Ridesharing company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Transportation network company)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A ridesharing company (also known as a transportation network company, ride-hailing service; the vehicles are called app-taxis or e-taxis) is a company that, via websites and mobile apps, matches passengers with drivers of vehicles for hire that, unlike taxicabs, cannot legally be hailed from the street.

The legality of ridesharing companies by jurisdiction varies; in some areas they have been banned and are considered to be illegal taxicab operations.[1] Regulations can include requirements for driver background checks, fares, caps on the number of drivers in an area, insurance, licensing, and minimum wage.

Terminology: ridesharing vs. ridehailing[edit]

The term "ridesharing" has been used by many international news sources, including The Washington Post,[2] CNN,[3] BBC News,[4] The New York Times,[5] the Associated Press,[6] and the Los Angeles Times.[7][8] Groups representing drivers, including Rideshare Drivers United[9] and The Rideshare Guy (Harry Campbell),[10] also use the term "rideshare", since "hailing" rideshare cars from the street is illegal. Usage is inconsistent, with the same publication or the same article sometimes using both "ridesharing" and "ridehailing".[11]

In January 2015, the Associated Press Stylebook, the collective that sets many of the news industry's grammar and word use standards, officially adopted the term "ride-hailing" to describe the services offered by these companies, claiming that "ridesharing" doesn't accurately describe the services since not all rides are shared, and "ride-sourcing" only is accurate when drivers provide rides for income. While the Associated Press recommended the use of "ride-hailing" as a term, it noted that, unlike taxicabs, ridesharing companies cannot pick up street hails.[12][13]


Ridesharing was popular in the mid-1970s due to the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis. At that time the first employee carpools/vanpools were organized at Chrysler and 3M.[14]

Ridesharing declined precipitously between the 1970s and the 2000s, peaking in the US in 1970 with a commute mode share of 20.4%. By 2011 it was down to 9.7%. In large part this has been attributed to the dramatic fall in gas prices (45%) during the 1980s.

In the 1990s it was popular among college students, where campuses have limited parking space. Together with Prof. James Davidson from Harvard, Dace Campbell, Ivan Lin and Habib Rached from University of Washington, and others, began to investigate the feasibility of further development although the comprehensive technologies were not commercially available yet at the time. Their work is considered by many to be a forerunner of carpooling & ridesharing systems technology used by Garrett Camp, Travis Kalanick, Oscar Salazar and Conrad Whelan at Uber.[15][16][17][18]

Ridematching programs began migrating to the Internet in the late 1990s.[17]

A 2006 report by the Federal Transit Administration of the United States Department of Transportation stated that "next day" responsiveness has been achieved but that "dynamic" ridematching has not yet been successfully implemented.[19]

In 2009, Uber was founded as Ubercab by Garrett Camp, a computer programmer and the co-founder of StumbleUpon, and Travis Kalanick, who sold his Red Swoosh startup for $19 million in 2007.[20]

In 2011, Sidecar launched; its founder Sunil Paul patented the idea of hailing a ride via mobile app in 2002.[21]

Lyft was launched in the summer of 2012 by computer programmers Logan Green and John Zimmer as a service of Zimride, an intercity carpooling company they founded in 2007.[22]

Careem began operations in July 2012.[23]

In 2013, California became the first state to regulate such companies; they are regulated as public utilities by the California Public Utilities Commission and the legal term used is "transportation network companies".[24]


Treatment of drivers[edit]

Classification as independent contractors[edit]

Unless otherwise required by law, drivers are generally independent contractors and not employees. This designation affects taxation, work hours, and overtime benefits. Lawsuits have been filed by drivers alleging that they are entitled to the rights and remedies of being considered "employees" under employment law.[25] However, drivers do receive certain flexibilities that are not common among employees.[26]

In O'Connor v. Uber Technologies, a lawsuit filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on August 16, 2013, Uber drivers pleaded that according to the California Labor Code they should be classified as employees and receive reimbursement of business expenses such as gas and vehicle maintenance costs. In March 2019, Uber agreed to pay $20 million to settle the case.[27]

On October 28, 2016, in the case of Aslam v Uber BV, the Central London Employment tribunal ruled that Uber drivers are "workers", not self-employed, and are entitled to the minimum wage under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, paid holiday, and other entitlements.[28] Two Uber drivers had brought the test case to the employment tribunal with the assistance of the GMB Union, on behalf of a group of drivers in London.[29] Uber appealed to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; in February 2021, the court ruled that drivers should be classified as workers and not self-employed.[30] Uber drivers won the right to minimum wage, holiday pay, and protection from discrimination in the ruling.[31]

