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|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2022 day arrangement
- 1774 – Under orders from Governor Thomas Gage, British soldiers removed gunpowder from a magazine in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which caused Patriots to prepare for war.
- 1937 – The first group of around 172,000 Koreans were deported by Soviet authorities from the Russian Far East to the Kazakh and Uzbek SSRs; around 10 to 25 percent died.
- 1939 – German forces began an invasion of Poland, including attacks at Wieluń and at Westerplatte, starting World War II in Europe.
- 1969 – Muammar Gaddafi (pictured) led a coup d'état to overthrow King Idris of Libya.
- 1972 – In a match widely publicized as a Cold War confrontation, American chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer became the 11th World Chess Champion with his victory over Russian Boris Spassky.
- 1666 – A large fire began in London's Pudding Lane and burned for five days (depicted), destroying St Paul's Cathedral and the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants.
- 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Prussian forces captured Napoleon III at the Battle of Sedan, which led to the collapse of the Second French Empire within days.
- 1957 – South Vietnamese president Ngô Đình Diệm began an official visit to Australia, the first by a foreign incumbent head of state to the country.
- 1985 – Hurricane Elena, an unpredictable and damaging tropical cyclone that affected eastern and central portions of the United States Gulf Coast, made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi, as a Category 3 major hurricane.
- 1992 – An earthquake registering 7.7 Mw off the coast of Nicaragua became the first tsunami earthquake to be captured on modern broadband seismic networks.
- 863 – Arab–Byzantine wars: The Byzantine Empire decisively defeated the Emirate of Melitene at the Battle of Lalakaon, beginning the era of Byzantine ascendancy.
- 1650 – Under Oliver Cromwell, the English New Model Army ambushed a poorly prepared Scottish force at the Battle of Dunbar, the first battle of the Third English Civil War.
- 1878 – The passenger steamship SS Princess Alice sank in the River Thames after colliding (pictured) with the collier Bywell Castle, killing more than 600 people.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: In possibly the first Jewish ghetto uprising, residents of the Łachwa Ghetto in occupied Poland, informed of the upcoming "liquidation" of the ghetto, unsuccessfully fought against their Nazi captors.
- 1991 – A fire killed 25 people locked inside a burning chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina, U.S.
- 1800 – French Revolutionary Wars: Facing starvation and a death rate of 100 soldiers a day, the French garrison in Malta surrendered to British forces, ending a two-year siege.
- 1839 – First Opium War: British vessels opened fire on Chinese war junks enforcing a food sales embargo on the British community on the Kowloon Peninsula.
- 1843 – Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies and Pedro II of Brazil (both pictured) were married in an extravagant wedding at the Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro.
- 1934 – Evelyn Waugh's novel A Handful of Dust was first published in full.
- 1977 – A gang-related shooting took place in Chinatown, San Francisco, leaving five dead and spurring police to end Chinese gang violence in the city.
- 917 – Liu Yan declared himself emperor, establishing the state of Southern Han at his capital of Panyu (present-day Guangzhou) in southern China.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: French naval forces handed Britain a major strategic defeat at the Battle of the Chesapeake (depicted).
- 1915 – The Zimmerwald Conference, the first of three international socialist conferences forming the Zimmerwald movement, opened in Switzerland.
- 1943 – World War II: American and Australian airborne forces landed at Nadzab as part of the New Guinea campaign against Japan.
- 1977 – NASA launched the space probe Voyager 1, currently the farthest spacecraft from Earth, from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: General Benedict Arnold led British forces to victory at the Battle of Groton Heights.
- 1901 – William McKinley, President of the United States, was fatally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, and died eight days later.
- 1952 – A prototype aircraft crashed at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing the pilot and test observer on board, and 29 spectators.
- 1997 – An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide watched the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, on television.
- 1999 – The Parliament of Singapore relocated from the Old Parliament House to its current meeting place (pictured).
- 1191 – Third Crusade: Crusaders under Richard I of England defeated Ayyubid troops under Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in present-day Israel.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: Royalist and Parliamentarian forces clashed in the Battle of Babylon Hill, after which both sides claimed victory.
- 1936 – The last thylacine died in captivity in Hobart Zoo, Australia.
- 1986 – Desmond Tutu (pictured) became the first black leader of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa.
- 2004 – Hurricane Ivan made landfall on Grenada and devastated at least 85 percent of buildings on the island.
- 617 – Li Yuan defeated a Sui army at the Battle of Huoyi, opening the path to his capture of the Chinese imperial capital Chang'an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty (map pictured).
- 1566 – Ottoman–Habsburg wars: Although Ottoman forces led by Suleiman the Magnificent captured the fortress of Szigetvár in Hungary, they were forced to end their campaign to take Vienna.
