2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
|2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine|
|Part of the 2013–14 Ukrainian Crisis|
Pink in the Donbass area represents areas currently held by the DPR/LPR insurgents (cities in red). Crimea, which is under Russian control, is also shown in pink. Yellow represents areas under the control of Ukrainian government (cities in blue).
(Image date is 11 September 2014.)
|Commanders and leaders|
| Vladimir Putin
In the view of Russia:
| Petro Poroshenko
Serhiy Hayduk (POW)
|Russian Armed Forces:||Armed Forces of Ukraine:|
|Crimean Force: 25,000–30,000
|Casualties and losses|
|3,500–4,000 Russian soldiers and separatists killed (acc. NGOs) and 10 captured
1 Crimean SDF trooper killed
|672–1,584 soldiers killed (Donbass)*
2 soldiers killed and 60–80 captured (Crimea)
12 ships captured (3 damaged)
|3 protesters killed (2 pro-Russian and 1 pro-Ukrainian)|
|*The number of Ukrainian soldiers killed in the Donbass area is since 13 August 2014, which is when the first Russian military deaths were reported in the area|
|2013–14 Ukrainian Crisis|
In late February 2014, Russia began to send unmarked troops and military equipment into Ukraine in what has been termed a stealth invasion, following the February 2014 Ukrainian revolution and Euromaidan movement, including the contentious ouster of President Viktor Yanukovych. Starting with the 2014 Crimean crisis, soldiers of ambiguous affiliation began to take control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea, which Russia then annexed. London-based military experts and the US State Department said the soldiers were likely Russian special forces (possibly including Spetsnaz commandos) and airborne units, and although Russia initially insisted that Russian forces stationed in the area were not involved, Russian president Vladimir Putin admitted in April that Russian troops had been active in Crimea and said this had laid the ground for the Crimean status referendum.
During the Crimean crisis, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, together commonly called the "Donbass". These demonstrations, which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics (DPR and LPR respectively) and the Ukrainian government. As this armed insurgency spread across the Donbass, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down over the conflict zone on 17 July near Torez in Donetsk Oblast.
In August, unmarked troops and military vehicles from Russia also crossed into the Donbass region, escalating the Russian-backed war against Ukrainian forces there. Russia has distanced itself from allegations of military involvement in the Donbass, though the United States has accused it of being behind the unrest and war there, and videos of Russian soldiers captured in Ukraine, comments by rebel leaders such as Zakharchenko and statements such as that of the head of the Russian Union of Committees of Soldiers' Mothers, Valentina Melnikova have established that Russian service personnel are fighting in Ukraine.
After the heavy defeat of Ukrainian forces in early September, it was evident Russia had sent soldiers and armour across the border and locals acknowledged the role of Putin and Russian soldiers in effecting a reversal of fortunes and causing a Ukrainian offensive to be stifled. On 5 September, representatives of Ukraine, Russia, the Donetsk People's Republic and the Lugansk People's Republic signed the Minsk Protocol, a twelve-point agreement that implemented a ceasefire. On 10 September, Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko said most of the Russian forces had withdrawn from Ukrainian territory, and that this heightened the chances for a lasting cease-fire in the southeast. On 13 September, it was reported Russia had sent a convoy of aid into eastern Ukraine without inspection by Ukraine, stating this convoy was part of the ceasefire agreement. NATO said Russian forces were still operating in Ukraine in unknown numbers, and the ceasefire was not working. NATO said Russian forces were repositioning to bring great pressure on Mariupol.
In November 2014 the Ukrainian military reported "intensive" movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist controlled parts of eastern Ukraine. The Associated Press reported 80 unmarked military vehicles on the move in rebel-controlled areas of eastern Ukraine. Three separate columns were seen, one near the main separatist stronghold of Donetsk and two outside the town of Snizhne. Several of the trucks were seen to be carrying troops. "Separatists have always insisted they are armed with equipment captured from Ukrainian forces, but the sheer scale and quality of their armaments have strained the credibility of that claim." An OSCE Special Monitoring Mission observed convoys of heavy weapons and tanks without insignia. According to an independent assessment provided to The Daily Beast, there were as many as 7,000 Russian troops inside Ukraine in early November 2014, with between 40,000 and 50,000 at the country’s eastern border. OSCE monitors further observed vehicles apparently used to transport soldiers' bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border — in one case a vehicle marked "Cargo 200" - Russia's military code for soldiers killed in action — crossed from Russia into Ukraine on 11 November 2014 and later returned.
Several members of the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International have criticized Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, and condemned Russia, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty. Ukrainian and western military officials described Russian incursions as a "stealth invasion," and many countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia or Russian individuals or companies, to which Russia responded in kind. The Kremlin has tried to systematically intimidate and silence human rights workers who have raised questions about Russian soldiers' deaths in the conflict.
- 1 Background
- 2 Crimea
- 3 Donbass
- 4 Reactions to the Russian intervention in Crimea
- 4.1 Ukrainian response
- 4.2 US and NATO military response
- 4.3 Military actions in other countries
- 4.4 International diplomatic and economic responses
- 4.5 Financial markets
- 5 Reactions to the Russian intervention in Donbass
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Ukraine has been historically seen as a quintessential area of interest for Russia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union both nations retained very close ties, however conflict began almost immediately. There were several sticking points, most importantly Ukraine's significant nuclear arsenal, which Ukraine in the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances agreed to hand over to Russia on the condition that Russia (and the other signatories) would issue an assurance against threats or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine. A second point was the division of the Black Sea Fleet, Ukraine agreed to lease the Sevastopol port so that the Russian Black Sea fleet could continue to occupy it together with Ukraine. Later through the 1990s and 2000s Ukraine and Russia engaged in several gas disputes, which stated as early as 1993. In 2001 Ukraine along with Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova formed a group titled GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, which by Moscow was seen as a direct challenge to the CIS and the Russian dominated trade group established after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Moscow was further irritated by the Orange Revolution of 2004 which saw the Ukrainian populist Viktor Yushchenko installed as president instead of the pro Russian  Viktor Yanukovich. Moreover Ukraine also continued to increase its cooperation with NATO, deploying the third largest contingent of troops to Iraq in 2004, as well as dedicating troops to NATO missions such as the ISAF force in Afghanistan and KFOR in Kosovo. Russian peacekeepers participated in Kosovo as well, however Ukraine chose to form the Polish-Ukrainian Peace Force Battalion further spurring Russia. Moreover Ukraine has also voiced its support of Georgia during the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Ukraine also continued to supply Georgia with military equipment prior to, through, and after the conflict, stating they would only stop if there was an international arms embargo imposed on Georgia.
A pro Russian president, Viktor Yanukovich, was elected in 2010 and Moscow felt that many ties with Ukraine could be repaired. Prior to this Ukraine did not renew the lease of Sevastopol meaning Russian troops would have to leave Crimea by 2017, however Yanukovich signed a new lease and even expanded allowable troop presence as well as allowing troops to train in the Kerch peninsula. Many in Ukraine viewed the extension as unconstitutional as Ukraine's constitution states that no permanent foreign troops shall be stationed in Ukraine after the Sevastopol treaty expired. Yulia Timoshenko, the main opposition figure of Yanukovich was also jailed on what many considered made up charges, leading to further dissatisfaction with the regime. Finally in 2013 Viktor Yanukovich declined to sign an association agreement with the European Union, a treaty that has been in development for several years and Yanukovich approved of earlier. Yanukovich instead favored closer ties with the Russian Federation.
Marcel H. Van Herpen, director of the Cicero Foundation, finished writing the book, named Putin’s Wars: The Rise of Russia’s New Imperialism, in late 2013. He predicted that "if Ukraine were to opt for deeper integration into the European Union, a Georgia scenario could not be excluded, in which the Kremlin could provoke riots in Eastern Ukraine or the Crimea, where many Russian passport holders live" and the pretext for intervention and partitioning of Ukraine would be the defence of the local "Russians".
