Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
|Operator||Delhi International Airport Private Limited (DIAL)|
|Location||Palam, Delhi, India|
|Elevation AMSL||237 m / 777 ft|
|Statistics (April 2017 – March 2018)|
Indira Gandhi International Airport (IATA: DEL, ICAO: VIDP) serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi, India. The airport, spread over an area of 5,106 acres (2,066 ha), is situated in Palam, 15 km (9.3 mi) south-west of the New Delhi railway station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre. Named after Indira Gandhi, a former Prime Minister of India, it is the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic since 2009. It is also the busiest airport in the country in terms of cargo traffic, overtaking Mumbai during late 2015. In the calendar year 2017, it was the 10th busiest airport in the world and 6th busiest airport in Asia by passenger traffic handling over 63.4 million passengers. The airport handled over 65.7 million passengers in fiscal year 2017–18. It is the world's busiest airport for Airbus A320 aircraft. The planned expansion program will increase the airport's capacity to handle 100 million passengers by 2030.
The airport was operated by the Indian Air Force before its management was transferred to the Airports Authority of India. In May 2006, the management of the airport was passed over to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), a consortium led by the GMR Group. In September 2008, the airport inaugurated a 4,430 m (14,530 ft) runway. With the commencement of operations at Terminal 3 in 2010, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub. The Terminal 3 building has a capacity to handle 34 million passengers annually and is the world's 8th largest passenger terminal. The airport uses an advanced system called Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) to help keep takeoffs and landings timely and predictable.
In 2010, IGIA was conferred the fourth best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, and Best Improved Airport in the Asia-Pacific Region by Airports Council International. The airport was rated as the Best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015. IGI also stood first in the new rankings for 2015 Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Awards conducted by Airports Council International. The airport, along with Mumbai Airport was adjudged "World's Best Airport" at Airport Service Quality Awards 2017 in the highest category of airports handling more than 40 million passengers annually.
- 1 History
- 2 Runways
- 3 Terminals
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Connectivity
- 6 Awards and recognitions
- 7 Incidents
- 8 Sustainability practices
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Safdarjung Airport was built in 1930 and was the main airport for Delhi until 1962. Due to increasing passenger traffic at Safdarjung, civilian operations were moved to Palam Airport (later renamed to IGIA) in 1962. Palam Airport had been built during World War II as RAF Station Palam and after the British left, it served as an Air Force Station for the Indian Air Force. Palam Airport had a peak capacity of around 1,300 passengers per hour. Owing to an increase in air traffic in the 1970s, an additional terminal with nearly four times the area of the old Palam terminal was constructed. With the inauguration of a new international terminal (Terminal 2), on 2 May 1986, the airport was renamed as Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA).
On 31 January 2006, the aviation minister Praful Patel announced that the empowered Group of Ministers have agreed to sell the management-rights of Delhi Airport to the DIAL consortium and the Mumbai airport to the GVK Group. On 2 May 2006, the management of Delhi and Mumbai airports were handed over to the private consortia. Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) is a consortium of the GMR Group (54%), Fraport (10%) and Malaysia Airports (10%), and the Airports Authority of India retains a 26% stake.
Nine years later, in May 2015, Malaysia Airports chose to exit from DIAL venture and sold its entire 10% stake to majority share holder GMR Infra for $79 million. Following this GMR Group's stake at DIAL increased to 64%. Earlier GMR indicated that it was interested in buying out the 10% stake of Fraport.
The old domestic airport (Palam) is known as Terminal 1 and handles domestic flights for all budget airlines. The terminal is divided into three separate buildings – 1A (dedicated terminal for state-run Air India, no longer used), 1B (used by all private commercial airlines, now closed and demolished), the Domestic Arrival Terminal 1C and the newly constructed departure terminal 1D, now used by all domestic low-cost airlines (GoAir, IndiGo, SpiceJet). There is also a separate Technical Area for VVIP passengers.