- 1831 – William IV and Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen were crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1900 – The Great Galveston hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history, struck Galveston, Texas, with estimated winds of 135 miles per hour (215 km/h) at landfall, killing at least 6,000 people.
- 1966 – The science fiction show Star Trek made its American premiere with "The Man Trap", launching a media franchise that has since created a cult phenomenon and has influenced the design of many current technologies.
- 1141 – Yelü Dashi, the Liao general who founded the Qara Khitai, defeated Seljuq and Kara-Khanid forces at the Battle of Qatwan near Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan.
- 1320 – Byzantine forces defeated Achaean troops at the Battle of Saint George, taking control of the Arcadia region of Greece.
- 1892 – At the Lick Observatory in California, Edward Emerson Barnard discovered Amalthea (pictured), a moon of Jupiter and the last natural satellite to be discovered by visual observation.
- 1999 – The first banknotes of the Portrait Series of the Singapore dollar were introduced by the Board of Commissioners of Currency.
- 1547 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: English forces defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie near Musselburgh, Lothian, Scotland.
- 1937 – Led by the United Kingdom and France, nine nations met at the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
- 1960 – Running barefoot in the marathon event at the Rome Olympics, Abebe Bikila became the first athlete from sub-Saharan Africa to win an Olympic gold medal.
- 2000 – British forces freed soldiers and civilians who had been held captive by the militant group the West Side Boys, contributing to the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War.
- 2008 – CERN's Large Hadron Collider (section pictured), the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, first began operations beneath the France–Switzerland border.
- 1697 – Great Turkish War: Forces led by Prince Eugene of Savoy decisively defeated Ottoman troops at the Battle of Zenta in present-day Serbia, ending the Turkish threat to Europe.
- 1857 – A legion of Mormon militiamen completed a massacre of at least 120 California-bound Arkansas pioneers at Mountain Meadow, Utah.
- 1893 – Swami Vivekananda (pictured) gave a speech introducing Hinduism on the opening day of the first Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago.
- 1992 – Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane on record to strike the Hawaiian Islands, passed directly over the island of Kauai, killing six people and causing around US$1.8 billion dollars in damage.
- 1910 – Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8, one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire and popularly known as the "Symphony of a Thousand", was first performed in Munich (1916 performers pictured).
- 1942 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army began the Battle of Edson's Ridge in an effort to retake Henderson Field on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands from the Allies.
- 1962 – In a speech at Rice Stadium in Houston, U.S. president John F. Kennedy reiterated an aspiration to land a man on the Moon before 1970.
- 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko died after being beaten in police custody in Port Elizabeth.
- 2003 – Typhoon Maemi, the strongest recorded typhoon to strike South Korea, made landfall near Busan.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, French theologian John Calvin returned to Geneva to reform the church under a system of Christian theology later known as Calvinism.
- 1759 – French and Indian War: British forces won the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City, despite General James Wolfe being mortally wounded.
- 1959 – The Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 (model pictured) struck the Moon, becoming the first spacecraft to reach another celestial body.
- 1964 – South Vietnamese generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức staged a coup attempt after being demoted by junta leader Nguyễn Khánh.
- AD 81 – Domitian, the last Flavian emperor of Rome, was confirmed by the Senate to succeed his brother Titus.
- 1723 – António Manoel de Vilhena, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, laid the first stone of Fort Manoel in Malta.
- 1960 – At a conference held in Baghdad, the governments of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela founded OPEC to help coordinate their petroleum policies and influence global oil prices.
- 1979 – Afghan president Nur Muhammad Taraki (pictured) was overthrown and later killed on the orders of Hafizullah Amin, who succeeded him.
- 1992 – The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the breakaway Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia to be unconstitutional.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British forces made an unopposed amphibious landing at Kips Bay on Manhattan, the American defenders having fled due to artillery fire.
- 1830 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&M), the first locomotive-hauled railway to connect two major cities, opened with the Duke of Wellington in attendance (example locomotive depicted).
- 1902 – The first hydroelectric dam in Turkey began operations at Tarsus.
- 1972 – Three armed members of the Croatian National Resistance hijacked Scandinavian Airlines System Flight 130 in an attempt to force the release of those arrested for the assassination of the Yugoslav ambassador the previous year.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American colonists defeated British troops at the Battle of Harlem Heights (depicted) on the island of Manhattan.
- 1940 – Second World War: Italian forces captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but their invasion of Egypt progressed no further.
- 1961 – The U.S. National Hurricane Research Project sought to weaken Hurricane Esther by seeding it with silver iodide, leading to the establishment of Project Stormfury.