Andrey Illarionov, former advisor of Vladimir Putin, said in a speech on 31 May that some technologies of Russo-Georgian War (which was then blamed on Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili), were updated and again being exploited in Ukraine. According to him, since Russian military operation in Crimea began on 20 February 2014, Russian propaganda could not argue that the Russian aggression was the result of Euromaidan. The war in Ukraine did not happen "all of sudden", but was pre-planned and the preparations began as early as 2003. Illarionov later stated that one of the Russian plans envisaged war with Ukraine in 2015 after a presidential election, however Maidan accelerated the confrontation.
In the autumn of 2013 the Kremlin warned Ukraine that if the country went ahead with a planned agreement on free trade with the EU, it would face financial catastrophe and possibly the collapse of the state. Sergei Glazyev, adviser to President Vladimir Putin, said that "Ukrainian authorities make a huge mistake if they think that the Russian reaction will become neutral in a few years from now. This will not happen." Russia had already imposed import restrictions on certain Ukrainian products and Glazyev did not rule out further sanctions if the agreement was signed. Glazyev allowed for the possibility of separatist movements springing up in the Russian-speaking east and south of Ukraine. He suggested that if Ukraine signed the agreement, Russia would consider the bilateral treaty that delineates the countries' borders to be void. Russia could no longer guarantee Ukraine's status as a state and could possibly intervene if pro-Russian regions of the country appealed directly to Moscow.
Following months of protests as part of the Euromaidan movement, on 22 February 2014, protesters ousted the government of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych who was elected with 48.95% votes in 2010. The protesters took control of government buildings in the capital city of Kiev, along with the city itself. As Police abandoned their posts across the capital Kiev and the opposition established control over key intersections and the parliament, President Yanukovych fled Kiev for the eastern city of Kharkiv where he has traditionally had more support. After this incident, the Ukrainian parliament voted to restore the 2004 Constitution of Ukraine and remove Yanukovych from power. A vote on the resolution which stated that Yanukovych "is removing himself [from power] because he is not fulfilling his obligations" emerged 328-0 in support. The vote was 10 short of three-quarters of the Parliament members, the requirement of the Constitution of Ukraine for impeachment. Yanukovych stated that the vote was unconstitutional because of this issue,[a] and refused to resign. Politicians from eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, including Crimea, declared continuing loyalty to Yanukovych.
The next day, the Ukrainian parliament adopted a bill to repeal the 2012 law on minority languages, which protected the status of languages other than Ukrainian, such as the Russian language. This attempt to make Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels, seemingly in an expression of Ukrainian nationalism, alienated many in the vast Russian-speaking regions of Ukraine. A few days later, on 1 March, acting President Oleksandr Turchynov vetoed the bill, effectively stopping its enactment.
In the meantime, on the morning of 27 February, Berkut special police units from Crimea and other regions of Ukraine, which had been technically dissolved on 25 February, seized checkpoints on the Isthmus of Perekop and Chonhar peninsula. According to Ukrainian MP Hennadiy Moskal, former chief of the Crimean police, these Berkut had armored personnel carriers, grenade launchers, assault rifles, machine guns and other weapons. Since then, they have controlled all land traffic between Crimea and continental Ukraine.
Russian political actions
Russian permanent representative to the United Nations Vitaly Churkin presented on 4 March a photocopy of a letter signed by Victor Yanukovich on 1 March 2014 asking that Russian president Vladimir Putin use Russian armed forces to "restore the rule of law, peace, order, stability and protection of the population of Ukraine". Both houses of the Russian parliament voted on 1 March to give President Putin the right to use Russian troops in Crimea.
Days after Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovich fled the capital of Kiev in late February 2014, armed men opposed to the Euromaidan movement began to take control of the Crimean Peninsula. Checkpoints were established by unmarked men with green military-grade uniforms and equipment in the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Simferopol, and the independently-administered port-city of Sevastopol, home to a Russian naval base under the Kharkiv Pact of 2010. The local population and the media referred to these men as "little green men". After the occupation of the Crimean parliament by these unmarked troops, widely believed to be Russian special forces, the Crimean leadership announced it would hold a referendum on secession from Ukraine. This heavily disputed referendum was followed by the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in mid-March. Ukraine and most of the international community refused to recognize the referendum or the annexation. On 15 April, the Ukrainian parliament declared Crimea a territory temporarily occupied by Russia. Since annexing Crimea, the Russian government increased its military presence in region, with Russian president Vladimir Putin saying a Russian military task force would be established there. In December 2014 Ukrainian Border Guard Service announced Russian troops began withdrawing form the areas of Kherson Oblast. Russian troops occupied parts of the Arabat Spit and the islands around the Syvash which are geographically parts of Crimea but are administratively part of Kherson Oblast. One of such villages occupied by Russian troops was Strilkove, Henichesk Raion, located on the Arabat Spit. The village housed an important gas distribution center, Russian forces stated they took over the gas distribution center to prevent terrorist attacks. Despite Russian forces withdrawing from southern Kherson Russian troops continued to occupy the gas distribution center outside Strilkove. The withdrawal from Kherson ends nearly 10 months of Russian occupation of the region. Ukraine's border guards stated the areas that were under Russian occupation will have to be checked for mines prior to them overtaking these positions.
In November, NATO stated it believes Russia was deploying nuclear-capable weapons to Crimea.
Unrest against the new government of Ukraine began bubbling up in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine not long after the February 2014 revolution. In early March, government buildings in Donetsk were temporarily occupied, and clashes between pro- and anti-government protesters broke out in the streets of the city. In April, the city of Sloviansk in northern Donetsk Oblast was abruptly seized by anti-government rebels. The insurgency spread, and within weeks, the Donetsk People's Republic and later the Lugansk People's Republic in neighboring Lugansk Oblast were declared. The self-proclaimed "people's republics" are not recognized by any state and are considered terrorist groups by the Ukrainian government, although they have received Russian backing. The SBU claims key commanders of the rebel movement during this time, including Igor Strelkov and Igor Bezler are Russian agents.
A significant number of Russian citizens, many veterans or ultranationalists, are currently involved in the ongoing armed conflict, a fact acknowledged by separatist leaders. Carol Saivets, Russian specialist for the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology described the role of Russian soldiers as 'almost certainly' proceeding with the blessing and backing of the Russian state, "even if the Russians are indeed volunteers rather than serving military men". Recruitment for the Donbass insurgents was performed openly in Russian cities using private or voyenkomat facilities, as was confirmed by a number of Russian media.
In an interview with French television channel TF1 and Radio Europe1, Russian president Vladimir Putin said: "There are no armed forces, no 'Russian instructors' in Ukraine—and there never were any."
The well-organised and well-armed pro-Russian militants have been described by Ukrainian media as resembling those which occupied regions of Crimea during the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. The former deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Admiral Ihor Kabanenko, claims the militants are Russian military reconnaissance and sabotage units.[need quotation to verify] Arsen Avakov stated the militants in Krasnyi Lyman used Russian-made AK-100 series assault rifles fitted with grenade launchers, and that such weapons are only in issue in the Russian Federation. "The Government of Ukraine is considering the facts of today as a manifestation of external aggression by Russia," said Avakov. Militants in Sloviansk arrived in military lorries without license plates.