Significant growth in Indian aviation industry led to a major increase in passenger traffic. The capacity of Terminal 1 was estimated to be 7.15 million passengers per annum (mppa). Actual throughput for 2005/06 was an estimated 10.4 million passengers. Including the now-closed international terminal (Terminal 2), the airport had a total capacity of 12.5 million passengers per year, whereas the total passenger traffic in 2006/07 was 16.5 million passengers per year. In 2008, total passenger count at the airport reached 23.97 million. In order to ease the traffic congestion on the existing terminals, a much larger Terminal 3 was constructed and inaugurated on 3 July 2010. The new terminal's construction took 37 months for completion and this terminal increased airport's total passenger capacity by 34 million. Except the three budget airlines handled by Terminal 1, all other airlines operate their flights from Terminal 3.
|Runway Number||Length||Width||Approach Lights/ILS|
|29/11||4,430 m (14,530 ft)||60 m (200 ft)||CAT III-B / CAT III-B|
|28/10||3,810 m (12,500 ft)||46 m (151 ft)||CAT III-B / CAT I|
|27/09||2,813 m (9,229 ft)||45 m (148 ft)||CAT I / CAT I|
Delhi Airport has three near-parallel runways: runway 11/29, 4,430 m × 60 m (14,530 ft × 200 ft) with CAT IIIB instrument landing system (ILS) on both sides, runway 10/28, 3,810 m × 46 m (12,500 ft × 151 ft), and runway 09/27, 2,813 m × 45 m (9,229 ft × 148 ft). In addition to Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow and Jaipur Airport in Jaipur, Delhi Airport is the only airports in India to have been equipped with the CAT III-B ILS. In the winter of 2005, there were a record number of disruptions at Delhi airport due to fog/smog. Since then some domestic airlines have trained their pilots to operate under CAT-II conditions of a minimum 350 m (1,150 ft) visibility. On 31 March 2006, IGI became the first Indian airport to operate two runways simultaneously following a test run involving a SpiceJet plane landing on runway 28 and a Jet Airways plane taking off from runway 27 at the same time.
The initially proposed mode involving simultaneous takeoffs in westerly flow to increase handling traffic capacity caused several near misses over the west side of the airport where the centrelines of runways 10/28 and 9/27 intersect. The runway use was changed to segregate dependent mode on 25 December 2007, which was a few days after the deciding near miss involving an Airbus A330-200 of Qatar Airways and an Indigo A320 aircraft. The new method involved use of runway 28 for all departures and runway 27 for all arrivals. This mode which was more streamlined was adopted during day hours (0600 - 2300 IST) till 24 September 2008.
On 21 August 2008, the airport inaugurated its 3rd runway 11/29 costing ₹10 billion and 4,430 m (14,534 ft) long. The runway has one of the world's longest paved threshold displacements of 1,460 m (4,790 ft). This, in turn decreases the available landing length on runway 29 to 2,970 m (9,744 ft). The purpose of this large threshold displacement is to reduce noise generated by landing aircraft over nearby localities. The runway increases the airport's capacity to handle up to 100 flights from the previous 45–60 flights per hour. The new runway was opened for commercial operations on 25 September 2008 and gradually began full round-the-clock operations by the end of October the same year.
Since mid 2012 all three runways are operated simultaneously to handle traffic during day hours. Only runways 11/29 and 10/28 are operated during night (2300–0600 IST) hours with single runway landing restriction during westerly traffic flow that is rotated late night (0300 IST) and reversed weekly to distribute and mitigate night time landing noise over nearby residential areas.
To cater for the demand of increasing air traffic, the master plan for the construction of a fourth parallel runway next to the existing runway 11/29 has been cleared.
IGI Airport serves as a major hub or a focus destination for several Indian carriers including Air India, Air India Regional, IndiGo, Jet Airways, SpiceJet, GoAir and Vistara. Approximately 80 airlines serve this airport. At present there are two active scheduled passenger terminals, a dedicated Hajj terminal and a cargo terminal.
Terminal 1 is currently used by low cost carriers IndiGo and SpiceJet. DIAL is working to expand Terminal 1 and enhance its annual passenger handling capacity from the current 18 million to 30 million within four years by year 2022.