- 1982 – A Lebanese militia under the direct command of Elie Hobeika carried out a massacre in the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra and Shatila, killing at least 460 civilians.
- 1990 – Construction of the Northern Xinjiang railway was completed between Ürümqi South and Alashankou, linking the railway lines of China and Kazakhstan, and adding a sizeable portion to the Eurasian Land Bridge.
- 1630 – Puritan settlers from England founded the city of Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, naming it after Boston, Lincolnshire, the origin of several prominent colonists.
- 1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army under Richard Montgomery began the Siege of Fort St. Jean in the British province of Quebec.
- 1939 – World War II: The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Nazi Germany's attack on the country from the west.
- 1958 – Tintin in Tibet, the twentieth volume of The Adventures of Tintin by the Belgian cartoonist Hergé and which he regarded as his favourite in the series, began serialisation.
- 1970 – The Jordanian army entered Amman as part of operations to oust Palestinian fedayeen from the country in events later known as Black September (smoke over city pictured).
- 1048 – Byzantine–Seljuk wars: Byzantine forces defeated their Seljuk opponents in the flanks of the nocturnal Battle of Kapetron, but learned of their Georgian allies' defeat in the centre the next morning.
- 1918 – World War I: The Central Powers' defeat at the Battle of Dobro Pole played a role in the Bulgarian withdrawal from the war and led to the subsequent liberation of Vardar Macedonia.
- 1948 – The Australian cricket team's Invincibles tour of England concluded; they had played 34 matches, including five Tests, without defeat.
- 1974 – Hurricane Fifi struck Honduras, destroying 182 towns and villages in the first 24 hours, and ultimately causing more than 8,000 deaths.
- 2014 – Scotland (flag pictured) voted against independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1356 – Hundred Years' War: English forces led by Edward the Black Prince (pictured) decisively won the Battle of Poitiers and captured John II of France.
- 1944 – World War II: Finland, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom signed the Moscow Armistice to end the Continuation War.
- 1950 – Korean War: A North Korean attack was repelled by Allied forces at the Battle of Nam River.
- 1985 – An earthquake registering Mw 8.0 struck Mexico City, killing at least 9,000 people and leaving up to 100,000 homeless.
- 2011 – Mariano Rivera surpassed Trevor Hoffman to become Major League Baseball's all-time career leader in saves.
- 1260 – The second of two major uprisings by the Old Prussians, a Baltic tribe, began against the Teutonic Knights.
- 1643 – First English Civil War: The First Battle of Newbury was fought in Berkshire; Parliamentarian forces were allowed to pass Royalist troops to retreat the next morning.
- 1943 – World War II: Australian troops led by Gordon Grimsley King defeated Imperial Japanese forces at the Battle of Kaiapit in New Guinea.
- 1967 – L. Ron Hubbard (pictured), the founder of Scientology, announced the story of Xenu in a taped lecture sent to all Scientologists.
- 1977 – A series of celestial phenomena of disputed nature was observed in the western Soviet Union, Finland and Denmark.
- 1170 – Norman invasion of Ireland: English and Irish forces conquered Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, the last Norse–Gaelic king of Dublin, into exile.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Great Fire of New York (depicted) broke out during the British occupation of New York City, destroying up to 1,000 buildings.
- 1934 – The Muroto typhoon, the strongest in Japanese history at the time, made landfall on the mainland, killing more than 3,000 and leaving around 200,000 homeless.
- 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy children's novel The Hobbit, which later served as a prelude to The Lord of the Rings, was first published.
- 1968 – The Soviet Union's Zond 5 landed in the Indian Ocean, becoming the first spacecraft to safely return to Earth after travelling around the Moon.
- 1586 – Eighty Years' War: Spanish forces defeated an Anglo-Dutch army at the Battle of Zutphen.
- 1869 – Das Rheingold, the first of four operas in Der Ring des Nibelungen by the German composer Richard Wagner (pictured), was first performed in Munich.
- 1934 – One of Britain's worst mining accidents took place when an explosion at Gresford Colliery in Wales killed 266 men.
- 1979 – An American Vela satellite detected an unidentified flash of light near the Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean, thought to be a nuclear weapons test.
- 1994 – The Nordhordland Bridge, crossing Salhusfjorden between Klauvaneset and Flatøy in Vestland, and Norway's second-longest bridge, officially opened.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: British officer John André was captured by Patriot forces, thereby revealing a plot by Continental Army general Benedict Arnold to hand over West Point, New York.
- 1803 – Maratha troops were defeated by forces of the British East India Company at the Battle of Assaye, one of the decisive battles of the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
- 1952 – U.S. vice-presidential candidate Richard Nixon delivered the Checkers speech (pictured), one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.