A US State Department spokeswoman, Jen Psaki, says there is a "broad unity in the international community about the connection between Russia and some of the armed militants in eastern Ukraine". The Ukrainian government released photos of soldiers in eastern Ukraine, which the US State Department says show that some of the fighters are Russian special forces. US Secretary of State John Kerry said the militants "were equipped with specialized Russian weapons and the same uniforms as those worn by the Russian forces that invaded Crimea." The US ambassador to the United Nations said the attacks in Sloviansk were "professional," "coordinated," and that there was 'nothing grass-roots seeming about it'. The British foreign secretary, William Hague, stated, "I don't think denials of Russian involvement have a shred of credibility, [...] The forces involved are well armed, well trained, well equipped, well co-ordinated, behaving in exactly the same way as what turned out to be Russian forces behaved in Crimea." The commander of NATO operations in Europe, Philip M. Breedlove, assessed that soldiers appeared to be highly trained and not a spontaneously formed local militia, and that "what is happening in eastern Ukraine is a military operation that is well planned and organized and we assess that it is being carried out at the direction of Russia."
A Russian opposition politician, Ilya Ponomarev, said "I am absolutely confident that in the eastern regions of Ukraine there are Russian troops in very small amounts. And it's not regular soldiers, but likely representatives of special forces and military intelligence." Later in July, after shoot-down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, he said that "Putin now understands that he has passed weapons to the wrong people". He also said that even if Moscow does not supply more weapons to the Donbass insurgents, there would still be enough supporters of the insurgency in the Russian military to continue such shipments unofficially.
Klaus Zillikens, head of the OSCE mission in Donetsk, said that the mission has detected signs of "foreign agents" operating in Ukraine, but thus far there is no evidence to confirm that. According to Georgij Alafuzoff, the Director of Intelligence at the European Union Military Staff, even if there is a Russian military presence in Ukraine, it is not as large as it was in Crimea. He suggests the militants are mostly local citizens, disappointed by the situation in the country. Nick Paton Walsh, reporting from Donetsk for CNN, stated that the physical appearance of the militants is different from that of the unidentified troops, spotted throughout Crimea while it was in the process of secession.
David Patrikarakos, a correspondent for the New Statesman said the following: "While at the other protests/occupations there were armed men and lots of ordinary people, here it almost universally armed and masked men in full military dress. Automatic weapons are everywhere. Clearly a professional military is here. There's the usual smattering of local militia with bats and sticks but also a military presence. Of that there is no doubt." Zbigniew Brzezinski, a former American National Security Advisor, said that the events in the Donbass were similar to events in Crimea, which led to its annexation by Russia, and noted that Russia acted similarly.
The New York Times journalists interviewed Sloviansk militants and found no clear link of Russian support: "There was no clear Russian link in the 12th Company’s arsenal, but it was not possible to confirm the rebels’ descriptions of the sources of their money and equipment." Commenting on the presence of the Vostok Battalion within insurgent ranks, Denis Pushilin said on 30 May, "It's simply that there were no volunteers [from Russia] before, and now they have begun to arrive – and not only from Russia." Stephen Ennis wrote in his BBC news blog that, on the Ukrainian state television talk-show Shuster Live on 13 June 2014, the British journalist Mark Franchetti, who had just spent weeks with the Vostok Battalion, described the Battalion as largely untrained locals from eastern Ukraine, with a smattering of Russian volunteers. He also stated that the fighters in the Battalion who were now in the Donbass were "mainly normal, ordinary citizens who are absolutely convinced they are defending their homes – as they put it – against fascism". Franchetti stressed that he was not saying that there were no Russian troops operating in Ukraine, but that he did not come across any himself. He stated "I can only speak about what I saw with my own eyes".
In a meeting held on 7 July in Donetsk city, Russian politician Sergey Kurginyan held a press conference with representatives of Donbass People's Militia, including Pavel Gubarev, and said that Russia did provide significant military support for the separatists. During a discussion among the participants, Gubarev complained that the arms that had been sent was old, and not fully functional. In response, Kurginyan listed specific items, including 12,000 automatic rifles, grenade launchers, 2S9 Nona self-propelled mortars, two BMPs, and three tanks, that he knew had been supplied to the separatists by Russia. He also said he saw new, fully functional weapons unloaded at locations in Donbass which he would not "disclose as we are filmed by cameras". Kurginyan admitted that Russia had initially sent "4th category weapons", but since 3 June had supplied equipment that was fully functional. He also said one of his goals whilst in Donetsk was to ensure that military support from Russia was increased.[better source needed][unreliable source?][unreliable source?]
An An-26 military cargo plane was shot down over the Ukrainian village of Davydo Myilske near the Russian border on 14 July. It had been flying at an altitude of 6,500 metres. The head of Ukraine's Security Service Valentyn Nalyvaichenko, stated on 15 July that the SBU had "indisputable" evidence of Russian involvement in the attack. On 24 July, a week after the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, over an area of Ukraine controlled by pro-Russia separatists, most likely by pro-Russian forces, the American government stated that it had evidence that the Russian military was firing on Ukrainian territory from across the border. A spokesman for the US Department of Defence stated that there was "no question" as to Russia's involvement in the attacks on Ukrainian Armed Forces. On 28 July it published satellite photos showing heavy artillery shelling Ukrainian positions from Russian territory.
In a battle at Donetsk airport more than 50% of the people killed were Russian citizens and were delivered back to Russia.A report for the independent news site Novaya Gazeta, reprinted in The Guardian, tracked down the widow of one Russian man who died during the fighting at Donetsk airport, and sought to shed light onto the obscure structures that organised the transfer of fighters to Ukraine. The report further highlighted the 'frustration of dealing with Russian officialdom apparently so keen to cover up all traces of those fighting across the border'.
Alexander Zakharchenko, said 1200 fighters trained in Russia for four months, crossed and are ready to fight. Zakharchenko said the reinforcements included 30 tanks and 120 armoured vehicles. He later denied making the comments.
A convoy of military vehicles, including armoured personnel carriers, with official Russian military plates crossed into Ukraine near the insurgent-controlled Izvaryne border crossing on 14 August. The Ukrainian government later said that they destroyed most of the armoured column with artillery. Secretary General of NATO Anders Fogh Rasmussen said this incident was "clear demonstration of continued Russian involvement in the destabilisation of eastern Ukraine". Surprisingly the same day, Russian President Vladimir Putin, speaking to Russian ministers and Crimean parliamentarians on a visit to Crimea, undertook to do everything he could to end the conflict in Ukraine, saying Russia needed to build calmly and with dignity, not by confrontation and war which isolated it from the rest of the world. The comments came as international sanctions against Russia were being stepped up.
17 August, Ukraine accused Russia of sending more military equipment, including Grad rocket launchers, across the border and on to Nizhny Nagolchyk.Sergei Lavrov persisted in affirming that Russia was not sending any equipment across the border, and pointed out that an OSCE observer mission placed at border crossing points in the region had not identified any unlawful crossings of the border. Yet the OSCE mission that Lavrov pointed to as not having identified any unlawful crossings of the border had no mandate to check the long, unguarded sections of the border where crossings of men and equipment occur frequently.
Ukrainian Defence Minister Valeriy Heletey said on 21 August that the insurgents were using Russian-made weapons that had never been used or bought by the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Injured insurgents are usually treated in Russia, with help from the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. They are also questioned and registered by the Federal Security Service (FSB), the Russian domestic security and intelligence agency.
On 18 August Russian minister of defence Sergey Shoigu awarded Suvorov medal to Pskov Paratroopers Division. Russian media highlighted that the medal is awarded exclusively for combat operations and reported that a large number of soldiers from this division died in Ukraine just days before, but their burials were kept in secret.
According to NATO reports, Russian military has been shelling Ukrainian positions across the border since mid-August, and by 22 August, Russian artillery and personnel have crossed the border into Ukraine itself. On 25 August a column of Russian tanks and military vehicles was reported to have crossed into Ukraine in the southeast, near the town of Novoazovsk, and headed towards Ukrainian held Mariupol.
Lindsey Hilsum wrote in the Channel 4 news blog that in early September Ukrainian troops at Dmitrivska came under attack from BM-30 Smerch rockets from Russia. She wrote on 4 September that the word was that Ukrainian troops who have been shelling Luhansk for weeks were retreating west and that Russian soldiers with heavy armour were reported to have come over the border to back up the rebels. Ukrainian troops gave accounts of fighting the Russian army during the Battle of Ilovaisk.
