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|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2020 day arrangement
- 1604 – The Guru Granth Sahib (folio depicted), the religious text of Sikhism, was installed in Harmandir Sahib.
- 1774 – Under orders from royal governor Thomas Gage, British soldiers removed gunpowder from a magazine in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, causing Patriots to prepare for war.
- 1902 – The first science fiction film, titled A Trip to the Moon and based on From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, was released in France.
- 1967 – At the Arab League summit, eight nations issued the Khartoum Resolution, declaring "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, [and] no negotiations with it".
- 2019 – Hurricane Dorian, the most powerful Atlantic hurricane on record outside of the tropics, made landfall in the Bahamas at Category 5 intensity.
- 47 BC – Caesarion, a possible son of Julius Caesar, became the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, ruling jointly with his mother Cleopatra.
- 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Prussian forces captured Napoleon III (pictured) in Sedan, France, which led to the collapse of the Second French Empire within days.
- 1957 – South Vietnamese president Ngô Đình Diệm began an official visit to Australia, the first by a foreign incumbent head of state to the country.
- 1992 – An earthquake registering 7.7 Mw off the coast of Nicaragua became the first tsunami earthquake to be captured on modern broadband seismic networks.
- 1998 – A fire on Swissair Flight 111, en route from New York City to Geneva, caused the aircraft to crash into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 229 people on board.
- 590 – Gregory I, the first pope from a monastic background, began his papacy.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The British Army and their Hessian allies defeated an American militia at the Battle of Cooch's Bridge.
- 1901 – The flag of Australia flew for the first time from the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne.
- 1935 – On the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, British racing motorist Malcolm Campbell became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph (480 km/h).
- 2004 – Russian security forces stormed a school in Beslan, North Ossetia, ending a three-day hostage crisis in which 334 of more than 1,100 hostages were killed (photographs of victims pictured).
- 1800 – French Revolutionary Wars: Facing starvation and a death rate of 100 soldiers a day, the French garrison in Malta surrendered to British forces, ending a two-year siege.
- 1843 – Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies and Pedro II of Brazil (both pictured) held an extravagant wedding at a cathedral in Rio de Janeiro.
- 1912 – The Albanian revolt of 1912 came to an end when the Ottoman government agreed to meet most of the rebels' demands.
- 1977 – A gang-related shooting took place in Chinatown, San Francisco, leaving five dead and spurring police to end Chinese gang violence in the city.
- 2007 – Three terrorists suspected to be part of al-Qaeda were arrested in Germany after planning attacks on Frankfurt Airport and Ramstein Air Base.
- 917 – Liu Yan declared himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu (present-day Guangzhou).
- 1774 – In response to the British Parliament's enactment of the so-called Intolerable Acts, representatives from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies convened the First Continental Congress at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia.
- 1882 – A group of London schoolboys led by Bobby Buckle founded Hotspur Football Club to continue to play sports during the winter months.
- 1915 – The Zimmerwald Conference, the first of three international socialist conferences forming the Zimmerwald movement, opened in Switzerland.
- 1975 – Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme (pictured), a devotee of Charles Manson, attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford of the United States.
- 1870 – Louisa Swain became the first woman in the United States to vote in a general election.
- 1930 – Argentine president Hipólito Yrigoyen (pictured) was deposed in a military coup by José Félix Uriburu.
- 1952 – A prototype aircraft crashed at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing the pilot and test observer on board, and 29 spectators.
- 1970 – The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacked four airliners, landing two at Dawson's Field in Jordan and one in Cairo, while the last hijacking attempt was foiled.
- 1995 – Cal Ripken Jr. played his 2,131st consecutive Major League Baseball game, breaking the 56-year-old record set by Lou Gehrig.
- 1652 – Chinese peasants on Formosa (now Taiwan) began a rebellion against Dutch rule which was suppressed four days later.
- 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army fought near the village of Borodino during the French invasion of Russia.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Luftwaffe changed their strategy in the Battle of Britain and began bombing London and other cities and towns.
- 1986 – Desmond Tutu (pictured) became the first black leader of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa.
- 2010 – A Chinese fishing trawler operating in disputed waters collided with Japan Coast Guard patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands, sparking a major diplomatic dispute between the two countries.