In March 2018, the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research of Switzerland ruled that drivers should be classified as employees.[32]

In April 2018, the Supreme Court of California ruled in Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v. Superior Court that Dynamex, a delivery company, misclassified its delivery drivers as independent contractors rather than employees.[33] This ultimately led to California passing Assembly Bill 5 (AB5) on September 11, 2019, with a test to determine if a tasker must be classified as an employee and receive minimum wage protections and unemployment benefits. In December 2019, Uber and Postmates sued California, claiming AB5 is unconstitutional.[34] In 2020, they spent tens of millions of dollars[35][36] campaigning in support of 2020 California Proposition 22, which passed, granting them a special exception to Assembly Bill 5 by classifying their drivers as "independent contractors", exempting employers from providing benefits to certain drivers.[37]

In November 2019, the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development determined that drivers should be classified as employees and fined Uber $650 million for overdue unemployment and disability insurance taxes.[38]

In March 2021, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom ruled that Uber has to classify all of its drivers not as independent contractors but as workers, complete with the standard benefits. This includes minimum wage and holiday pay with other potential benefits depending on the contracts.[39]

Compliance with minimum wage laws[edit]

In some jurisdictions, drivers are guaranteed a minimum wage, such as in New York City, where drivers must earn $26.51/hour before expenses or $17.22/hour after expenses. Analyses have shown that absent such laws, many drivers earn less than the stated minimum wage.[40] A May 2018 report by the Economic Policy Institute found the average hourly wage for drivers to be $9.21.[41] Reports of poor wages have been published in Profil,[42] Trend,[43] and The Guardian.[44] A 2017 report claimed that only 4% of all Uber drivers were still working as such one year after starting, primarily due to low pay.[45]

However, a 2019 study found that "drivers earn more than twice the surplus they would in less-flexible arrangements."[46]

Safety concerns[edit]

Crimes have been committed by rideshare drivers[47] as well as by individuals posing as rideshare drivers who lure unsuspecting passengers to their vehicles by placing an emblem on their car or by claiming to be a passenger's expected driver.[48] The latter led to the murder of Samantha Josephson and the introduction of Sami’s Law. Lawsuits claim that rideshare companies did not take necessary measures to prevent sexual assault.[49][50] Rideshare companies have been fined by government agencies for violations in their background check processes.[51][52][53]

It is unclear if rideshare vehicles are less or more safe than taxicabs. Data from Transport for London shows that more sexual offenses were committed in "Private Hire" cars than in taxis..[54]

Because it increases the number of people riding in automobiles instead of safer forms of transportation, a study from the Becker Friedman Institute at the University of Chicago tied ridesharing to an increase in traffic fatalities, including pedestrian deaths.[55][56]

Ridesharing has also been criticized for encouraging or requiring phone use while driving. To accept a fare, some apps require drivers to tap their phone screen, usually within 15 seconds after receiving a notification, which is illegal in some jurisdictions since it could result in distracted driving.[57]

Ridesharing vehicles in many cities routinely obstruct bicycle lanes while picking up or dropping off passengers, a practice that endangers cyclists.[58][59][60]

Studies are inconclusive on whether drunk driving rates have declined, with some studies showing that it depends on the city.[61]

Dynamic pricing and price fixing allegations[edit]

Due to dynamic pricing models, prices for the same route may vary based on the supply and demand for rides at the time the ride is requested.[62] When rides are in high demand in a certain area and there are not enough drivers in such area, fares increase to get more drivers to that area.[63][64] In some cases, this resulted in extreme surcharges during emergencies such as Hurricane Sandy,[65] the 2014 Sydney hostage crisis,[66] and the 2017 London Bridge attack.[67]

In the United States, drivers do not have any control over the fares they charge; lawsuits allege that this is an illegal restraint on trade in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890.[68][69] Rideshare companies have argued that they only connect riders and drivers, set service terms, and collect fares. Uber was able to force Meyer v. Uber Techs., Inc., a lawsuit alleging price-fixing, into arbitration.[70][71]

Accessibility failures[edit]

Ridesharing has been criticized for providing inadequate accessibility measures for disabled people compared to the public transit it displaces.