Journalist Tim Judah has wrote in the NYR blog about the scale of the devastation suffered by Ukrainian forces in southeastern Ukraine over the last week of August 2014 that it amounted 'to a catastrophic defeat and will long be remembered by embittered Ukrainians as among the darkest days of their history.' The scale of the destruction achieved in several ambushes revealed 'that those attacking the pro-government forces were highly professional and using very powerful weapons.' The fighting in Ilovaysk had begun on 7 August when units from three Ukrainian volunteer militias and the police attempted to take it back from rebel control. Then, on 28 August, the rebels were able to launch a major offensive, with help from elsewhere, including Donetsk—though "not Russia," according to Commander Givi, the head of rebel forces there. By 1 September it was all over and the Ukrainians had been decisively defeated. Commander Givi said the ambushed forces were militias not regular soldiers whose numbers had been boosted, 'by foreigners, including Czechs, Hungarians, and "niggers." '
Mick Krever wrote on the CNN blog that on 5 September Russia's Permanent Representative to the OSCE, Andrey Kelin had said it was natural pro-Russian separatists "are going to liberate" Mariupol. Ukrainian forces stated that Russian intelligence groups had been spotted in the area. Kelin said 'there might be volunteers over there.' NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen meanwhile said there are several thousand regular Russian forces operating in Ukraine. Lindsey Hilsum reported on the Channel 4 news blog about the total destruction of Luhansk International Airport which was being used as a base by the Ukrainian forces to shell Luhansk, probably because the Russians decided to 'turn the tide ' - the terminal building and everything around was utterly destroyed. Forces from Azerbaijan, Belarus and Tajikistan who were fighting on the side of the rebels allowed themselves to be filmed.
On 13 September it was reported Moscow sent a convoy of trucks delivering aid into Ukraine without Kiev's consent. This convoy was not inspected by Ukraine or accompanied by the ICRC. Top Ukrainian leaders have largely remained silent about the convoys after the ceasefire deal was reached. The aid is part of the 12-point Minsk agreement.
August military intervention
In late August 2014, according to NATO officials, Russia moved self-propelled artillery onto the territory of Ukraine. Russian soldiers were captured in Donetsk Oblast; Russia claimed that they had crossed over by accident. Russia was reported to have shelled Ukrainian territory, and Russian military forces were reported to have entered Ukraine near Novoazovsk. On 24 August 2014, President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko referred to the conflict as Ukraine's "Patriotic War of 2014" and a war against "external aggression".[full citation needed] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine labeled the conflict an invasion on 27 August 2014.
On 27 August, two columns of Russian tanks entered Ukrainian territory in support of the pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk and engaged Ukrainian border forces, but US officials were reluctant to declare that Russia had begun invading Ukraine. NATO officials have stated that over 1000 Russian troops are operating inside Ukraine, but termed the incident as an incursion rather than an invasion. The Russian government denies these claims. NATO has published satellite photos which are claimed to show the presence of Russian troops within Ukrainian territory. The pro-Russian separatists have admitted that Russian troops are fighting alongside them, stating that this was "no secret", but that the Russian troops were just soldiers who preferred to take their vacations fighting in Ukraine rather than "on the beach". The Prime Minister of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic stated that 3000 to 4000 Russian troops had been fighting in separatist ranks and that most of them had not returned to Russia, having continued to fight in Ukraine.
The 76th Guards Air Assault Division entered Ukrainian territory in August and engaged in a skirmish suffering 80 dead. The Ukrainian Defense Ministry said that they had destroyed three of the units tanks and seized two armored vehicles. The Russian government denied the skirmish took place. After the denials Vladimir Putin awarded the Division one of Russia's highest awards, the Order of Suvorov for the "successful completion of military missions" and "courage and heroism".
For at least one week prior to the invasion, Russia had been shelling Ukrainian units from across the border, but instances of cross-border shelling from Russia had been reported since mid-July. At the time, Russian government spokesman denied these allegations. On 13 August, members of the Russian Human Rights Commission stated that over 100 Russian soldiers had been killed in the fighting in Ukraine and inquired why they were there. On 28 August, members of the commission called the presence of Russian troops on Ukrainian soil "an outright invasion".[need quotation to verify] On 28 August 2014, Ukraine ordered national mandatory conscription.
The two Russian tank columns captured the southeastern city of Novoazovsk on the Azov sea, and Russian soldiers began arresting and deporting to unknown locations all Ukrainians who did not have an address registered within the town. Pro-Ukrainian anti-war protests took place in Mariupol which was threatened by Russian troops. The UN Security Council called an emergency meeting in regard to the situation.
Around 29–30 August, Russian tanks destroyed "virtually every house" in Novosvitlivka, according to Ukrainian military spokesman Andriy Lysenko. On 2 September, after Ukrainian forces agreed to surrender Ilovaisk, they were bombarded by Russian forces while they evacuated through a "green corridor." The assault on the troops who were marked with white flags was variously described as a "massacre." At least 100 were killed.
On 3 September, Ukrainian President Poroshenko said he had reached a permanent ceasefire agreement with Russian President Putin. Russia then denied the ceasefire took place, denying being party to the conflict at all. Ukraine then retracted its previous statement concerning the potential ceasefire.
Also on 3 September OSCE for the first time reported "light and heavy calibre shootings from the east and south-east areas which are also bordering Ukraine". In this report, it is also stated that the OSCE Observer Teams have also seen an increase of military-style dressed men crossing the border in both directions, including ones with LPR and Novorossiya symbols and flags, and wounded being transported back to Russia
On 7 November, NATO officials confirmed the continued invasion of Ukraine, with 32 Russian tanks, 16 howitzer cannons and 30 trucks of troops entering the country. On 12 November NATO reiterated the prevalence of Russian troops; US general Philip Breedlove said "Russian tanks, Russian artillery, Russian air defence systems and Russian combat troops" were sighted. The Lithuanian Mission to the United Nations denounced Russia's 'undeclared war' on Ukraine. Journalist Menahem Kahana took a picture showing a 1RL232 "Leopard" battlefield surveillance radar system in Torez, east of Donetsk; and Dutch freelance journalist Stefan Huijboom took pictures which showed the 1RL232 traveling with the 1RL239 "Lynx" radar system.
Allegations of Russian involvement
At the beginning of the insurgency, the prime ministers of Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk were Russian citizens; they were succeeded by Ukrainian citizens by August. Many of the separatist fighters are Russian citizens, with many claimed to be former military personnel. The SBU claims key commanders of the rebel movement during this time, including Igor Strelkov and Igor Bezler, are Russian agents. American and Ukrainian officials said they had evidence of Russian interference in Ukraine, including intercepted communications between Russian officials and Donbass insurgents. Separatist leaders like Alexei Moskovoy visited Moscow and were evasive about who was supplying their weapons. There is also evidence that indicates the Buk missile system, widely believed to have been used to shoot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 on 17 July, came from Russia. In late August, NATO released satellite images which it said showed evidence of Russian operations inside Ukraine with sophisticated weaponry, and after the setbacks of Ukrainian forces by early September, it was evident Russia had sent soldiers and armour across the border and locals acknowledged the role of Putin and Russian soldiers in effecting a reversal of fortunes.
Status of Russian soldiers
While Russia officially denies organized presence of their military units in Ukraine, there is a large amount of circumstantial evidence that suggests the opposite. Center for Eurasian Strategic Intelligence has estimated, based on "official statements and interrogation records of captured military men from these units, satellite surveillance data" as well as verified announcements from relatives and profiles in social networks, that over 30 Russian military units are taking part in the conflict in Ukraine. In total, there was over 8 thousand soldiers fighting there at different moments.
