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|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2017 day arrangement
- 1529 – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, was destroyed by local natives.
- 1715 – Louis XIV of France (pictured), the "Sun King", died after a reign of 72 years, longer than any other French monarch.
- 1831 – Pope Gregory XVI established the Order of St. Gregory the Great to recognize high support for the Holy See or for the Pope.
- 1920 – The Fountain of Time opened in Chicago as a tribute to the 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent.
- 1983 – A Soviet jet interceptor shot down the civilian airliner Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Sakhalin Island in the North Pacific, killing all 246 passengers and 23 crew on board.
- 1666 – A large fire (pictured) began on London's Pudding Lane and burned the city for three days, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants.
- 1946 – The interim government of India, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, was formed to assist the transition of India from British rule to independence.
- 1985 – Hurricane Elena, an unpredictable and damaging tropical cyclone that affected eastern and central portions of the United States Gulf Coast, made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi as a Category 3 major hurricane.
- 1998 – Swissair Flight 111, en route from New York City to Geneva, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 229 people on board.
- 863 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The Byzantine Empire decisively defeated the Emirate of Melitene in the Battle of Lalakaon, beginning the era of Byzantine ascendancy.
- 1189 – Richard the Lionheart (pictured) was crowned King of England in Westminster.
- 1783 – The Peace of Paris formally ended the states of war between United States, France, Spain and Great Britain.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch first used the pesticide Zyklon B to execute Soviet POWs en masse at Auschwitz; eventually it was used to kill about 1.2 million people.
- 1991 – A fire killed 25 people locked inside a burning chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina, US.
- 1260 – Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines: Sienese Ghibellines defeated the Florentine Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti thanks to an act of treachery, which was immortalised in Dante's Divine Comedy.
- 1812 – War of 1812: A coalition of Native American tribes began the Siege of Fort Harrison in Terre Haute, Indiana, by setting the fort on fire.
- 1912 – The Albanian Revolt of 1912 came to an end when the Ottoman government agreed to meet the rebels' demands.
- 1984 – The Progressive Conservative Party led by Brian Mulroney won the largest majority government by total number of seats in Canadian history during the federal election.
- 2010 – A 7.1 Mw earthquake struck the South Island, New Zealand (damage pictured), causing up to NZ$3.5 billion in damages.
- 1697 – War of the Grand Alliance: A French warship captured York Factory, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company in present-day Manitoba, Canada.
- 1793 – French Revolution: The National Convention began the Reign of Terror, a ten-month period of systematic repression and mass executions by guillotine of perceived enemies within the country.
- 1905 – Under the mediation of US President Theodore Roosevelt, the Russo-Japanese War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire, US.
- 1945 – Cold War: Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada with over 100 documents on Soviet espionage activities and sleeper agents.
- 1980 – The St. Gotthard Tunnel (interior pictured), at the time the world's longest highway tunnel at 16.4 km (10.2 mi), opened in Switzerland stretching from Göschenen to Airolo.
- 1522 – The Victoria (replica pictured) returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain, with Basque explorer Juan Sebastián Elcano and 17 other survivors of Ferdinand Magellan's 265-man expedition, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the globe.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: General Benedict Arnold led British forces to victory in the Battle of Groton Heights.
- 1946 – United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes announced that the US would follow a policy of economic reconstruction in postwar Germany.
- 1997 – The funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales took place in London.
- 2000 – The Millennium Summit, a meeting of world leaders to discuss the role of the United Nations at the turn of the 21st century, opened in New York City.
- 1191 – Third Crusade: Forces under Richard I of England defeated Ayyubid troops under Saladin in Arsuf, present-day Israel.
- 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The French Grande Armée forced the Russians to withdraw at the Battle of Borodino.
- 1893 – British expatriates in Italy founded the Genoa Cricket & Athletic Club, today one of Italy's oldest association football clubs.
- 1936 – The last thylacine died in captivity in Hobart Zoo in Australia.
- 1986 – Desmond Tutu (pictured) became the first black person to lead the Church of the Province of Southern Africa.
- 1996 – American rapper Tupac Shakur was shot by an unknown assailant in Las Vegas, dying from his injuries six days later.
- 1566 – Ottoman–Habsburg wars: Although Ottoman forces led by Suleiman the Magnificent captured the fortress of Szigetvár, Hungary, they were forced to end their campaign to capture Vienna.
- 1755 – French and Indian War: British and French forces and their respective Indian allies fought to a draw in the Battle of Lake George.
- 1941 – World War II: German forces severed the last land connection to Leningrad, beginning a 28-month siege that would result in the deaths of over 1 million of the city's civilians from starvation, making it one of the most lethal battles in world history.
- 1966 – Queen Elizabeth II opened the Severn Bridge (pictured), hailing it as the dawn of a new economic era for South Wales.