In some areas, vehicle for hire companies are required by law to have a certain amount of wheelchair accessible vans (WAVs) in use. However, most drivers do not own a WAV, making it hard to comply with the laws.[72]

While companies have strict requirements to transport service animals, drivers have been criticized for refusal to transport service animals, which, in the United States, is in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act. In one case, this resulted in a lawsuit, which was referred to arbitration.[73][74] The case was eventually ruled in favor of the visually impaired passenger, Lisa Irving, with Uber ordered to pay her out $1.1 million.[75]

Bias against minority passengers[edit]

Complaints that passengers in certain demographic groups were discriminated against by drivers have prompted services like Uber and Lyft to remove identity information from advertised rides. However, once a ride is accepted, the driver gets the name and photo of the passenger, along with other information. A 2018 study in Washington, DC, found that compared to other passengers, drivers more frequently cancelled rides for African American passengers and LGBTQ and ally passengers (indicated by a rainbow flag), but cancelled at the same rate for women and men. The higher cancellation rate for African American passengers (only) was somewhat attenuated at peak times, when financial incentives were higher.[76]

Increased traffic congestion, carbon emissions, and reduced usage of public transport[edit]

Studies have shown that ride-sharing companies contribute to road congestion, reduce public transport use, and have no substantial impact on vehicle ownership.[77][78]

Studies have shown that ridesharing has increased traffic congestion in cities where extensive public transport networks are in place.[79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87] Many people who use these services would otherwise be using public transport.[88][89] Taxicabs were noted to have lower rider waiting time and vehicle empty driving time, and thus contribute less to congestion and pollution in downtown areas.[90] However, another report noted that these companies serve as complements to public transit.[91]

In 2020, the Union of Concerned Scientists found that due to dead mileage, "ride-hailing trips produce 47 percent more carbon emissions than a similar trip taken in your own private car."[92]

Rideshare has reduced usage of public transport.[93][94] Studies have shown that rideshare took significant market share from public transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic due to concerns surrounding its infectious nature of COVID-19.[95]

Ridesharing may as a result contribute to automobile dependency.

Decline in value of taxi medallions[edit]