In November 2014 Igor Girkin gave a long interview to the extreme right-wing  nationalist newspaper "Zavtra" ("Tomorrow") where for the first time he released details about the beginning of the conflict in Donbass. According to Girkin, he was the one who "pulled the trigger of war" and it was necessary because acquisition of Crimea alone by Russia "did not make sense" and Crimea as part of the Novorossiya "would make the jewel in the crown of the Russian Empire". Girkin had been directed to Donbass by Sergey Aksyonov and he entered Ukraine with a group of 52 officers in April, initially taking Slavyansk, Kramatorsk and then other cities. Girkin also talked about the situation in August, when separatist forces were close to defeat and only a prompt intervention of Russian "leavers" (ironic term for "soldiers on leave") saved them. Their forces took command in the siege of Mariupol as well.
The speaker of Russia's upper house of parliament and Russian state television channels acknowledged that Russian soldiers entered Ukraine, but have referred to them as "volunteers". A reporter for Novaya Gazeta, an opposition newspaper in Russia, stated that the Russian military leadership paid soldiers to resign their commissions and fight in Ukraine in the early summer of 2014, and then began ordering soldiers into Ukraine. This reporter said to have knowledge of at least one case when soldiers who refused were threatened with prosecution. Russian opposition MP Lev Shlosberg made similar claims, although he said combatants from his country are "regular Russian troops", disguised as units of DPR and LPR. Shlosberg's newspaper also released transcript of phone conversations between Russian soldiers being treated in a Pskov hospital for wounds received while fighting in Ukraine. The soldiers reveal that they were sent to the war, but told by their officers that they were going on "an exercise". Despite denials that Russian soldiers are not being ordered to fight in Ukraine, in August Vladimir Putin awarded the Order of Suvorov, an award given for combat against a foreign enemy, to the 76th Guards Air Assault Division, a Russian military paratrooper unit, for "successful completion of military missions". At the time, Ukrainian officials reported that fighting between the 76th Guards and Ukrainian military had taken place but Kremlin dismissed these reports.
In response to internal criticism of the Russian government's policy of not officially recognizing Russian soldiers in Ukraine as fulfilling military service and leaving their families without any source of income if they are killed, president Vladimir Putin signed a new law in October entitling their families to a monthly compensation. Two new entitlement categories were added: "missing in action" and "declared dead" (as of 1 January 2016).
On 26 August 2014, a mixed column composed of at least 3 T-72B1s and a lone T-72BM was identified on a video from Sverdlovsk by the International Institute for Strategic Studies. The significance of this sighting was that Russia attempted to maintain plausible deniability over the issue of supplying tanks and other arms to the separatists. Russia continuously claimed that any tanks operated by the separatists must have been captured from Ukraine's own army. The T-72BM is in service with the Russian Army in large numbers. This modernized T-72 is not known to have been exported to nor operated by any other country. Reuters found other tanks of this type near Horbatenko in October. In November, the United Kingdom's embassy in Ukraine also published an infographic demonstrating specific features of the T-72 tanks used by separatists not present in tanks held by Ukrainian army, ironically addressing it to "help Russia recognize its own tanks".
Alexandr Negrebetskih, a deputy from Russian city of Zlatoust who fights as volunteer on the side of separatists, complained in an interview that "the locals run to Russia, and we have to come here as they are reluctant to defend their land" which results in his detachment being composed of 90% Russians and only 10% locals from Donetsk.
In November Lev Shlosberg published a response from a military attorney's office to questions he asked about the status of Pskov paratroopers killed in Ukraine in August. The office answered that the soldiers died while "fulfilling military service outside of their permanent dislocation units" (Pskov), but any further information on their orders or location of death was withheld as "classified". A political expert Alexey Makarkin compared these answers to those provided by Soviet ministry of defence during Soviet war in Afghanistan when USSR attempted to hide the scale of their casualties at any cost.
Numerous reports of Russian troops and warfare on Ukrainian territory have been also raised in United Nations Security Council meetings. In the 12 November meeting, the representative of the United Kingdom also accused Russia of intentionally constraining OSCE observatory missions' capabilities, pointing out that the observers are only allowed to monitor 2 kilometers of border between Ukraine and Russia, and drones recently deployed to extend their capabilities are being jammed or shot down.
In November, Armament Research Services published a detailed report on arms used by both sides of conflict, documenting a number of "flag items". Among vehicles they documented presence of T-72B Model 1989 and T-72B3 tanks, armoured vehicles of models BTR-82AM, MT-LB 6MA, MT-LBVM, and MT-LBVMK, and an Orlan-10 drone and 1RL239 radar vehicle. Among the ammunition, they documented 9K38 Igla (date of manufacture 2014), ASVK rifle (2012), RPG-18 rocket launchers (2011), 95Ya6 rocket boosters (2009) MRO-A (2008), 9K135 Kornet anti-tank weapons (2007), PPZR Grom (2007), MON-50 (2002), RPO-A (2002), PKP (2001), OG-7 (2001), and VSS rifles (1987). These weapons, mostly manufactured in Russia, were seen in the zone of conflict used by pro-Russian separatists, but never "were in the Ukrainian government inventory prior to the outbreak of hostilities". The report also points to an interesting case of the PPZR Grom MANPADs that are produced in Poland and were never exported to Ukraine. They were however exported to Georgia in 2007 and subsequently captured by Russian army during the Russian-Georgian War 2008.
In December Ukrainian hackers published a large cache of documents coming allegedly from a hacked server of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MID). The documents originate from various departaments coordinated by MID, like local police, road police, emergency services etc. Among those analyzed by activists there are for example documents describing Russian military casualties arriving on August 25 to hospitals in Rostov area after a battle "10 km northwest of the small village of Prognoi", which matches a battle in Krasnaya Talovka reported on the same date by Ukrainian side.
Repatriation of Russian soldiers
The repatriation of Russians killed in action or taken as prisoners of war has become a controversial topic in the media due to the Russian state's denial of involvement in Ukraine. Many families have shown growing concern about the whereabouts of their children as Russian military officials only tell them that they are on "training exercises."
In early September 2014, Russian state owned television channels reported on the funerals of Russian soldiers who died in Ukraine during the War in Donbass, but described them as "volunteers" fighting for the "Russian world". Valentina Matviyenko, a top politician in the ruling United Russia party, also praised "volunteers" fighting in "our fraternal nation", referring to Ukraine.
After a series of military defeats and setbacks for the Donetsk and Lugansk separatists, who united under the banner of "Novorossiya" after a term Russian President Vladimir Putin used to describe southeastern Ukraine, Russia dispatched what it called a "humanitarian convoy" of trucks across the Russo-Ukrainian border in mid-August 2014. Ukraine reacted to the move by calling it a "direct invasion".
About the same time, multiple reports indicated separatist militias were receiving reinforcements that allowed them to turn the tables on government forces. Armored columns coming from Russia also pushed into southern Donetsk Oblast and reportedly captured the town of Novoazovsk, clashing with Ukrainian forces and opening a new front in the Donbass conflict.
On 25 August Security Service of Ukraine announced the capture of a group of Russian soldiers from the paratroopers military unit 71211 from Kostroma, who crossed Ukrainian border in the night of 23 August. The soldiers were stopped in Dzerkalne, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the border. SBU also released their photos and names. The next day Russian Ministry of Defence explained they crossed the border "by accident". There were also reports in Russian media, such as Pskovskaya Guberniya, that Russian paratroopers may have been killed in Ukraine. Journalists traveled to Pskov, the reported burial location of the troops, to investigate. Multiple reporters said they had been attacked or threatened there, and that the attackers erased several camera memory cards. On 31 August Russian media reported that ten Russian paratroopers captured inside Ukraine had returned home following a troop exchange. Ukraine said the soldiers were captured 20 km from the border with Russia and Russia claimed that the soldiers had crossed in Ukraine "by accident". The exchanged 64 Ukrainian troops captured inside Russia were said to have entered Russia to escape the upsurge in fighting. Russia claimed that the Russian troops had mistakenly crossed an unmarked area of the border while on patrol. Ukraine released videos of captured Russian soldiers which challenged Russia's claim that it has nothing to do with the conflict.
