportation Policy, November 30, 2006. Accessed August 7, 2013.
- ^ Paterson – Port Authority, Jitney Buses of New Jersey. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- ^ Gallagher, Brian. "Exclusive: Guillermo Diaz Takes Us Into the World of 'Weeds'; The actor who coincidentally plays Guillermo on the hit Showtime series talks about his role in the brand new season, 'Mercy', 'Zombie Grandma' and much more." Archived August 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, MovieWeb, June 11, 2009. Accessed January 27, 2015.
- ^ Sullivan, Tom. "Have some Mercy on cancelled TV shows", Clifton Journal, May 21, 2010. Accessed January 27, 2015. "Dramas set in hospitals have long been a staple of television, both for daytime and prime time, and while Mercy did not have the benefit of star names in its regular cast, it had the luxury of a very competent ensemble and a totally authentic setting, because Mercy Hospital was played by St. Mary's of Passaic. When you saw hectic stories unfolding in the emergency room, it was right here. So were the tense and somber moments in the intensive care unit."
- ^ Buckley, Cara. "Director Puts New Jersey Town on Film, and on the Map", The New York Times, October 25, 2006. Accessed November 1, 2008.
- City of Passaic, New Jersey
- The Battle of Passaic by Mary Heaton Vorse, New Masses, May 1926, Transcribed: for marxists.org in January 2002
- Passaic, New Jersey – The Carpathian Connection