- 1566 – Ottoman–Habsburg wars: Although Ottoman forces led by Suleiman the Magnificent captured the fortress of Szigetvár, Hungary, they were forced to end their campaign to capture Vienna.
- 1775 – Maltese priests discontented with the Order of Saint John led an uprising, which was suppressed by the Order within a few hours.
- 1831 – The Russian Empire brought the Polish November Uprising to an end when its troops captured Warsaw after a two-day assault.
- 1935 – U.S. senator Huey Long (pictured) was shot in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, dying two days later.
- 1141 – Yelü Dashi, the Liao general who founded the Qara Khitai, defeated Seljuq and Kara-Khanid forces at the Battle of Qatwan near Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan.
- 1320 – Byzantine forces defeated Achaean troops at the Battle of Saint George, taking control of the Arcadia region of Greece.
- 1954 – An earthquake registering 6.7 Mw struck near Chlef, Algeria, leaving at least 1,243 people dead, and forcing the government to implement comprehensive reforms in building codes.
- 2010 – A natural-gas pipeline in San Bruno, California, exploded (damage pictured) and "shot a fireball more than 1,000 feet (300 m) in the air", killing eight people.
- 1509 – A strong earthquake occurred in the Sea of Marmara, devastating much of Constantinople and causing at least 1,000 deaths.
- 1547 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: English forces defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie near Musselburgh, Lothian, Scotland.
- 1945 – Mike the Headless Chicken was decapitated on a farm in Colorado; he survived another 18 months as part of sideshows before choking to death in Phoenix, Arizona.
- 1990 – Pope John Paul II consecrated the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace (pictured), one of the largest churches in the world, in Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast.
- 2000 – British forces freed soldiers and civilians who had been held captive by a militia group, contributing to the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War.
- 1297 – First War of Scottish Independence: Scottish forces under Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated English troops at the Battle of Stirling Bridge on the River Forth.
- 1924 – French composer Gabriel Fauré finished his last composition, a string quartet, two months before his death.
- 1945 – The Japanese-run camp at Batu Lintang, Sarawak, in Borneo was liberated by the Australian 9th Division, averting the planned massacre of its 2,000-plus Allied POWs and civilian internees by four days.
- 2001 – Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger airliners to carry out a series of terrorist attacks (second attack pictured) against targets in New York City and the Washington, D.C., area.
- 1309 – Reconquista: Castilian forces captured Gibraltar from the Emirate of Granada.
- 1910 – Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8, one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire, was first performed in Munich.
- 1948 – The People's Liberation Army launched the Liaoshen campaign, the first of the three major military campaigns during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War.
- 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko died after being beaten in police custody in Port Elizabeth.
- 1992 – Aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, American Mae Jemison (pictured) became the first black woman to travel to space.
- 1759 – Seven Years' War: British forces won the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City, New France, despite General James Wolfe being mortally wounded.
- 1848 – An explosion drove an iron rod through the head of railroad foreman Phineas Gage (pictured holding rod), making him an important early case of personality change after brain injury.
- 1964 – South Vietnamese generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức staged a coup attempt after being demoted by junta leader Nguyễn Khánh.
- 1985 – Super Mario Bros., one of the most influential and best-selling video games of all time, was first released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in Japan.
- 1723 – António Manoel de Vilhena, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, laid the first stone of Fort Manoel (pictured) in Malta.
- 1752 – Under the terms of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the British Empire adopted the Gregorian calendar, skipping 11 days of the month.
- 1940 – Hungarian forces massacred at least 150 ethnic Romanians in Ip, Transylvania, following rumors that Romanians were responsible for the deaths of two soldiers.
- 1960 – At a conference held in Baghdad, the governments of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela founded OPEC to help unify and coordinate their petroleum policies.
- 1992 – The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia unconstitutional.
- 1795 – French Revolutionary Wars: Great Britain seized the Dutch Cape Colony to use its facilities against the French Navy.
- 1816 – HMS Whiting ran aground on the Doom Bar on the coast of Cornwall, England.
- 1935 – Nazi Germany enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived Jews of their citizenship.
- 1944 – World War II: The Greek People's Liberation Army won the Battle of Meligalas and began the execution of many prisoners of war and civilians.
- 1963 – The Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church, an African-American church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four girls and injuring at least 14 other people (memorial march pictured).
- 1701 – James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed the "Old Pretender", became the Jacobite claimant to the English and Scottish thrones.
