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|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1529 – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, was destroyed by Amerindians.
- 1859 – A powerful solar flare caused a coronal mass ejection that struck Earth a few hours later, generating the most intense geomagnetic storm ever recorded and causing bright aurorae visible in the middle latitudes.
- 1914 – The passenger pigeon, which once numbered in the billions, became extinct when the last individual died in captivity.
- 1973 – A 76-hour multinational rescue effort in the Irish Sea resulted in the deepest sub rescue in history (pictured).
- 1983 – A Soviet jet interceptor shot down the civilian Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near the island of Sakhalin in the north Pacific, killing all 246 passengers and 23 crew on board.
- 47 BC – Caesarion, a possible son of Julius Caesar, became the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, ruling jointly with his mother Cleopatra.
- 1885 – White miners in Rock Springs, Wyoming, attacked Chinese-American immigrants, killing at least 28 Chinese miners and causing approximately $150,000 in property damage.
- 1945 – On the deck of the U.S. Navy battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay, representatives from the Empire of Japan and the Allied powers signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender (pictured), formally ending World War II.
- 2011 – Bad weather caused a Chilean Air Force aircraft to crash into the Pacific Ocean, killing all 21 people on board.
- 36 BC – The Sicilian revolt against the Second Triumvirate of the Roman Republic ended when the fleet of Sextus Pompey, the rebel leader, was defeated at the Battle of Naulochus.
- 1651 – English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell (pictured) won the Battle of Worcester, the final battle of the English Civil War.
- 1901 – The flag of Australia flew for the first time from the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne.
- 1991 – A fire killed 25 people locked inside a burning chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina, U.S.
- 2001 – The Troubles: Ulster loyalists resumed a picket outside a Catholic girls' primary school in the Protestant portion of Ardoyne, in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
- 476 – Germanic leader Odoacer captured Ravenna and deposed Emperor Romulus Augustus, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
- 1839 – First Opium War: British vessels opened fire on Chinese war junks enforcing a food sales embargo on the British community on the Kowloon Peninsula.
- 1912 – The Albanian revolt ended when the Ottoman government agreed to meet most of the rebels' demands.
- 1957 – Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
- 2010 – A 7.1 Mw earthquake struck New Zealand's South Island (damage pictured), causing up to NZ$40 billion in damages.
- 917 – Liu Yan declared himself emperor, establishing the state of Southern Han at his capital of Panyu (present-day Guangzhou) in southern China.
- 1697 – Nine Years' War: A French warship captured York Factory, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company in present-day Manitoba, Canada.
- 1836 – Sam Houston (pictured) became the first popularly elected president of the Republic of Texas.
- 1905 – Under the mediation of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, the Russo-Japanese War officially ended with the signing of a treaty at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Maine.
- 1943 – World War II: American and Australian airborne forces landed at Nadzab as part of the New Guinea campaign against Japan.
- 1634 – A Swedish–German army was overwhelmingly defeated at the Battle of Nördlingen, one of the most important battles of the Thirty Years' War, effectively destroying Swedish power in Southern Germany.
- 1870 – Louisa Swain (pictured) became the first woman in the United States to vote in a general election.
- 1963 – The Kennedy administration sent Victor H. Krulak and Joseph Mendenhall on a mission to assess the progress of the Vietnam War.
- 1995 – Cal Ripken Jr. played his 2,131st consecutive Major League Baseball game, breaking the 56-year-old record set by Lou Gehrig.
- 2018 – The Supreme Court of India invalidated part of Section 377 of the Penal Code, thus legalising homosexuality in India.
- 1159 – Pope Alexander III was chosen as the successor of Adrian IV in a disputed election.
- 1778 – Anglo-French War: France invaded the Caribbean island of Dominica and captured its British fort before Britain had even learned of the Franco-American alliance.
- 1927 – American inventor Philo Farnsworth (pictured) transmitted the first images using his all-electronic television system.
- 1965 – Indo-Pakistani War: The Pakistan Navy began a raid on the Indian coastal town of Dwarka in its first engagement against India.
- 2011 – Yak-Service Flight 9633, carrying the players and coaching staff of the ice hockey team Lokomotiv Yaroslavl, crashed on take-off near Yaroslavl, Russia, resulting in the deaths of 44 of the 45 people on board.
- 617 – Li Yuan defeated a Sui dynasty army in the Battle of Huoyi, opening the path to his capture of the imperial capital Chang'an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: The French defeated Austrian forces in Bassano, Venetia, Italy.