- Terminal 1A
Terminal 1A was built in the late 1980s to cater to Indian Airlines. It had to be refurbished after a fire gutted the interiors and DIAL significantly upgraded the terminal. It was used by Air India for its airbus operations until it shifted to the new Terminal 3 on 11 November 2010. The terminal is now closed and is expected to be torn down on the completion of newer terminals.
- Terminal 1C
Terminal 1C is used only for domestic arrivals. The terminal has been upgraded with a new expanded greeting area and a larger luggage reclaim area with 8 belts.
- Terminal 1D
Terminal 1D is the newly built domestic departure terminal with a total floor space of 53,000 m2 (570,000 sq ft) and has a capacity to handle 15 million passengers per year. Terminal 1D commenced operations on 19 April 2009. It has 72 Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) enabled check-in counters, 16 self check-in counters, and 16 security channels.
Terminal 2 was opened on 1 May 1986, at a cost of ₹950 million and was used for International flights until July 2010 when operations shifted to T3. After this, the terminal remained operational for only three months per year catering to Haj flights. In 2017, after revamping terminal 2 at a cost of ₹1 billion, DIAL shifted operations of GoAir to the terminal from 29 October in order to continue expansion work of T1. Now, GoAir along with SpiceJet and Indigo operates its daily flights from this terminal.
Designed by HOK working in consultation with Mott MacDonald, the new Terminal 3 is a two-tier building spread over an area of 20 acres (8.1 ha), with the lower floor being the arrivals area, and the upper floor being a departures area. This terminal has 168 check-in counters, 78 aerobridges at 48 contact stands, 54 parking bays, 95 immigration counters, 15 X-ray screening areas, for less waiting times, duty-free shops, and other features. This new terminal was timed to be completed for the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which was held in Delhi and is connected to Delhi by an eight-lane Delhi Gurgaon Expressway and the Delhi Metro. The terminal was officially inaugurated on 3 July 2010. All international airlines shifted their operations to the new terminal in late July 2010 and all full service domestic carriers in November 2010. The arrival area is equipped with 14 baggage carousels. T3 has India's first automated parking management and guidance system in a multi level car park, which comprises 7 levels and a capacity of 4,300 cars. Terminal 3 forms the first phase of the airport expansion which tentatively includes the construction of additional passenger & cargo terminals (Terminal 4, 5 & 6).
Domestic full-service airlines operate from Terminal 3 including Air India, the national carrier and Jet Airways, who moved their domestic operations to the new terminal in November 2010. The Tata & Singapore Airlines airline joint-venture Vistara also operates from Terminal 3. AirAsia India, although a low cost airline, also operates its domestic flights from this terminal.
Terminals 4, 5 and 6
Terminals 4, 5 and 6 will be built at a later stage, which will be triggered by growth in traffic, and once completed, all international flights will move to these three new terminals, while Terminal 3 will then solely be used for handling domestic air traffic. A new cargo handling building is also planned. According to Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL), these new terminals will increase the airport's annual passenger volume capacity to 100 million.
DIAL submitted a plan in 2016 to the then aviation secretary R N Choubey regarding expansion of airport with a new fourth runway and Terminal 4 in a phased manner. The Master Plan of Airport in 2016 was then reviewed and updated by DIAL in consultation with the Airports Authority of India. The terminal construction will start after completion on fourth runway and expansion of terminal 1 and 3.
The air cargo complex is located at a distance of 1 km (0.62 mi) from T3. It consists of separate brownfield and greenfield cargo terminals. The cargo operations at the brownfield terminal are managed by Celebi Delhi Cargo Management India Pvt. Ltd., which is a joint venture between Delhi International Airport Private Ltd (DIAL) and the Turkish company Celebi Ground Handling (CGH). CGH was awarded the contract to develop, modernize, and finance the existing cargo terminal and to operate the terminal for a period of twenty-five years by DIAL in November 2009. It started it's operations in June 2010. In addition to the existing terminal, a new greenfield terminal is being developed in phases by Delhi Cargo Service Centre (DCSC), also a joint venture between DIAL and Cargo Service Center (CSC). The Greenfield cargo terminal project consists of two terminals built over a plot of 48,000 square metres and 28,500 square metres respectively. Phase-1A of the project has been completed and is fully operational. Once the entire project is completed, these two new terminals will have an annual handling capacity of 1.25 million tonnes. The cargo operations of the airport received "e-Asia 2007" award in 2007 for "Implementation of e- Commerce / Electronic Data Interchange in Air Cargo Sector".