- 1920 – A bomb in a horse-drawn wagon exploded in front of 23 Wall Street in New York City, killing 38 people and injuring several hundred others.
- 1940 – Second World War: Italian forces captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but their invasion of Egypt (tanks pictured) progressed no further.
- 1990 – Construction of the Northern Xinjiang railway was completed between Ürümqi South and Alashankou, linking the railway lines of China and Kazakhstan, and adding a sizeable portion to the Eurasian Land Bridge.
- 2007 – Seventeen Iraqi civilians were shot and killed by Blackwater guards in Baghdad.
- 1176 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Seljuq Turks prevented Byzantine forces from taking the interior of Anatolia at the Battle of Myriokephalon in Phrygia.
- 1630 – Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded the city of Boston.
- 1970 – The Jordanian army entered Amman as part of operations to oust Palestinian fedayeen from the country in what became known as Black September (smoke over Amman pictured).
- 1980 – Solidarity, a Polish trade union, was founded as the first independent labor union in an Eastern Bloc country.
- 1048 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Byzantine forces defeated their Seljuq opponents in the flanks of the nocturnal Battle of Kapetron, but learned of their Georgian allies' defeat in the centre the next morning.
- 1870 – Nathaniel P. Langford of the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition first observed a geyser in the Wyoming Territory erupting at regular intervals, naming it Old Faithful (video featured).
- 1895 – Daniel David Palmer performed the first chiropractic adjustment, on deaf janitor Harvey Lillard.
- 1918 – World War I: The Central Powers' defeat at the Battle of Dobro Pole played a role in the Bulgarian withdrawal from the war and led to the subsequent liberation of Vardar Macedonia.
- 1846 – French shepherd children Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud reported a Marian apparition, now known as Our Lady of La Salette, near La Salette-Fallavaux.
- 1940 – World War II: Polish resistance leader Witold Pilecki (pictured) allowed himself to be captured by German forces and sent to Auschwitz to gather intelligence.
- 1970 – Greek student Kostas Georgakis set himself on fire in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the military junta of Georgios Papadopoulos.
- 1995 – The manifesto of Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, was published in The Washington Post almost three months after it was submitted.
- 1498 – A tsunami caused by the Nankai earthquake washed away the building housing the statue of the Great Buddha (pictured) at Kōtoku-in in Kamakura, Japan.
- 1643 – First English Civil War: The First Battle of Newbury was fought in Berkshire; Parliamentarian forces were allowed to pass Royalist troops to retreat the next morning.
- 1920 – Irish War of Independence: British police officers known as Black and Tans went on a rampage in Balbriggan as revenge for the shooting of two officers.
- 1977 – A series of celestial phenomena of disputed nature was observed in the western Soviet Union, Finland and Denmark.
- 2000 – The Real Irish Republican Army carried out a rocket-launcher attack on the MI6 headquarters in London, with no casualties and minimal damage recorded.
- 1170 – Norman invasion of Ireland: English and Irish forces conquered Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, the last Norse–Gaelic king of Dublin, into exile.
- 1745 – Jacobite risings: Jacobite troops led by Charles Edward Stuart (pictured) defeated Hanoverian forces in Prestonpans, Scotland.
- 1965 – Portugal accepted a diplomatic mission from Southern Rhodesia despite objections by Britain, which had required the colony to implement black majority rule as a condition of independence.
- 1586 – Eighty Years' War: Spanish forces defeated the Anglo-Dutch army at the Battle of Zutphen.
- 1862 – U.S. president Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring the freedom of all slaves in Confederate territory by January 1, 1863.
- 1922 – After nine days, the great fire of Smyrna was extinguished (aftermath pictured), having caused at least ten thousand deaths.
- 1980 – The Iraqi Air Force launched surprise airstrikes on ten Iranian airfields, starting the Iran–Iraq War.
- 1803 – Maratha troops were defeated by forces of the British East India Company at the Battle of Assaye, one of the decisive battles of the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
- 1952 – U.S. vice-presidential candidate Richard Nixon delivered the Checkers speech (pictured), one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.
- 2002 – The first version of the web browser Firefox was released by the Mozilla Organization.
- 2010 – Teresa Lewis became the first woman to be executed by the U.S. state of Virginia since 1912, and the first woman in the state to be executed via lethal injection.