- 1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, Margaret Gorman (pictured) was crowned the "Golden Mermaid", the forerunner to the Miss America pageant.
- 1936 – Opposed to António de Oliveira Salazar's support of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, the crews of the Portuguese Navy ships NRP Afonso de Albuquerque and NRP Dão mutinied while anchored in the harbour of Lisbon.
- 1966 – Queen Elizabeth II opened the Severn Bridge, suggesting that it marked the dawn of a new economic era for South Wales.
- 337 – After disposing of all relatives who possibly held a claim to the throne, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans became Roman co-emperors.
- 1791 – The commissioners overseeing the construction of the United States' new capital city named it Washington, D.C., in honor of the first president.
- 1939 – World War II: About 3,000 Polish Army troops began a nearly month-long defence of the Hel Peninsula during the German invasion of Poland.
- 1971 – Imagine, the second solo album by John Lennon (pictured), was released.
- 2001 – Ahmad Shah Massoud, the leader of the Northern Alliance, was assassinated in Afghanistan.
- 1509 – A strong earthquake occurred in the Sea of Marmara, devastating much of Constantinople and causing at least 1,000 deaths.
- 1897 – A sheriff's posse fired on a peaceful labor demonstration mostly comprising Polish- and Slovak-American anthracite coal miners in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, killing 19 people and wounding many others.
- 1946 – While riding a train to Darjeeling, India, Sister Teresa Bojaxhiu, later Mother Teresa (pictured), experienced what she later described as the "call within the call", directing her to "leave the convent and help the poor while living among them".
- 1961 – At the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, German driver Wolfgang von Trips's car collided with another, causing it to become airborne and crash into a side barrier, killing him and 15 spectators.
- 1697 – Great Turkish War: Forces led by Prince Eugene of Savoy decisively defeated Ottoman troops at the Battle of Zenta in present-day Serbia, ending the Turkish threat to Europe.
- 1851 – In a fight near Christiana, Pennsylvania, a group of escaped slaves and free Blacks led by William Parker fought off a federal posse seeking to arrest and return the escapees to slavery.
- 1893 – Swami Vivekananda (pictured) gave a speech introducing Hinduism on the opening day of the first Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago.
- 1914 – First World War: The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force invaded German New Guinea, winning the Battle of Bita Paka.
- 1981 – Iranian politician Ayatollah Madani and three others were assassinated by an agent of the MEK who detonated a grenade during Friday prayers in Tabriz.
- 379 – Yax Nuun Ahiin I took the throne as the ruler (ajaw) of the Mayan city of Tikal.
- 1848 – Switzerland became a federal state with the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution.
- 1910 – Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8, one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire and popularly known as the "Symphony of a Thousand", was first performed in Munich (1916 performers pictured).
- 1952 – Three boys in Flatwoods, West Virginia, U.S., reported seeing a ten-foot-tall (3 m) monster in the woods while investigating a UFO.
- 2015 – An explosion involving illegally stored mining detonators in Petlawad, India, killed 104 people and injured more than 150 others.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returned to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine later known as Calvinism.
- 1814 – War of 1812: Fort McHenry in Baltimore's Inner Harbor was attacked by British forces during the Battle of Baltimore, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write "Defence of Fort McHenry", later used as the lyrics to the United States national anthem.
- 1914 – World War I: The French army repulsed a German assault against their positions on high ground near the city of Nancy.
- 1959 – The Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 (model pictured) impacted the Moon, becoming the first spacecraft to reach another celestial body.
- 1971 – The Attica Prison riot ended when New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller ordered the storming of the prison, in which 38 people died by gunfire.
- 2008 – Five bomb blasts took place in Delhi, India, killing at least 20 people as part of a series of attacks perpetrated by the Indian Mujahideen.
- AD 81 – Domitian, the last Flavian emperor of Rome, was confirmed by the Senate to succeed his brother Titus.
- 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States at age 42, the youngest person ever to do so, eight days after William McKinley was fatally wounded in Buffalo, New York.
- 1914 – HMAS AE1 (pictured), the Royal Australian Navy's first submarine, was lost at sea; its wreck was not found until 2017.
- 2019 – Drone attacks on major processing facilities at Abqaiq and Khurais forced Saudi Arabia to cut more than half of its oil production.
- 1791 – French playwright Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, hoping to expose the failures of the French Revolution in the recognition of gender equality.
- 1916 – Tanks (example pictured), the "secret weapons" of the British Army during the First World War, were first used in combat at the Battle of Flers–Courcelette in France.