Values of taxi medallions, transferable permits or licenses authorizing the holder to pick up passengers for hire, have declined in value significantly. A couple of credit unions that lent money secured by medallions suffered from bank failure.[96] Taxi companies have sued ridesharing companies for various reasons, including allegedly operating illegal taxicab operations; however, they rarely, if ever, been successful.[97]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dickenson, Greg (June 26, 2018). "How the world is going to war with Uber". The Daily Telegraph.
  2. ^ "Lyft IPO: Ridesharing startup outlines all the reasons why it could fail". The Washington Post. April 13, 2019. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019.
  3. ^ "New bill would make rideshare drivers benefits-eligible". CNN. September 11, 2019.
  4. ^ Lee, Dave (March 29, 2019). "For Uber and Lyft, reality is arriving soon". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Weed, Julie (August 19, 2019). "Ride Sharing Adds to the Crush of Traffic at Airports". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 27, 2019.
  6. ^ Ronayne, Kathleen (August 29, 2019). "Rideshare, delivery apps pledge $90M California ballot fight". Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 28, 2019.
  7. ^ "IPO duds at Peloton, Endeavor give Wall Street bankers another black eye". Los Angeles Times. September 27, 2019.
  8. ^ MYERS, JOHN; BHUIYAN, JOHANA; ROOSEVELT, MARGOT (September 18, 2019). "Newsom signs bill rewriting California employment law, limiting use of independent contractors". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 5, 2019.
  9. ^ Scheiber, Noam; Conger, Kate (September 20, 2019). "Uber and Lyft Drivers Gain Labor Clout, With Help From an App". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 3, 2019.
  10. ^ Campbell, Harry. "Is It Rideshare, Ride-Hail or Something Else?". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016.
  11. ^ Roof, Katie. "Uber Is Close to Buying Dubai Ride-Sharing Company". The Wall Street Journal.
  12. ^ Warzel, Charlie (January 8, 2015). "Let's All Join The AP Stylebook In Killing The Term 'Ride-Sharing'". BuzzFeed.
  13. ^ Freed, Benjamin (June 30, 2015). "Why You Shouldn't Call Uber and Lyft "Ride-Sharing"". Washingtonian.
  14. ^ Oliphant, Marc; Amey, Andrew (2010). "Dynamic Ridesharing: Carpooling Meets the Information Age" (PDF).
  15. ^ Ferguson, Erik (1997). "The rise and fall of the American carpool: 1970–1990.] Transportation 24.4".
  16. ^ "Indonesian Contributions: DID YOU KNOW? – International Focus Magazine".
  17. ^ a b Chan, Nelson D.; Shaheen, Susan A. (November 4, 2011). "Ridesharing in North America: Past, Present, and Future" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 4, 2014.
  18. ^ Shontell, Alyson (January 11, 2014). "All Hail the Uber Man! How Sharp-Elbowed Salesman Travis Kalanick Became Silicon Valley's Newest Star". Business Insider.
  20. ^ Scott, Alec (November 19, 2015). "Co-founding Uber made Calgary-born Garrett Camp a billionaire". Canadian Business.
  21. ^ Said, Carolyn (December 29, 2015). "Ride-sharing pioneer Sidecar to shut down ride, delivery service". San Francisco Chronicle.
  22. ^ Farr, Christina (May 23, 2013). "Lyft team gets $60M more; now it must prove ride-sharing can go global". VentureBeat.
  23. ^ BASHIR, OMER (February 15, 2016). "Uber-clone vows safe, affordable ride. Should you Careem around Karachi, Lahore?". Dawn.
  24. ^ Geron, Tomio (September 9, 2013). "California Becomes First State To Regulate Ridesharing Services [Lyft], Sidecar, UberX". Forbes.
  25. ^ Tansey, Bernadette (July 17, 2015). "Sharing Economy Companies Sharing the Heat in Contractor Controversy". Xconomy.
  26. ^ "The gig-economy: Uber good or Uber bad?". Canadian Labour Congress. May 12, 2015.
  27. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (March 12, 2019). "Uber settles driver classification lawsuit for $20 million". The Verge.
  28. ^ Griswold, Alison (October 28, 2016). "A British court rules Uber drivers have workers' rights in the "employment case of the decade"". Quartz.
  29. ^ Between (1) Mr Y Aslam (2) Mr J Farrar & Others and (1) Uber B.V. (2) Uber London Ltd (3) Uber Britannia Ltd (PDF) (Report). Employment Tribunals. October 28, 2016. Case Nos: 2202550/2015 & Others.
  30. ^ Russon, Mary-Ann (February 19, 2021). "UK Supreme Court rules Uber drivers are workers". BBC News.
  31. ^ Thompson, Rachel (February 19, 2021). "Uber loses its final appeal in UK Supreme Court in landmark ruling". Mashable.
  32. ^ "Swiss authorities say Uber drivers should be treated as 'employees'". Swissinfo. March 19, 2018.