On 3 September Sky News team filmed groups of troops near Novoazovsk wearing modern combat gear typical for Russian units and moving on new military vehicles with number plates and other markings removed. Specialists consulted by the journalists identified parts of the equipment (uniform, rifles) as currently used by Russian ground forces and paratroopers. Russian state television for the first time showed the funeral of a soldier killed fighting in east Ukraine. State-controlled TV station Channel One showed the burial of paratrooper Anatoly Travkin in the central Russian city of Kostroma. The broadcaster said Travkin had not told his wife or commanders about his decision to fight alongside pro-Russia rebels battling government forces. "Officially he just went on leave," the news reader said. 
Russian officials denies reports that Russian military units are operating in Ukraine (see War in Donbass), claiming instead they had been sent on routine drills close to the border with Ukraine and crossed the border by mistake. On 28 August 2014 Dutch Brigadier-General Nico Tak, head of NATO's crisis management center, said that "over 1,000 Russian troops are now operating inside Ukraine". Different sources estimate numbers of Russian soldiers killed during war in Ukraine between 30 and 3500, the majority killed since August 2014.
On 5 September Sergey Krivenko, a member of Russian President's Council for Civil Society and Human Rights, commented on the growing number of Russian soldiers getting killed in Ukraine saying that "the situation now is very strange, something unusual is going on; it could be described as massive dying of soldiers, which is not typical for time of peace; people from different military units are killed as result of shots, from loss of blood, all these reasons are documented; and the military command explains that it happened during training or provides no explanation at all"
Valentina Melnikova, head of the Russian Union of Committees of Soldiers' Mothers, has said that the Russian authorities were threatening the relatives of soldiers who had been killed in Ukraine, and forcing them to keep silent about their deaths. The Kremlin has tried to systematically intimidate and silence human rights workers who have raised question about Russian soldiers' deaths in Ukraine, in a war which officially Russia denies being involved in. In mid September, Ksenia Batanova, a senior producer for the news network Dozhd, was assaulted in an attack that fractured her skull. Dozhd is a channel that has covered the Russian involvement in Ukraine, and kept a running tally of soldiers' deaths at this time. Kremlin's pressure on this channel of independent information has intensified during the Ukraine crisis. The BBC reported on the death of a Russian soldier, Konstantin, killed 12 August 2014, who had three weeks previously been at home forty miles from Astrakhan. Telephone calls to his sister in the intervening weeks had spoken of Ukraine. The BBC team investigating this death was stopped and attacked by thugs and its video camera smashed. Russia continues to insist it sends no soldiers into eastern Ukraine.
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers of Russia started actively questioning the government's policy of "secret war" after a number of Russian soldiers officially sent for "training" to Rostov area and died there for reasons never officially revealed to the families. These facts were further investigated by non-mainstream media in Russia. Russian Ministry of Defence used the tactics of always denying presence of any Russian soldiers in Ukraine and, when presented with undeniable evidence about specific people, admitting that they might have crossed the border "by mistake", or at that time were "on holiday", or their contracts were cancelled (but actually backdated). Soldier's Mothers also expressed their concern about families of killed soldiers, because if they have weren't officially sent to the war zone, the families will be not receiving social support and veteran's pension.
On 2 October 2014, RBC published The investigation by RBC: Where Russian soldiers in Ukraine are from and listed in it Russian military divisions, soldiers of which are assumed to have been secretly dispatched from Russia to Ukraine and used there.
On 1 March, Roskomnadzor (a Russian federal media oversight agency) blocked access to the pages of 13 "Ukrainian nationalist organizations" to users in Russia on Vkontakte, the most popular social network in Russia and second most popular in Europe (after Facebook). Yury Chaika, the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, ordered Roskomnadzor to effect this block.
On 16 October 2014 the deputy chief of Security Service of Ukraine claimed that the service has released 16 out of 131 servicemen of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation back home to their relatives who petitioned through a hotline.
In a press briefing by the Ukrainian Secretary of the National Security and Defence Council (NSDC), Andriy Parubiy stated that militants were trained in a military facility in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. "Near Rostov-on-Don, there is a big military base where terrorists are preparing for deployment into the territory of the Ukrainian state. This is confirmed not only by our intelligence, but also Russian prisoners who were detained, and they testify about this base," Parubiy said. He added that more than a thousand militants are trained by Russian instructors, and then they in small armed groups try to break into the territory of Ukraine. On 21 May, a Russian citizen with military experience was detained trying to enter the country, who upon investigation, was found to have recently trained in the Rostov facility.
According to Jen Psaki, the United States Department of State is confident that Russia has sent tanks and rocket launchers from a deployment site in southwest Russia into eastern Ukraine, and NATO satellite imagery has shown that on 10 and 11 June main battle tanks were stationed across the border at Donetsk in a staging area in Rostov-on-Don.
In July 2014, Reuters published a logbook of an 9K38 Igla missile that was signed out of military storage in Moscow for a military base in Rostov-on-Don, and ended up with insurgents in Donbass, where it was eventually taken over by the Ukrainian forces.
After OSCE observers arrived at Gukovo border crossing on 9 August, they reported that there was a stream of multiple groups of people wearing military-style dress crossing the border between Russia and Ukraine, in both directions, some of them clearly identifying themselves as members of DNR militia. They also observed several ambulance evacuations of wounded supporters of the DPR and LPR.
Reactions to the Russian intervention in Crimea
Interim Ukrainian President Oleksandr Turchynov accused Russia of "provoking a conflict" by backing the seizure of the Crimean parliament building and other government offices on the Crimean peninsula. He compared Russia's military actions to the 2008 Russia–Georgia war, when Russian troops occupied parts of the Republic of Georgia and the breakaway enclaves of Abkhazia and South Ossetia were established under the control of Russian-backed administrations. He called on Putin to withdraw Russian troops from Crimea and stated that Ukraine will "preserve its territory" and "defend its independence". On 1 March, he warned, "Military intervention would be the beginning of war and the end of any relations between Ukraine and Russia."
On 1 March, Acting President Oleksandr Turchynov placed the Armed Forces of Ukraine on full alert and combat readiness.
US and NATO military response
On 4 March 2014, the United States pledged $1 billion in aid to Ukraine.
Russia's actions increased tensions in nearby countries historically within its sphere of influence, particularly the Baltic and Moldova; all have large Russian-speaking populations, and Russian troops are stationed in the breakaway Moldovan territory of Transnistria. Some devoted resources to increasing defensive capabilities, and many requested increased support from the U.S. and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which they had joined in recent years. The conflict "reinvigorated" NATO, which had been created to face the Soviet Union, but had devoted more resources to "expeditionary missions" in recent years.
NATO increasingly saw Russia as an adversary, though officials hoped this would be temporary. Initial deployments in March and early April were restricted to increased air force monitoring and training in the Baltics and Poland, and single ships in the Black Sea. On 16 April, officials announced the deployment of ships to the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas, and increasing exercises in "Eastern Europe". The measures were apparently limited so as not to appear aggressive. Leaders emphasized that the conflict was not a new Cold War but some analysts disagreed. Others supported applying George F. Kennan's concept of containment to possible Russian expansion. Former U.S. Ambassador to Russia Michael McFaul said, "We are enduring a drift of disengagement in world affairs. As we pull back, Russia is pushing forward. I worry about the new nationalism that Putin has unleashed and understand that many young Russians also embrace these extremist ideas."
Beginning 23 April 600 US troops from the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team held bilateral exercises in Poland and the Baltic. Plans were made for a communications mission to counter Russian propaganda in eastern Ukraine, improve internal Ukrainian military communication, and handle apparent Russian infiltration of the security services.