Airlines and destinations
|1||Mumbai||4,321,284||Air India, Alliance Air, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Jetlite, Spicejet, Vistara|
|2||Bangalore||2,657,005||Air Asia India, Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|3||Kolkata||1,934,457||Air Asia India, Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|4||Hyderabad||1,743,201||Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|5||Pune||1,638,179||Air Asia India, Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|6||Chennai||1,603,052||Air India, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|7||Ahmedabad||1,380,870||Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Vistara|
|8||Lucknow||1,214,707||Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Vistara|
|9||Patna||1,077,756||Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet|
|10||Goa||1,038,646||Air Asia India, Air India, Go Air, Indigo, Spicejet, Vistara|
Top international destinations
|1||Dubai–International||2,072,847||Air India, Air India Express, Emirates, Fly Dubai, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spicejet|
|2||London–Heathrow||1,010,439||Air India, British Airways, Jet Airways, Virgin Atlantic|
|3||Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi||960,205||Air India, Jet Airways, Spicejet, Thai Airways|
|4||Kathmandu||772,040||Air India, Bhutan Airlines, Indigo, Jet Airways, Nepal Airlines|
|5||Singapore||715,389||Air India, Jet Airways, Singapore Airlines|
|6||Abu Dhabi||683,813||Air India Express, Etihad Airways, Jet Airways|
|7||Doha||586,312||Indigo, Jet Airways, Qatar Airways|
|8||Hong Kong||577,810||Air India, Cathay Pacific, Jet Airways|
|9||Kuala Lumpur–International||460,277||Air Asia X, Malaysia Airlines, Malindo Air|
|10||Frankfurt||457,843||Air India, Lufthansa|
The nearest railway station is Palam railway station which is 18 km from New Delhi railway station. Several passenger trains runs regularly between these stations. Shahabad Mohammadpur (SMDP) is equally close.
Terminal 2 and 3 of the airport are served by the Delhi Airport Metro Express train line. The 22.7 km (14.1 mi) line runs from the Airport metro station located between the terminals to the New Delhi metro station railway station with trains running every 10 minutes. Terminal 1 is served by Terminal 1-IGI Airport metro station of Delhi Metro's Magenta Line.
The airport is connected by the 8-lane Delhi Gurgaon Expressway. Air conditioned low-floor buses operated by Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) regularly run between the airport and the city. Metered taxis are also available from terminals T3 and T1C to all areas of Delhi.
Awards and recognitions
- In 2015, Delhi Airport bagged two awards for The Best Airport in Central Asia/India and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia/India at the prestigious Skytrax World Airport Awards.
- In 2015, Delhi Airport won the Best Airport award from the Airports Council International within 25–40 million annual passengers category.
- In 2015, it won the prestigious Golden Peacock National Quality Award given by the Institute of Directors (India).
- In 2016, The Indira Gandhi International (IGI) Airport has become Asia-Pacific's only and one of the world's few airports to achieve a carbon neutral status. The announcement in this regard was made by the Airports Council International (ACI) during the Airport Carbon Accreditation certificate presentation ceremony to IGI in Montreal, Canada.
- In 2017, IGI Airport won the Best Airport award from the Airports Council International along with Mumbai in the highest category of airports handling more than 40 million passengers per annum.
A Royal Nepal Airlines Fokker F27-200 (9N-AAR) after a flight from Kathmandu, Nepal was caught in severe thunderstorms with turbulence and downdrafts on final approach to Palam Airport. The pilot lost control of the aircraft and crashed short of the runway. Of the five crew and 18 passengers, one crew member was killed.
An Air India Boeing 747 flying on the London-Delhi-Mumbai route and carrying 215 people (195 passengers and 20 crew) touched down at Indira Gandhi International Airport after a flight from London Heathrow Airport. On application of reverse thrust, a failure of the no. 1 engine pylon to wing attachment caused this engine to tilt nose down. Hot exhaust gases caused a fire on the left wing. There were no casualties but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair and written off.