- 1944 – World War II: American and Australian forces landed on the Japanese-occupied island of Morotai.
- 2017 – A homemade bomb partially exploded on an eastbound District line train at Parsons Green tube station in West London, injuring 30 passengers.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American colonists defeated British troops at the Battle of Harlem Heights on the island of Manhattan.
- 1961 – Typhoon Nancy, which possibly had the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, made landfall in Muroto, Japan.
- 1975 – The prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-31 (example pictured), one of the fastest combat jets in the world, made its maiden flight.
- 1979 – Eight people escaped from East Germany to West Germany in a home-made hot-air balloon.
- 2013 – A lone gunman fatally shot twelve people and injured three others at the headquarters of the Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington, D.C.
- 1793 – War of the Pyrenees: Forces from the French Army of the Eastern Pyrenees defeated two divisions of the Army of Catalonia, ending the furthest Spanish encroachment in their invasion of Roussillon.
- 1849 – Harriet Tubman (pictured) escaped from slavery in the U.S. state of Maryland, and later orchestrated the rescues of other slaves via the Underground Railroad.
- 1939 – World War II: The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Nazi Germany's attack on the country from the west.
- 1980 – Solidarity, a Polish trade union, was founded as the first independent labor union in an Eastern Bloc country.
- 2011 – Adbusters, a Canadian anti-consumerist publication, organized a protest against corporate influence on democracy at Zuccotti Park in New York City that became known as Occupy Wall Street.
- 324 – Constantine the Great decisively defeated Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire and ending the Tetrarchy.
- 1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations (example pictured) in the English seaside town of Blackpool were switched on for the first time.
- 1948 – The Australian cricket team's Invincibles tour of England concluded; they had played 34 matches, including five Tests, without defeat.
- 1961 – A plane crashed under mysterious circumstances near Ndola in Northern Rhodesia, resulting in the deaths of United Nations secretary-general Dag Hammarskjöld and 15 others on board.
- 2001 – Five letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to various media outlets in the United States.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British troops engaged American forces at the first Battle of Saratoga in New York.
- 1846 – French shepherd children Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud reported a Marian apparition, now known as Our Lady of La Salette (statue pictured), near La Salette-Fallavaux.
- 1893 – New Zealand became the first country to introduce universal suffrage following the women's suffrage movement led by Kate Sheppard.
- 1991 – Ötzi, a well-preserved natural mummy of a man dating from about 3300 BC, was discovered by two German tourists in the Alps.
- 2011 – Mariano Rivera surpassed Trevor Hoffman to become Major League Baseball's all-time leader in the number of saves.
- 1066 – Harald III of Norway and his English ally Tostig Godwinson defeated the northern earls Edwin and Morcar at the Battle of Fulford near York.
- 1792 – The French Army achieved its first major victory in the War of the First Coalition at the Battle of Valmy.
- 1971 – Hurricane Irene (satellite image pictured) moved into the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic, making it the first actively tracked tropical cyclone to do so.
- 1977 – A series of celestial phenomena of disputed nature was observed in the western Soviet Union, Finland and Denmark.
- 2011 – The United States military ended its "don't ask, don't tell" policy, consequently allowing gay and lesbian people to serve openly.
- 1675 – Led by Antonio de Vea, a Spanish naval expedition departed El Callao, Peru, for the fjords and channels of Patagonia to find whether rival colonial powers were in the region.
- 1823 – According to Joseph Smith, he was first visited by the Angel Moroni (pictured), who would guide him to the golden plates that became the basis of the Book of Mormon.
- 1968 – The Soviet Union's Zond 5 landed in the Indian Ocean, becoming the first spacecraft to safely return to Earth after circling the Moon.
- 2001 – With racial tensions high after the September 11 attacks, a gang of British Muslim youths in Peterborough, England, murdered 17-year-old Ross Parker.
- 1236 – Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were soundly defeated by pagan Samogitian and Semigallian troops at the Battle of Saule.
- 1857 – Lefort, a Russian ship of the line, sank in the Gulf of Finland during a sudden squall with the loss of all 826 people on board.
- 1948 – Led by Gail Halvorsen, the United States Air Force began Operation "Little Vittles", delivering candy to children as part of the Berlin Airlift.
- 1957 – François "Papa Doc" Duvalier (pictured) was elected President of Haiti as a populist before consolidating power and ruling as a dictator for the rest of his life.
- 2014 – The NASA spacecraft MAVEN entered into orbit around Mars to study the planet's atmosphere.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: British officer John André was captured by Patriot forces, thereby revealing a plot by Continental Army general Benedict Arnold to hand over West Point, New York.