On 5 March the Pentagon announced, independently of NATO, that it would send six fighter jets and a refueling aircraft to augment the four already participating in the Baltic Air Policing mission. The US rotation was due to last through the end of April. The Polish Air Force was scheduled to participate from 1 May through 31 August.
- Throughout the second half of March, the UK, France, the Czech Republic, and Denmark all offered aircraft to augment the Polish rotation. UK officials announced plans to send six Eurofighter Typhoon. Over the next two weeks, France offered four fighters, and anonymous officials mentioned possible air support for Poland and stationing AWACs in Poland and Romania. The Czech Republic offered to deploy fighter aircraft to interested countries bordering or near Ukraine. Denmark planned to send six F-16 fighters.
- After some consideration, Germany's Defense Ministry committed to sending six Eurofighters (to reinforce the Portuguese rotation beginning in September) and leading "minesweeping maneuvers" in the Baltic Sea. A multinational group of four minesweeper ships and a supply ship from the Standing NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1 left Kiel, Germany on 22 April.
- Swedish, Lithuanian, and US aircraft took part in exercises over the Baltic in early April. The US was considering establishing a small but "continuous" military force in the Baltic to reassure its allies. NATO and Estonia agreed to base aircraft at the Ämari Air Base, which was reportedly possible due to the increased number of planes offered by allies. The Lithuanian defense ministry reported that the number of Russian planes flying close to the border had increased in January and February.
Black and Mediterranean Seas
An Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, the USS Truxtun, crossed into the Black Sea on 6 March to participate in long-planned exercises with Bulgaria and Romania.[b] American officials stated that it was part of a routine deployment for exercises with the Bulgarian and Romanian navies. The Truxtun left the Black Sea by 28 March, but some politicians argued that it should return as a show of support. An additional 175 Marines were to be deployed to the Black Sea Rotational Force in Romania, though this was decided in late 2012.
On 10 April, the guided missile destroyer USS Donald Cook entered the Black Sea to "reassure NATO allies and Black Sea partners of America's commitment to strengthen and improve interoperability while working towards mutual goals in the region", according to a Pentagon spokesman. On 14 April, the ship was repeatedly buzzed by a Su-24 Russian attack aircraft. The Donald Cook left the Black Sea on 28 April, leaving the USS Taylor.
On 30 April, Canada redeployed the HMCS Regina from counter-terrorist operations in the Arabian Sea, likely to join Standing NATO Maritime Group 1, which had itself been reassigned to the eastern Mediterranean in response to events in Ukraine.
Poland and Romania
- 7 U.S. F-16's were scheduled to participate in a training exercise in Poland. On 6 March, it was announced that 12 fighters and 300 service personnel would go to Poland. The increase was attributed to concerns over Russian activities in Crimea. It was later announced that the detachment from the 555th Fighter Squadron would remain through the end of 2014. Six F-16's were also stationed in Romania with no given departure date.
- On 10 March, NATO began using Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACS airborne radar aircraft to monitor Poland's and Lithuania's border with Kaliningrad. Monitoring also took place in Romania.
- On 26 March, US and UK defense chiefs agreed to accelerate the development of the NATO missile defence system. Talks were "dominated" by the situation in Ukraine, but officials emphasized that this was not a response to Russian actions.
NATO foreign ministers at a meeting in early April did not rule out stationing troops in countries near Russia, saying that Russia had "gravely breached the trust upon which our cooperation must be based". Poland requested that "two heavy brigades" be stationed on its territory, to mixed responses; NATO considered increased support for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova.
- On 17 April, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced a deployment of six CF-18 jet fighters to be based in Poland, and 20 additional staff officers to the NATO headquarters. The planes were apparently redirected to Romania, along with at least 220 Canadian personnel.
- On 24 April, France announced the deployment of four Rafale fighters to Poland's Malbork Airbase as a "defensive posture".
Relations with Russia
According to Stars and Stripes, the Atlas Vision exercise with Russia (planned for July) was cancelled. The Rapid Trident exercise in western Ukraine, scheduled for the same time, was to proceed as planned, as was the naval exercise Sea Breeze.
France suspended most military cooperation with Russia and considered halting the sale of two Mistral-class warships it had been contracted to build. Canada, the UK, and Norway all suspended cooperation to some extent. On 1 April, NATO suspended all military and civilian cooperation with Russia. Russian diplomatic access to NATO headquarters was restricted.
Military actions in other countries
- Ukraine reported that Russian units in Belarus were participating in Russia's military exercises near the Ukrainian border.
- On 24 March, Viktor Bondarev, commander of the Russian Air Force, announced plans to station 24 Su-27 fighters in Baranovichi by the end of the year.
Sweden and Finland
Adam Taylor wrote in his Washington Post blog that Officials in Sweden and Finland were concerned by apparent Russian intelligence activities. While both Nordic countries were strongly non-aligned (only participating in NATO's Partnership for Peace), and experts considered a Russian attack unlikely, interest in NATO membership increased slightly. Local populations preferred a possible Sweden-Finland alliance, and both countries increased radar- and aircraft-based monitoring of Russian movements. In late April, Sweden announced plans to gradually increase its defense budget by over 10% by 2024, purchase 10 new fighter planes, and equip its fighters with cruise missiles.
- On 7 March, the Turkish Air Force reported it scrambled six F-16 fighter jets after a Russian surveillance plane flew along Turkey's Black Sea coast. It was the second incident of its kind reported that week, with one occurring the day before on 6 March. The Russian plane remained in international airspace. Diplomatic sources revealed that Turkey has warned Russia that if it attacks Ukraine and its Crimean Tatar population, it would blockade Russian ships' passage to the Black Sea.
International diplomatic and economic responses
Several members of the international community have expressed grave concerns over the Russian intervention in Ukraine and criticized Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, including the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey, Australia and the European Union as a whole, which condemned Russia, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty. Many of these countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia or Russian individuals or companies, to which Russia responded in kind. Amnesty International has expressed its belief that Russia is fuelling the conflict. The UN Security Council held a special meeting at the weekend[when?] on the crisis. The G7 countries condemned the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty, and urged Russia to withdraw. All G7 leaders are refusing to participate in it due to assumed violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, in contravention of Russia's obligations under the UN Charter and its 1997 basing agreement with Ukraine.
The intervention caused turbulence in financial markets. Many markets around the world fell slightly due to the threat of instability. The Swiss franc climbed to a 2-year high against the dollar and 1-year high against the Euro. The Euro and the US dollar both rose, as did the Australian dollar. The Russian stock market declined by more than 10 percent, whilst the Russian ruble hit all-time lows against the US dollar and the Euro. The Russian central bank hiked interest rates and intervened in the foreign exchange markets to the tune of $12 billion to try to stabilize its currency. Prices for wheat and grain rose, with Ukraine being a major exporter of both crops. In early August 2014, the German DAX was down by 6 percent for the year, and 11 percent since June, over concerns Russia, Germany's biggest trade partner, would retaliate against sanctions.
Reactions to the Russian intervention in Donbass
- Amnesty International considers the war to be "an international armed conflict" and presented independent satellite photos analysis proving involvement of regular Russian army in the conflict. It accuses Ukrainian militia and separatist forces for being responsible for war crimes and has called on all parties, including Russia, to stop violations of the laws of war. Amnesty has expressed its belief that Russia is fuelling the conflict, 'both through direct interference and by supporting the separatists in the East' and called on Russia to 'stop the steady flow of weapons and other support to an insurgent force heavily implicated in gross human rights violations.'
- NATO – The Russian government's decision to send a truck convoy into Luhansk on 22 August without Ukrainian consent was condemned by NATO and several NATO member states, including the United States. NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen called it "a blatant breach of Russia's international commitments" and "a further violation of Ukraine's sovereignty by Russia".