Indian Airlines Flight 492 (IC 492), A Boeing 737-2A8 (Registered VT-ECS), damaged beyond repair when the aircraft overshot the runway at Delhi airport due to pilots error, on its scheduled flight from Jaipur to Delhi.
The airport was involved in the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision when a Saudia Boeing 747-100B, climbing out after take-off, collided with an incoming Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin Il-76 chartered by a fashion company, causing the deaths of all 349 people on board the two planes.
A major mishap was averted at Indira Gandhi International Airport when an Indigo flight 6E 769 and a Spice Jet flight SG 123 came face-to-face on the runway. However, no damage occurred as it was promptly flagged. The Spice Jet flight was following ATC instructions. While taxing, the Spice Jet crew observed another aircraft in the opposite direction.
On 7 July a jet blast from arriving SpiceJet flight SG-253 blew out the window of an Indigo Airlines bus, causing minor injuries to five bus passengers.
On 9 August Ethiopian Airlines flight ET687, loaded with 196 passengers, was in the process of being pushed back from the gate by a tow tractor when the trailing edge of its right wing collided with the left winglet of a parked Air India A320, causing both planes to be grounded.
Delhi Airport is the first airport in the world to be registered under Clean Development Mechanism of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The airport has a 7.84 MW solar plant installed alongside runway 29/11. GMR targets to increase generation capacity to 20MW by 2020.
- Transport in India
- List of airports in India
- List of busiest airports in India by passenger traffic
- Aviation in India
- "Traffic News for the month of March 2018: Annexure-III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 1 May 2018. p. 4. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Traffic News for the month of March 2018: Annexure-II" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 1 May 2018. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Traffic News for the month of March 2018: Annexure-IV" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. 1 May 2018. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- About IGI Airport from the Wayback Machine
- eAIP India, OF Airports Authority of India, 1 April 2012, archived from the original on 31 March 2014
- "Fact Sheet". Newdelhiairport.in. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Delhi Airport busier than Mumbai by 40 flights a day". The Indian Express. 16 August 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Traffic News for the month of January 2017: Annexure III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
January 2017: 5,197,483
- "Traffic News for the month of February 2017: Annexure III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
February 2017: 4,817,470
- "Traffic News for the month of March 2017: Annexure III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
March 2017: 5,185,966
- "Traffic News for the month of December 2017: Annexure III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
April–December 2017: 48,250,584
Total passengers in calendar year 2017: 63,451,503
- "Traffic News for the month of February 2017: Annexure III" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Delhi airport is the busiest in the world for Airbus A320 flights". Business Standard. 17 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
- Grammaticas, Damian (9 May 2007). "Sky's the limit for India flight boom". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Why they should stay with the Air Force". The Hindu Business Line.
- "Mumbai, Delhi airport management to be handed over to pvt cos". Outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Advance System at IGIA" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Ministry of Civil Aviation. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- ACI Airport Service Quality Awards 2009, Asia Pacific airports sweep top places in worldwide awards from the Wayback Machine
- "Delhi's IGI is world's 2nd best airport for service quality again". Firstpost.
- Business Standard. "Delhi Airport Ranked First for Service Quality". business-standard.com.