- 1978 – Iranian Revolution: After the government of the Shah of Iran declared martial law in response to protests, the Iranian Army shot and killed at least 88 demonstrators in Tehran on Black Friday.
- 1141 – Yelü Dashi, the Liao dynasty general who founded the Qara-Khitai, defeated the Seljuq and Kara-Khanid forces at the Battle of Qatwan near Samarkand, present-day Uzbekistan.
- 1791 – The commissioners overseeing the construction of the United States' new capital city named it in honor of the first president: Washington, D.C.
- 1892 – At Lick Observatory, Edward Emerson Barnard discovered Amalthea (pictured), the third moon of Jupiter and the last natural satellite discovered by direct visual observation.
- 1939 – World War II: About 3,000 Polish Army forces began a nearly month-long defence of the Hel Peninsula during the German invasion of Poland.
- 2001 – Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, was assassinated in Afghanistan.
- 1561 – The Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima (pictured), one of the most cherished tales in Japanese military history, the epitome of Japanese chivalry and romance, took place in Shinano Province.
- 1897 – A peaceful labor demonstration made up of mostly Polish and Slovak anthracite coal miners in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, US, was fired upon by a sheriff's posse in the Lattimer massacre.
- 1946 – While riding a train to Darjeeling, Sister Teresa Bojaxhiu, later Mother Teresa, experienced what she later described as "the call within the call", directing her "to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them".
- 1990 – Pope John Paul II consecrated the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire, one of the largest churches in the world.
- 2008 – CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, was first powered up beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva.
- 1226 – The Catholic practice of Eucharistic adoration among lay people formally began in Avignon, France.
- 1789 – Alexander Hamilton (pictured), co-writer of The Federalist Papers, became the first US Secretary of the Treasury.
- 1893 – On the opening day of the first Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago, Swami Vivekananda introduced Hinduism to the United States.
- 1924 - French composer Gabriel Fauré finishes his last piece, a string quartet, before dying two months later.
- 1945 – The Japanese-run camp at Batu Lintang, Sarawak, in Borneo was liberated by the Australian 9th Division, averting the planned massacre of its 2,000-plus Allied POWs and civilian internees by four days.
- 1973 – A coup d'état in Chile led by General Augusto Pinochet overthrew the government of President Salvador Allende and established a junta.
- 1309 – Reconquista: Forces of the Kingdom of Castile captured Gibraltar from the Emirate of Granada, although they would lose control of it 24 years later.
- 1848 – Switzerland became a federal state with the adoption of a new constitution.
- 1933 – Hungarian-American physicist Leo Szilard (pictured) conceived of the idea of the nuclear chain reaction while waiting for a traffic light in Bloomsbury, London.
- 1942 – A U-boat sank RMS Laconia with a torpedo off the coast of West Africa and attempted to rescue the passengers, which included some 80 civilians, 160 Polish and 268 British soldiers and about 1800 Italian POWs.
- 1980 – The Turkish Armed Forces ousted Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel and would rule the country for three years before democracy was restored.
- 1437 – A Portuguese expeditionary force led by Henry the Navigator began an ultimately unsuccessful siege of Tangiers.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin (pictured) returned to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine that came to be known as Calvinism.
- 1759 – Seven Years' War: British forces defeated the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City, New France, though General James Wolfe was mortally wounded.
- 1848 – An explosion drove an iron rod through the head of railroad foreman Phineas Gage, making him an important early case of personality change after brain injury.
- 1964 – South Vietnamese Generals Lam Van Phat and Duong Van Duc staged a coup attempt after junta leader Nguyen Khanh demoted them.
- 2006 – Kimveer Gill shot 19 people for unknown reasons, killing one, at Dawson College in Montreal.
- 81 – Domitian, the last Flavian emperor of Rome, was confirmed by the Senate to succeed his brother Titus.
- 1723 – António Manoel de Vilhena, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, laid the first stone of Fort Manoel (pictured) in Malta.
- 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt became President of the United States at age 42, the youngest person ever to do so, eight days after William McKinley was fatally wounded in Buffalo, New York.
- 1982 – President-elect of Lebanon Bachir Gemayel was assassinated when a bomb exploded in the Beirut headquarters of the Phalange.
- 2008 – All 88 people aboard Aeroflot Flight 821 died when the aircraft crashed on approach to Perm International Airport in Perm Krai, Russia.
September 15: International Day of Democracy; Mid-Autumn Festival (Chinese calendar, 2016); Independence Day in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (1821); Battle of Britain Day in the United Kingdom; Free Money Day
- 1816 – HMS Whiting became wrecked on the Doom Bar, a treacherous shoal off the coast of Cornwall, England, that has caused over 600 known shipwrecks.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate forces captured the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, taking more than 12,000 prisoners.