  33. ^ "California's top court makes it more difficult for employers to classify workers as independent contractors". Los Angeles Times. May 1, 2018.
  34. ^ McGee, Patrick (December 31, 2019). "Uber and Postmates sue California over labour law". Financial Times.
  35. ^ HILTZIK, MICHAEL (September 8, 2020). "Column: Uber and Lyft just made their campaign to keep exploiting workers the costliest in history". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2020.
  36. ^ "Late Contribution Report". Archived from the original on September 12, 2020.
  37. ^ Luna, Taryn (November 4, 2020). "California voters approve Prop. 22, allowing Uber and Lyft drivers to remain independent contractors". Los Angeles Times.
  38. ^ "Uber has to pay New Jersey nearly $650 million in employment taxes". Engadget. November 14, 2019. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021.
  39. ^ Korosec, Kirsten; Lomas, Natasha (March 17, 2021). "Uber says it will treat UK drivers as workers in wake of Supreme Court ruling". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on April 8, 2021.
  40. ^ Brustein, Joshua (December 4, 2018). "New York Sets Nation's First Minimum Wage for Uber, Lyft Drivers". Bloomberg News.
  41. ^ "Uber and the labor market". Economic Policy Institute. May 15, 2018.
  42. ^ "Österreich Die Straßenkämpfer: Ein Uber-Fahrer-Report". Profil. May 24, 2018.
  43. ^ "Taxi-Konkurrent Uber: Am Rande des Gesetzes". Trend. 2015.
  44. ^ "'I made $3.75 an hour': Lyft and Uber drivers push to unionize for better pay". The Guardian. March 22, 2019.
  45. ^ "Only 4% of Uber drivers remain on the platform a year later, says report". CNBC. April 20, 2017.
  46. ^ Chen, M. Keith; Chevalier, Judith A.; Rossi, Peter E.; Oehlsen, Emily (December 1, 2019). "The Value of Flexible Work: Evidence from Uber Drivers" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 127 (6): 2735–2794. doi:10.1086/702171. ISSN 0022-3808. S2CID 158944594.
  47. ^ Hook, Leslie; Solomon, Erika; Ram, Aliya (December 19, 2017). "Beirut killing reignites concerns about Uber safety". Financial Times.
  48. ^ Healy, Jack (April 4, 2019). "They Thought It Was Their Uber. But the Driver Was a Predator". The New York Times.
  49. ^ Holmes, Aaron (October 25, 2019). "More than 30 women are suing Lyft, saying the company didn't do enough to protect them from sexual assault and kidnapping". Business Insider.
  50. ^ Kerr, Dara (October 24, 2019). "Lyft is fostering a sexual assault 'epidemic,' victims say". CNET.
  51. ^ Yurieff, Kaya (November 20, 2017). "Uber fined $8.9 million in Colorado for problematic background checks". CNN.
  52. ^ "Lyft fined after hiring driver with felony convictions". KKTV. January 13, 2018.
  53. ^ Spielman, Fran (February 6, 2020). "Aldermen crack down on ride-hailing safety". Chicago Sun Times.
  54. ^ "TPH journey-related sexual offences". Transport for London. June 21, 2021.
  55. ^ Barrios, John; Hochberg, Yael V.; Yi, Hanyi Livia (March 19, 2019). "The Cost of Convenience: Ridehailing and Traffic Fatalities". Becker Friedman Institute. University of Chicago.
  56. ^ Bliss, Laura (October 26, 2018). "Does More Ride-Hailing Mean More Traffic Deaths?". Bloomberg News.
  57. ^ Jacks, Timna (January 11, 2019). "Uber drivers complain they are forced to break the law to do their job.So that means that the drivers put the passenger in danger to which is against the law". Sydney Morning Herald.
  58. ^ Annear, Steve (March 1, 2019). "'Fed up' cyclists send letter to Uber, Lyft asking drivers to stop obstructing bike lanes". The Boston Globe.
  59. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (March 10, 2020). "More Pedestrians and Cyclists are Dying in N.Y.C. Drivers are Often to Blame". The New York Times.
  60. ^ Lipson, Vivian (August 5, 2019). "It's Not Your Imagination: Uber and Lyft Drivers Almost Always Park in Bike Lanes". Streetsblog.
  61. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (October 4, 2017). "Does Uber lead to less drunk driving? It's complicated". The Verge. Vox Media.
  62. ^ Newcomer, Eric (May 15, 2017). "Uber Starts Charging What It Thinks You're Willing to Pay". Bloomberg News.
  63. ^ Kerr, Dara (August 23, 2015). "Detest Uber's surge pricing? Some drivers don't like it either". CNET.
  64. ^ Carson, Biz (June 23, 2016). "Uber will stop showing the surge price that it charges for rides". Business Insider.
  65. ^ Bosker, Bianca (October 31, 2012). "Uber Rethinks New York 'Surge Pricing,' But Doubles Driver Pay". HuffPost.
  66. ^ Mazza, Ed (December 15, 2014). "Uber Raises Fares During Sydney Hostage Crisis, Then Offers Free Rides". HuffPost.