- "Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport bags two international awards in Paris". The Economic Times. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "Indira Gandhi International Airport is world's best airport for second time in a row". indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- Devanjana Nag (7 March 2018). "Delhi's IGI, Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji airports beat Singapore Changi, Seoul Incheon to become world's best". The Financial Express. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Delhi, Mumbai airport modernisation – Efforts to ensure a smoother journey". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Mumbai, Delhi airport management to be handed over to pvt cos". news.outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad". Malaysiaairports.com.my. 4 April 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Sandeep Sharma (31 March 2010). "Equipment India – India's first infrastructure equipment magazine". Constructionupdate.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "GMR Infrastructure acquires 10% additional share in Delhi airport overall stake rises to 64%". Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Malaysia Airports sells Delhi International Airport stake to GMR". Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "IGI Airport tops world in growth". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 19 January 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Brand New Beginning – New Integrated Passenger Terminal 3 Inaugurated At IGIA". GMR Group. 3 July 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "AAI commits more airports for CAT III ILS compliance". Daily News and Analysis. ANI. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Saurabh Sinha and Neha Lalchandani (19 December 2007). "Now separate runways at Delhi airport". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Express News Service (22 August 2008). "Air India Boeing opens Rs 1,000 cr runway at IGIA". Express India. Retrieved 29 October 2012.[permanent dead link]
- "Delhi's airport opens third runway for round-the-clock operation". The Hindu Business Line. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Neha Lalchandani (26 June 2012). "Indira Gandhi International Airport to use 3 runways together". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Saurabh Sinha (7 April 2017). "Mix-up forces Air India plane to do high-speed reject at Delhi Airport". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Faizan Haider (23 August 2017). "Delhi airport new look: Bigger terminals, internal rail but brace for chaos first". Delhi: Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "DIAL plans 4th runway at IGI by 2020, new terminal too". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- "End of an era at Terminal 1 A". Hindustan Times. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Terminal 1D expansion work to begin by year end". The Hindu. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Delhi Airport's new Terminal 1D to open on April 19". NetIndian. 14 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- Express Web Desk (17 October 2017). "IGI T2: GoAir shifts to new terminal 2 from October 29, but IndiGo, SpiceJet reluctant". New Delhi: The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Arindam Majumder (28 October 2017). "Delhi airport T1 upgrade: GoAir shifts to T2; no nod from IndiGo, Spicejet". Business Standard. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- PTI (13 October 2017). "Delhi airport: GoAir to shift operations to T2 from October 29". The Indian Express. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "IGI Airport in India to unveil world's third largest terminal". World Interior Design Network. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Delhi International Airport (P) Limited". Gmrgroup.co.in (GMR). Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "DIAL to invest Rs 30,000 cr, build 4 new terminals in Delhi". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Urvashi Sarkar (23 June 2010). "New terminal to take off at Delhi airport". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Decks cleared for shift of operations to T3". The Times of India. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2001.
- "Master Plan for Expansion of IGI Airport". Press Information Bureau. 2017-03-15. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- "DIAL invites Expression of Interest (IEoI) for Cargo Village Project at IGI Airport". New Delhi: Official Website of Delhi Airport. 10 February 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Corporate: Celebi Delhi Cargo Terminal Management India Pvt Ltd". Celebi Cargo India. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Air cargo terminals Striving for PPP boost". Indian Transport and Logistics News. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "DIAL Cargo gets international "e ASIA 2007 Award" I.G.I. Airport becomes the First Indian Airport to get this award". 22 September 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Air India and Alliance Air schedule list". airindia.in. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
- "Air India to launch Delhi-Nanded service from November 19". Newindianexpress.com. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- Jim Liu (9 October 2018). "Air Italy delays India launch to Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "AirAsia flight schedule". airasia.com. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
- "GoAir to commence international operations from October". www.goair.in. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "New Flights Information, Status & Schedule". Official Website of IndiGo. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Surat gets air connection to five more destinations". The Times of India. 2018-06-30. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
- "Jazeera adds Delhi service from Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- "Flight Schedules". Official website of Jet Airways. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Jet Airways adds Delhi – Riyadh service in W17". Routesonline. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- "Jet Airways discontinues Delhi – Muscat route in Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
- "Lufthansa flight timetable". lufthansa.com. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
- Jim Liu (10 December 2018). "NokScoot adds Delhi service from mid-Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "SpiceJet plans Hong Kong debut in Nov 2018". routesonline. 27 September 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "SpiceJet To Launch Delhi-Kanpur-Delhi Direct Flights, Offers Tickets From Rs 2,313". Ndtv.com. 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
- "SpiceJet to operate flights on Delhi-Kishangarh route". The Economic Times. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "SpiceJet flight schedules". Official Website of SpiceJet. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Ukraine International adds Delhi service from May 2018". routesonline. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "United further expands San Francisco international service in 2019". RoutesOnline. December 12, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- Jim Liu (16 May 2018). "WOW air plans Delhi launch in Dec 2018". Routes Online. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "Corporate details, Blue dart Aviation". Official Weebsite of Blue Dart Aviation. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Check Flight Schedule: Cathay Pacific Cargo". Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Network- Cathay Pacific". Cathay Pacific Cargo. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "China Airlines Cargo resumes freighter operations to India after four years | Air Cargo News". Stattimes.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "China Airlines to resume cargo services to India | Economics | FOCUS TAIWAN – CNA ENGLISH NEWS". Focustaiwan.tw. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "DHL AVIATION - FLIGHT SCHEDULE" (PDF). Globe Air Cargo. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Cargo Network". Ethiopian Airlines. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
- "Jet Airways to start dedicated cargo operations from April". 17 March 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "Kalitta Air LLC Flight Schedule". Official website of Kalitta Air. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Korean Air launches cargo flights to Delhi, India". Eturbonews. 10 July 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Fleet & Network". Official Website of MASkargo. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "MASKargo adds new intra-Asia routing in S18". Routesonline. Retrieved 2018-07-08.