- 1889 – Fusajiro Yamauchi founded Nintendo in Kyoto, Japan (original headquarters pictured), to produce handmade hanafuda playing cards.
- 2008 – A gunman shot and killed ten students at the Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences in Kauhajoki, Finland, before committing suicide.
- 2019 – The British travel company Thomas Cook Group ceased operations with immediate effect, leaving around 600,000 tourists stranded around the world.
- 1645 – English Civil War: Royalists under the personal command of King Charles I suffered a significant defeat at the Battle of Rowton Heath.
- 1841 – Raja Muda Hashim, the uncle of Bruneian sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II, conceded land to British adventurer James Brooke, establishing the Raj of Sarawak.
- 1877 – At the Battle of Shiroyama (depicted), the decisive engagement of the Satsuma Rebellion, the Imperial Japanese Army defeated rebel samurai of the Satsuma Domain led by Saigō Takamori.
- 1946 – Clark Clifford and George Elsey, military advisers to U.S. president Harry S. Truman, presented him with a top-secret report on the Soviet Union that formed the basis of the policy of containment.
- 2019 – The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom unanimously ruled that Prime Minister Boris Johnson's advice to Queen Elizabeth II that Parliament should be prorogued was unlawful.
- 1237 – Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland signed the Treaty of York, establishing the Anglo-Scottish border, which mostly remains the same today.
- 1396 – Ottoman wars in Europe: Ottoman forces under Bayezid I defeated a Christian alliance led by Sigismund of Hungary near present-day Nikopol, Bulgaria.
- 1800 – French Revolutionary Wars: After U.S. ships became involved, French forces abandoned their invasion of the Batavian island of Curaçao.
- 1944 – Second World War: British troops began their withdrawal from the Battle of Arnhem in the Netherlands, ending the Allies' Operation Market Garden in defeat.
- 1981 – Sandra Day O'Connor (pictured) became the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1580 – Explorer Francis Drake's galleon Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, completing his circumnavigation of the globe.
- 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood, part of the Battle of Passchendaele, began near Ypres, Belgium.
- 1933 – As gangster Machine Gun Kelly surrendered to the FBI, he supposedly shouted out, "Don't shoot, G-Men ['government men']!", which became a nickname for FBI agents.
- 1983 – Soviet Lieutenant Colonel Stanislav Petrov averted a possible worldwide nuclear war by identifying what otherwise appeared to be an impending attack by the United States as a false alarm.
- 1825 – Locomotion No. 1 (pictured) hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world to use steam locomotives.
- 1908 – The first production Ford Model T, the car credited with initiating the mass use of automobiles in the United States, was completed at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan.
- 1940 – World War II: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Empire of Japan signed the Tripartite Pact in Berlin, officially forming a military alliance known as the Axis.
- 1983 – Software developer Richard Stallman announced plans for the Unix-like GNU operating system, the first free software developed by the GNU Project.
- 1542 – Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (pictured), the first European to travel along the coast of California, landed at what is now the city of San Diego.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1891 – Railway workers in Montevideo founded the Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club, later renamed Peñarol, one of Uruguay's most successful football clubs.
- 1963 – Whaam!, now considered one of Roy Lichtenstein's most important works, debuted at an exhibition held at the Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City.
- 1923 – The Mandate for Palestine came into effect, officially creating the protectorates of Palestine under British administration and Transjordan as a separate emirate under Abdullah I.
- 1940 – Two Avro Ansons of the Royal Australian Air Force collided in mid-air over Brocklesby, but locked together and were landed safely.
- 1962 – Alouette I (pictured), Canada's first satellite, and the first constructed by a country other than the Soviet Union or the United States, was launched.
- 1963 – The University of East Anglia was founded in Norwich, England, after talk of establishing a university in the city began as early as the 19th century.
- 1990 – The Lockheed YF-22, the prototype for the F-22 Raptor, made its first flight.
- 737 – Muslim conquest of Transoxiana: Türgesh tribes attacked the Umayyad army's exposed baggage train, which had been sent ahead of the main force, and captured it.
- 1551 – Sue Takafusa, a retainer of the Ōuchi clan in western Japan, led a coup against the daimyō, Ōuchi Yoshitaka, leading to the latter's forced suicide.
- 1939 – Second World War: General Władysław Sikorski became the first prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
- 1955 – American film actor James Dean (pictured) suffered fatal injuries in a head-on car accident near Cholame, California.