- 1916 – Tanks (pictured), the "secret weapons" of the British Army during the First World War, were first used in combat at the Battle of the Somme in Somme, Picardy, France.
- 1935 – Nazi Germany enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived German Jews of citizenship, and adopted a new national flag emblazoned with a swastika.
- 1963 – A bomb planted by members of the Ku Klux Klan exploded in the 16th Street Baptist Church, an African American Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four children and injuring at least 22 others.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American colonists defeated British troops at the Battle of Harlem Heights in present-day New York City.
- 1940 – World War II: Italy captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but its invasion of Egypt progressed no further.
- 1961 – Typhoon Nancy (radar image pictured), with possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, made initial landfall in Muroto, Kōchi, Japan.
- 1982 – A Lebanese militia under the direct command of Elie Hobeika carried out a massacre in the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra and Shatila, killing at least 700 civilians.
- 1994 – The British government lifted its ban that prevented Sinn Féin and several Irish republican and loyalist groups from being broadcast on television and radio.
- 1716 – French soldier Jean Thurel enlisted in the Régiment de Touraine at the age of 18, beginning a career of military service that would span 75 years.
- 1849 – American slave Harriet Tubman (pictured) escaped; she later orchestrated the rescues of more than 70 other slaves via the "Underground Railroad".
- 1939 – World War II: The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Nazi Germany's attack on that country from the west.
- 1978 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed the Camp David Accords after twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
- 2006 – Mass protests across Hungary erupted after Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány's private speech was leaked to the public, in which he admitted that the Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election.
- 14 – Tiberius, one of Rome's greatest generals, succeeded his stepfather Augustus as Roman emperor.
- 1809 – The second theatre of the Royal Opera House (interior pictured) in London opened after a fire destroyed the original theatre one year earlier.
- 1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations in the English seaside town of Blackpool, billed as "the greatest free light show on earth", were switched on for the first time.
- 1911 – Premier Pyotr Stolypin, considered one of the last major statesmen of Imperial Russia, was fatally wounded while attending a performance at the Kiev Opera House.
- 1974 – Hurricane Fifi struck Honduras, destroying 182 towns and villages in the first 24 hours, and ultimately causing over 8,000 deaths.
- 634 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Rashidun Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Damascus from the Byzantine Empire.
- 1676 – During Bacon's Rebellion, Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon burned the colonial capital of Jamestown to the ground.
- 1893 – New Zealand became the first country to introduce universal suffrage, following the women's suffrage movement led by Kate Sheppard (pictured).
- 1991 – Ötzi, a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC, was discovered by two German tourists.
- 2006 – The Royal Thai Army overthrew the elected government of Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra while he was in New York City for a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly.
- 1066 – King Harald III of Norway and Tostig Godwinson, his English ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar in the Battle of Fulford near York, England.
- 1792 – The French Army achieved its first major victory in the War of the First Coalition at the Battle of Valmy.
- 1906 – The ocean liner RMS Mauretania (pictured), the largest and fastest ship in the world at the time, was launched.
- 1971 – Hurricane Irene moved west from Nicaragua, and crossed from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific, the first known tropical cyclone to do so.
- 2001 – During a televised address to a joint session of the United States Congress, U.S. President George W. Bush declared a "war on terror" against Al-Qaeda and other global terrorist groups.
- 1170 – Combined English and Irish forces seized Norse-Gaelic Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin, into exile.
- 1860 – Second Opium War: Anglo-French forces earned a decisive victory against Qing dynasty troops in the Battle of Palikao, allowing them to capture Beijing.
- 1939 – Romanian Prime Minister Armand Călinescu (pictured) was assassinated in Bucharest by pro-Nazi members of the Iron Guard.
- 1953 – North Korean No Kum-sok defected with his MiG-15, inadvertently making Operation Moolah, an American effort to bribe communist pilots, a success.
- 1996 – The Defense of Marriage Act was passed by the United States Congress prohibiting federal recognition of same-sex marriage, while allowing states to adopt any marital definition of their choosing.
- 1598 – English playwright Ben Jonson killed actor Gabriel Spenser in a duel, for which he was indicted for manslaughter.
- 1862 – US President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring the freedom of all slaves in Confederate territory by January 1, 1863.
- 1914 – First World War: The German submarine U-9 sank three Royal Navy cruisers, resulting in approximately 1,450 deaths.
- 1957 – François "Papa Doc" Duvalier (pictured) was elected President of Haiti as a populist before consolidating power and ruling as a dictator for the rest of his life.
- 1994 – The Nordhordland Bridge, which crosses Salhusfjorden between Klauvaneset and Flatøy in Hordaland, and is the second-longest bridge in Norway, was officially opened.