- "Summer 18 Freighter Schedule Issue 3: 1st May to 27th Oct 2018" (PDF). Official Website of Qatar Airways Cargo. p. 2. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "SCHEDULED FREIGHTER NETWORK". Official Website of Quikjet Airlines. Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Thai Airways launches cargo freighter service from Hyderabad". The Hindu. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "WINTER 2016 CARGO SCHEDULE (16-22 JAN 2017)" (PDF). Turkish Airlines Cargo. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- "Uni-Top Airlines: Flight Schedule". Uw-air.com. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "Boeing 767-300: flights in a new format from Navoi". Official website of Uzbekistan Airways. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Statistics - Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India) 8 March 2018
- "Shahabad Mohamadpur/SMDP Railway Station Satellite Map – India Rail Info – A Busy Junction for Travellers & Rail Enthusiasts". India Rail Info. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- "Palam/PM Railway Station Satellite Map – India Rail Info – A Busy Junction for Travellers & Rail Enthusiasts". India Rail Info. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- "Website Airport Metro Express Delhi". delhiairportexpress.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Sidharatha Roy (24 May 2018). "Metro walks the talk on connect to terminal 1". New Delhi: The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "To and From Delhi Airport by Taxi". Official Website. Retrieved 20 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Award for Delhi airport". The Hindu. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "IGI Airport: Carbon-neutral tag for IGI Airport, first in Asia-Pacific". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- "Aviation Safety Network retrieved 28 May 2008". Aviation-safety.net. 25 January 1970. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- 14 June 1972 Douglas DC-8-53, Japan Air Lines–Aviation Safety Network; retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-2A8 VT-EAM Delhi-Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL )". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- "Airline crash in New Delhi." United Press International (UPI) at Lodi News-Sentinel. Friday 1 June 1973. p. 8 (Google News p. 5/16), Retrieved on 28 October 2014.
- "Aviation Safety". Aviation Safety. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Major air crashes in India in two decades". newindianexpress.com. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Burns, John F. (5 May 1997). "One Jet in Crash Over India Ruled Off Course". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "IndiGo, SpiceJet planes come face-to-face on Delhi airport runway, mishap averted". The Indian Express. 27 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "5 hurt after jet blast breaks bus window at Delhi airport". Straits Times. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "Close shave at Delhi airport as wings of AI, Ethiopian Airlines planes collide". Hindustan Times. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "GMR Group". www.gmrgroup.in. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- Editors. "Delhi Airport becomes the 1st airport in the world to be solar-powered". resources.solarbusinesshub.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- "New Delhi is first airport terminal globally to register at UN as 'Clean Development Mechanism' project". www.bangaloreaviation.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- "Know the rules of passport, visa, customs, baggage, visa extension and health for Indian Nationals and Foreign Nationals". Newdelhiairport.in. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- India, Press Trust of (2016-09-28). "Delhi airport first carbon neutral airport in Asia-Pacific". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indira Gandhi International Airport.|
- Indira Gandhi International Airport, official website
- GMR Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL)
- GMR Group
- Kanpur Airport
- Accident history for DEL at Aviation Safety Network