- 2008 – A gunman shot and killed ten students at the Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences in Kauhajoki, Finland, before committing suicide.
- 2016 – Following a number of high-profile sexual assaults, major reforms were enacted to strengthen laws related to rape in Germany.
- 1841 – Raja Muda Hashim, the uncle of Omar Ali Saifuddin II, Sultan of Brunei, conceded land to the British adventurer James Brooke (pictured) to establish the Raj of Sarawak.
- 1869 – Jay Gould, James Fisk and other speculators plotted but failed to control the United States gold market, causing prices to plummet.
- 1945 – Dozens of Jews were injured in the Topoľčany pogrom, one of the worst episodes of anti-Jewish violence in postwar Czechoslovakia.
- 1992 – After his neighbor identified handwriting samples placed on local billboards by police, Oba Chandler was arrested three years after he committed a triple murder in the Tampa Bay area in Florida.
- 2019 – The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom unanimously ruled that advice given by Prime Minister Boris Johnson to Queen Elizabeth II that Parliament should be prorogued was unlawful.
- 1775 – American Revolutionary War: Ethan Allen and a small force of American and Quebec militia failed to capture the city of Montreal from British forces.
- 1790 – Peking opera (modern performer pictured) was born with the introduction of Hui opera to Beijing by the "Four Great Anhui Troupes" in honour of the Qianlong Emperor's 80th birthday.
- 1962 – The North Yemen Civil War began when Abdullah al-Sallal dethroned the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declared Yemen to be a republic under his presidency.
- 1977 – About 4,200 people took part in the first modern Chicago Marathon.
- 1990 – The Ram Rath Yatra, a political–religious rally organised to erect a temple to the Hindu deity Rama on the site of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, began in the Indian state of Gujarat.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, one of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1928 – The Republic of China adopted Gwoyeu Romatzyh (designer pictured) as the official system for romanization of Mandarin Chinese.
- 1959 – Japan was struck by Typhoon Vera, the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country, causing damage in excess of US$261 million and more than 5,000 deaths.
- 2014 – Forty-three students of the Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College in Iguala, Mexico, were kidnapped and probably later killed.
- 1567 – After a two-week siege, the Oda clan captured Inabayama Castle from the Saitō clan.
- 1851 – The British East India Company inaugurated the Horsburgh Lighthouse on the rocky outcrop of Pedra Branca, Singapore, which later became the subject of a territorial dispute.
- 1854 – The paddle steamer SS Arctic sank after a collision with SS Vesta 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of Newfoundland, killing approximately 320 people.
- 1988 – Led by pro-democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi (pictured), the political party National League for Democracy was founded in Burma.
- 1996 – The Taliban drove Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani out of Kabul, tortured and murdered former president Mohammad Najibullah, and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
- 1066 – William the Conqueror (pictured) and his fleet of around 600 ships landed at Pevensey, Sussex, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
- 1924 – A team of U.S. Army Air Service aviators landed in Seattle, Washington, to complete the first aerial circumnavigation of the world.
- 1963 – Whaam!, now considered one of Roy Lichtenstein's most important works, debuted at an exhibition held at the Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City.
- 2006 – Typhoon Xangsane passed Manila on its way to causing more than 300 deaths, mostly in the Phillippines and Vietnam.
- 2012 – War in Somalia: Somali National Army forces and their AMISOM and Raskamboni allies launched an offensive against Al-Shabaab in the latter's last major stronghold of Kismayo.
- 1923 – The Mandate for Palestine came into effect, officially creating the protectorates of Mandatory Palestine under British administration and Transjordan as a separate emirate under King Abdullah I.
- 1955 – The first Indonesian legislative election resulted in an unexpectedly poor result for the Masyumi Party of incumbent prime minister Burhanuddin Harahap (pictured).
- 1991 – The award-winning Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast premiered while unfinished at the New York Film Festival.
- 2004 – Archaeologists and volunteers began excavation of the remains of Fort Tanjong Katong in Singapore.
- 2006 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collided in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Brazil, killing 154 people and triggering a national aviation crisis.
- 737 – Muslim conquest of Transoxiana: Türgesh tribes attacked the Umayyad army's exposed baggage train, which had been sent ahead of the main force, and captured it.
- 1863 – Georges Bizet's opera Les pêcheurs de perles, premiered in Paris.
- 1551 – Sue Takafusa, a retainer of the Ōuchi clan in western Japan, led a coup against the daimyō Ōuchi Yoshitaka, leading to the latter's forced suicide.
- 1939 – Second World War: General Władysław Sikorski became the first prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
- 1965 – Members of the 30 September Movement attempted a coup against the Indonesian government, which was crushed by the military under Suharto, leading to a mass anti-communist purge with more than 500,000 people killed over the following months.