- 1568 – Anglo-Spanish War: At San Juan de Ulúa (in modern Veracruz, Mexico), Spanish naval forces forced English privateers to halt their illegal trade.
- 1779 – American Revolutionary War: John Paul Jones led a Franco-American squadron to victory in the Battle of Flamborough Head, one of the most celebrated naval actions of the war.
- 1868 – Ramón Emeterio Betances (pictured) led the Grito de Lares, a revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico.
- 1952 – In one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace, Republican vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon delivered the "Checkers speech", refuting accusations of improprieties with contributions to his campaign.
- 1983 – A bomb placed by the Abu Nidal organisation destroyed Gulf Air Flight 771, flying from Karachi, Pakistan, to Abu Dhabi, UAE, killing all 112 people aboard.
- 1180 – The Byzantine Empire was weakened by the death of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
- 1877 – The Imperial Japanese Army defeated Saigō Takamori and the Satsuma clan samurai at the Battle of Shiroyama in Kagoshima, the decisive engagement of the Satsuma Rebellion.
- 1911 – His Majesty's Airship No. 1, Britain's first rigid airship, was wrecked (pictured) by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness.
- 1946 – Clark Clifford and George Elsey, military advisers to US President Harry S. Truman, presented him with a top-secret report on the Soviet Union that would form the basis of the US policy of containment.
- 1996 – Representatives from 71 nations signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which has not yet come into force because not enough signatories have ratified it.
- 1396 – Ottoman wars in Europe: Ottoman forces under Bayezid I (pictured) defeated a Christian alliance led by Sigismund of Hungary in the Battle of Nicopolis near present-day Nikopol, Bulgaria.
- 1775 – Ethan Allen and a small force of American and Quebec militia failed in their attempt to capture Montreal from British forces.
- 1911 – An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonated the forward ammunition magazines and destroyed the ship.
- 1962 – The North Yemen Civil War began when Abdullah as-Sallal dethroned the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declared Yemen a republic under his presidency.
- 1996 – The last Magdalene asylum, an Irish institution to rehabilitate so-called "fallen women", was closed.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1580 – The Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, as explorer Francis Drake completed his circumnavigation of the globe.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: Nazi official August Frank issued a memorandum setting out how the belongings of murdered Jews were to be disposed of.
- 1959 – Japan was struck by Typhoon Vera, the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country with US$600 million in damages and over 4,000 deaths.
- 2002 – MV Le Joola, a Senegalese government-owned ferry, capsized off the coast of The Gambia, resulting in the deaths of at least 1,863 people.
- 1825 – Locomotion No. 1 hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway to use steam locomotives.
- 1854 – The paddle steamer SS Arctic sank after a collision with SS Vesta, a much smaller vessel, 50 miles (80 km) off the coast off the coast of Newfoundland, killing approximately 320 people.
- 1916 – Lij Iyasu (pictured), the emperor-designate of Ethiopia, was deposed in favor of his aunt, Zewditu.
- 1941 – SS Patrick Henry, the first of 2,710 Liberty ships built during World War II by the United States, was launched.
- 1996 – The Taliban drove Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani out of Kabul and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
- 1066 – William the Conqueror (pictured) and his fleet of around 600 ships landed at Pevensey, Sussex, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1901 – Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas killed more than forty American soldiers in a surprise attack in the town of Balangiga on Samar Island.
- 1941 – The short-lived Drama uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece began.
- 2009 – A protest held by 50,000 people in Conakry, Guinea, was forcefully disrupted by the military junta, resulting in at least 157 deaths and over 1,200 injuries.
- 1774 – The publication of The Sorrows of Young Werther raised the 24-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pictured) to international fame.
- 1923 – The British Mandate for Palestine came into effect, officially creating the protectorates of Palestine under British administration and Transjordan as a separate emirate under Abdullah I.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: German Nazis, aided by local collaborators, began the Babi Yar massacre in Kiev, Ukraine, killing over 30,000 Jewish civilians in two days and thousands more in the months that followed.
- 1963 – The University of East Anglia was founded in Norwich, England, after talk of establishing such a university in the city began as early as the 19th century.
- 2006 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collided in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil, killing 154 people, and triggering a Brazilian aviation crisis.
- 1399 – Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, deposed Richard II to become Henry IV of England, merging the Duchy of Lancaster with the crown.
- 1882 – The Vulcan Street Plant, the first hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America, went on line in Appleton, Wisconsin, US.
- 1966 – Seretse Khama became the first President of Botswana when the Bechuanaland Protectorate gained independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1980 – Xerox, Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation published the first Ethernet specifications (8P8C connector pictured), currently the most widespread wired local area network (LAN) technology.
- 2009 – A 7.6 MW earthquake struck off the southern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, killing 1,115 people and impacting an estimated 1.25 million people.