  67. ^ "Uber has refunded passengers after London Bridge terror attack". BBC News. June 5, 2017.
  68. ^ Paul, Sanjukta (October 19, 2019). "The Firm Exemption and the Hierarchy of Finance in the Gig Economy". University of St. Thomas (Minnesota).
  69. ^ Gordon, Aaron (September 19, 2019). "The Legal Argument That Could Destroy Uber Is About To Be Tested". Gawker Media.
  70. ^ "Meyer v. Uber Techs., Inc., 868 F.3d 66 (2d Cir. 2017)".
  71. ^ Paul, Sanjukta (October 19, 2019). "The Firm Exemption and the Hierarchy of Finance in the Gig Economy".
  72. ^ Said, Carolyn (February 27, 2018). "Uber does not have enough wheelchair-accessible vehicles, new lawsuit says". San Francisco Chronicle.
  73. ^ "Steele v. Uber Technologies Inc. (3:18-cv-01715)".
  74. ^ "Complaint: Woman, who is blind, often denied Uber and Lyft rides because of service dog". KARE (TV). September 23, 2019.
  75. ^ Sonnemaker, Tyler (April 2, 2021). "Uber ordered to pay $1.1 million to blind passenger who was denied rides 14 separate times". Business Insider.
  76. ^ Mejia, Jorge; Parker, Chris (January 2021). "When Transparency Fails: Bias and Financial Incentives in Ridesharing Platforms" (PDF). Management Science. 67 (1): 166–184. doi:10.1287/mnsc.2019.3525. S2CID 218928567.
  77. ^ Diao, Mi; Kong, Hui; Zhao, Jinhua (February 1, 2021). "Impacts of transportation network companies on urban mobility". Nature Sustainability. 4 (6): 494–500. doi:10.1038/s41893-020-00678-z. ISSN 2398-9629.
  78. ^ Schaller, Bruce (March 1, 2021). "Can sharing a ride make for less traffic? Evidence from Uber and Lyft and implications for cities". Transport Policy. 102: 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.12.015. ISSN 0967-070X. S2CID 233147976.
  79. ^ Wolfe, Sean (July 27, 2018), "Uber and Lyft are creating more traffic and congestion instead of reducing it, according to a new report", Business Insider
  80. ^ Transport for London (2019), Travel in London Report 12, p. 116
  81. ^ Andrew J. Hawkins (August 6, 2019), Uber and Lyft finally admit they're making traffic congestion worse in cities, The Verge
  82. ^ Saval, Nikil (February 18, 2019). "Uber and the Ongoing Erasure of Public Life". The New Yorker.
  83. ^ Fitzgerald Rodriguez, Joe (December 11, 2016). "SF blasts Uber, Lyft for downtown traffic congestion". The San Francisco Examiner.
  84. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Hu, Winnie (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  85. ^ "The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities" (PDF). Schaller Consulting. July 25, 2018.
  86. ^ Wolfe, Sean (July 27, 2018). "Uber and Lyft are creating more traffic and congestion instead of reducing it, according to a new report". Business Insider.
  87. ^ Agarwal, Saharsh; Mani, Deepa; Telang, Rahul (2020). "The Impact of Ride-hailing Services on Congestion: Evidence from Indian Cities". SSRN.
  88. ^ Badger, Emily (October 16, 2017). "Is Uber Helping or Hurting Mass Transit?". The New York Times.
  89. ^ Brown, Eliot (February 15, 2020). "The Ride-Hail Utopia That Got Stuck in Traffic". The Wall Street Journal.
  90. ^ Zhang, Ruda; Ghanem, Roger (2019). "Demand, Supply, and Performance of Street-Hail Taxi". IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 21 (10): 4123–4132. arXiv:1909.12861. Bibcode:2019arXiv190912861Z. doi:10.1109/TITS.2019.2938762. S2CID 203593159.
  91. ^ Hall, Jonathan D.; Palsson, Craig; Price, Joseph (November 1, 2018). "Is Uber a substitute or complement for public transit?" (PDF). Journal of Urban Economics. 108: 36–50. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2018.09.003. ISSN 0094-1190.
  92. ^ Liang, Jiayu (Spring 2020). "Ride-Hailing: Convenience at What Cost?" (PDF). Catalyst. Union of Concerned Scientists. 20: 10.
  93. ^ Siddiqui, Faiz (February 13, 2019). "Metro plan would subsidize Uber and Lyft fares to fill late-night service gap". The Washington Post.
  94. ^ Sammon, Alexander (August 13, 2019). "When Cities Turn to Uber, Instead of Buses and Trains". The American Prospect.
  95. ^ Junior Dzisi, Emmanuel Komla; Obeng-Atuah, Daniel; Ackaah, Williams; Tuffour, Adubofour Yaw; Aidoo, Nimako Eric (2021). "Uptake in on-demand ride-hailing for intracity long distance trip making during COVID-19". Urban, Planning and Transport Research: 1–12. doi:10.1080/21650020.2021.1872415. S2CID 234060026.
  96. ^ Berger, Paul; Gottfried, Miriam (October 13, 2018). "Hedge Fund Bets on Beaten-Up New York Taxi Business". The Wall Street Journal.
  97. ^ Greil, John (2021). "The Unfranchised Competitor Doctrine, 66 Villanova Law Review 357, 375".