- 1568 – At San Juan de Ulúa (present-day Veracruz, Mexico), a Spanish naval fleet forced English privateers to halt their trade (battle depicted).
- 1890 – Wilford Woodruff, the president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, wrote the first draft of a manifesto that officially disavowed the future practice of plural marriage.
- 1950 – "The Great Smoke Pall", generated by the Chinchaga fire, the largest recorded fire in North American history, was first recorded in present-day Nunavut and may eventually have circled the entire globe.
- 1975 – Dougal Haston and Doug Scott of the Southwest Face expedition became the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest by ascending one of its faces.
- 1066 – Harold Godwinson defeated King Harald III of Norway and his English ally Tostig Godwinson at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, ending the last Norse invasion of the British Isles.
- 1396 – Ottoman wars in Europe: Ottoman forces under Bayezid I (pictured) defeated a Christian alliance led by Sigismund of Hungary near present-day Nikopol, Bulgaria.
- 1977 – About 4,200 people took part in the first modern Chicago Marathon.
- 1990 – The Ram Rath Yatra, a political–religious rally organised to erect a temple to the Hindu deity Rama on the site of the Babri Masjid, began in the Indian state of Gujarat.
- 1580 – Explorer Francis Drake's galleon Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, completing his circumnavigation of the globe.
- 1875 – Billy the Kid was arrested for the first time after stealing clothes from a laundryman, beginning his life as an infamous American outlaw and gunman.
- 1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army completed the Tallinn Offensive, driving German forces out of Estonia.
- 2010 – Scottish aid worker Linda Norgrove and three Afghan colleagues were kidnapped by members of the Taliban in Kunar Province, Afghanistan.
- 1825 – Locomotion No. 1 hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world to use steam locomotives.
- 1875 – The Ellen Southard was wrecked in a storm at Liverpool, England; the U.S. Congress subsequently awarded 27 gold Lifesaving Medals to the men who rescued her crew.
- 1930 – With his victory in the U.S. Amateur Championship, Bobby Jones (pictured) became the only person ever to complete a Grand Slam in golf.
- 1940 – World War II: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Empire of Japan signed the Tripartite Pact in Berlin, officially forming a military alliance known as the Axis powers.
- 1983 – Software developer Richard Stallman announced plans for the Unix-like GNU operating system, the first free software developed by the GNU Project.
- 1106 – In the Battle of Tinchebray in Normandy, the invading King Henry I of England captured his brother Robert Curthose.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1928 – Scottish biologist and pharmacologist Alexander Fleming (pictured) discovered penicillin when he noticed a bacteria-killing mould growing in his laboratory.
- 1975 – An attempted robbery of the Spaghetti House restaurant in Knightsbridge, London, went wrong, becoming a six-day hostage situation.
- 2009 – A protest held by 50,000 people in Conakry, Guinea, was forcefully disrupted by the military junta, resulting in at least 157 deaths and over 1,200 injuries.
- 1940 – Two Avro Ansons of the Royal Australian Air Force collided in mid-air over Brocklesby, New South Wales, but locked together (pictured) and were landed safely.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: Nazi forces, aided by local collaborators, began the Babi Yar massacre in Kiev, Ukraine, killing over 30,000 Jewish civilians in two days and thousands more in the months that followed.
- 1954 – Willie Mays of Major League Baseball's New York Giants made one of the most famous defensive plays in baseball history, known as "The Catch".
- 1963 – The University of East Anglia was founded in Norwich, England, after talk of establishing such a university in the city began as early as the 19th century.
- 1990 – The Lockheed YF-22, the prototype for the F-22 Raptor, made its first flight.
- 737 – Muslim conquest of Transoxiana: Türgesh tribes attacked the exposed baggage train of the Umayyads, which had been sent ahead of the main force, and captured it.
- 1551 – Sue Takafusa, a military leader for the Ōuchi clan in western Japan, led a coup against the daimyō, Ōuchi Yoshitaka, leading to the latter's forced suicide.
- 1882 – The Vulcan Street Plant, the first hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America, went on line in Appleton, Wisconsin.
- 1939 – NBC broadcast the first televised American football game, between the Fordham Rams and the Waynesburg Yellow Jackets.
- 2009 – A 7.6 MW earthquake struck off the southern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia (damage pictured), killing 1,115 and impacting an estimated 1.2 million people.