- European Union – Leaders warned that Russia faced harsher economic sanctions than the EU had previously imposed if it failed to withdraw troops from Ukraine.
- Ukraine – Chairman of the Ukrainian Parliament Oleksandr Turchynov said "It's a hybrid war that Russia has begun against Ukraine, a war with the participation of the Russian security services and the army."
- United States – US Ambassador to the United Nations, Samantha Power commented on the invasion by noting that "At every step, Russia has come before this council to say everything but the truth. It has manipulated, obfuscated and outright lied. Russia has to stop lying and has to stop fuelling this conflict." The United States government said it supported stiffer sanctions as well.
Street protests against the war in Ukraine have arisen in Russia itself. Notable protests first occurred in March and large protests occurred in September when "tens of thousands" protested the war in Ukraine with a peace march in downtown Moscow on Sunday, 21 September 2014, "under heavy police supervision".
Critics of Vladimir Putin also express cautious criticsm in the press and social media. Gary Kasparov, a consistent critic of Putin who is protected round the clock by bodyguards, has cautiously opined  on the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown and called for Western intervention.
Ukrainian public opinion
A poll of the Ukrainian public, excluding Russian-annexed Crimea, was taken by the International Republican Institute from 12–25 September. 89% of those polled opposed 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. As broken down by region, 78% of those polled from Eastern Ukraine (including Dnipropetrovsk Oblast) opposed said intervention, along with 89% in Southern Ukraine, 93% in Central Ukraine, and 99% in Western Ukraine. As broken down by native language, 79% of Russian speakers and 95% of Ukrainian speakers opposed the intervention. 80% of those polled said the country should remain a unitary country.
At the Group of 20 (G-20) summit of world leaders in Brisbane, Australia in November 2014, an incident occurred during private meetings that became quite public. At the private leaders' retreat, held the weekend before the official opening of the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Steven Harper told Russian President Vladimir Putin "I guess I'll shake your hand but I have only one thing to say to you: You need to get out of Ukraine." The incident occurred as Putin approached Harper and a group of G-20 leaders and extended his hand toward Harper. After the event was over, a "spokesman for the Russian delegation said Putin's response was: 'That's impossible because we are not there'."
- 2014 Russian anti-war protests
- Deportation of the Crimean Tatars
- International reactions to the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown
- Occupied territories of Georgia
- Russia–Ukraine border
- Russia–Ukraine relations
- Feffer (2014) "Article 11 maintains that a vote on impeachment must pass by two-thirds of the members, and the impeachment itself requires a vote by three-quarters of the members. In this case, the 328 out of 447 votes were about 10 votes short of three-quarters,"
- Baldor (2014) "A U.S. warship is also now in the Black Sea to participate in long-planned exercises."
- Network writers, agencies (27 February 2014). "Russian troop invasion encircles Crimea's capital as Ukraine PM declares the nation to be on 'brink of disaster'". News.com.au. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Armed men seize Crimea parliament". The Guardian. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "BBC News — Russian parliament approves troop deployment in Ukraine". bbc.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Office of the Spokesperson (13 April 2014). "Evidence of Russian Support for Destabilization of Ukraine". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Russian Military Forces Come Into Chonhar Village, Kherson Region. Ukrainian News, 8 March 2014
- Kramer, Andrew E. (9 June 2014). "Russians Yearning to Join Ukraine Battle Find Lots of Helping Hands". The New York Times.
- "US: Photos show Russia fired into Ukraine — Videos — CBS News". cbsnews.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Putin admits Russian forces were deployed to Crimea", Reuters, 17 April 2014,
We had to take unavoidable steps so that events did not develop as they are currently developing in southeast Ukraine. ... Of course our troops stood behind Crimea's self-defence forces.
- "Ukraine Puts Troops on High Alert, Threatening War", The New York Times, 2 March 2014
- "Putin admits unmarked soldiers in Ukraine were Russian; optimistic about Geneva talks". Public Broadcasting Service.
- "Дороги в Крым перекрыли блокпостами, которые охраняет Беркут и вооруженные люди в камуфляже". Gazeta.ua. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Crimea Checkpoints Raise Secession Fears". The Wall Street Journal. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Под Армянск стянулись силовики из "Беркута". armyansk.info (in Russian). 27 February 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Ukraine revolt was anti-constitutional coup, Putin says CBC. Retrieved 4 March 2014
- Steven Lee Myers; Alison Smale (13 March 2014). "Russian Troops Mass at Border With Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Shipman, Tim. "Ukraine to hold joint military exercises with U.S. and Britain after announcing troop withdrawal from Crimea | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Juergen Baetz; John-Thor Dahlburg (16 April 2014). "NATO increases military moves to counter Russia". The Star (Canada) (Brussels). Associated Press. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Nicolas Miletitch; Dmitry Zaks (15 April 2014). "Ukraine pushes tanks toward flashpoint separatist city". The Daily Star (Lebanon). Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: 'Russia has launched a great war'". BBC) (London). 2 September 2014.
- Kinstler, Linda (December 16, 2014). "Russian Ruble Collapses, Performs Worse Than Ukraine's Hryvnia in 2014". New Republic. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Hankir, Zahra; Doff, Natasha (December 15, 2014). "Russia Takes Ukraine’s Spot in Currency Abyss: Chart of the Day". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- "Russian ruble falls to historic lows, while pressure increases on Putin". Fox News. Associated Press. December 16, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces: in Crimea – not just soldiers from units of Black Sea Fleet. Ukrayinska Pravda. 4 March 2014
- In Crimea, Russian soldiers are not only part of the Black Sea Fleet, says the General Staff of AF of Ukraine. Interfax-Ukraine. 4 March 2014
- "Депутат: Псковские десантники переброшены на Украину (Deputy: Pskov paratroopers deployed to Ukraine)" (in Russian). PLN-Pskov. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "В СНБО подтвердили захват силами АТО 2 БМД Псковской дивизии (Capture by ATO of 2 BMD from Pskov division confirmed in the National Security Council)" (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "В Джанкое находятся войска Чеченской Республики (In Jankoi there are armies of the Chechen Republic)" (in Russian). IPC-Dzhankoy. 5 March 2014.
- "Russia redeploys ships of Baltic and Northern fleets to Sevastopol, violates agreement with Ukraine". Ukrinform. 3 March 2014.
- "Зроблено в Кремлі: фальшивка про те, що убитий український офіцер п'яним напав на росіян (Made in the Kremlin: fake that killed Ukrainian officer attacked by drunken Russians)" (in Ukrainian). Ukrinform. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Ukraina: Krimmis on Tšetšeeniast ja Uljanovskist pärit Vene sõdurid (Ukraine:In Crimea there are Russian troops from Chechnya and Ulyanovsk)" (in Estonian). Postimees. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- John Pike. "45th Special Purpose Regiment". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Ukraine looks for 'sign of hope' from Russia over Crimea". CNN.
- "In Crimea are already 30 thousand of Russian military – part of Sevastopol fleet base which was agreed by the legitimate government of Ukraine and Russian which states that Russia is allowed to keep the military base till 2045.". Ukrayinska Pravda. 7 March 2014.
- Michael Weiss (3 January 2014). "Russia Stages a Coup in Crimea". The Daily Beast.
- "An eerie mood on the ground in Crimea". CNN.
- Dearden, Lizzie (1 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: Putin asks Russian parliament's permission for military intervention in Crimea". The Independent.
- Россия незаконно увеличила численность своих войск в Украине до 16 тыс. – и.о. министра обороны [Russia illegally increased the number of its troops in Ukraine up to 16 thousand – acting Defense Minister] (in Russian).
- Anonymous (3 March 2014). "Insider's view: Moscow is in control of Crimea in Ukraine". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Ukraine must focus on where its assets are stationed, experts say". The Guardian. 3 March 2014.
- de Carbonnel, Alissa (8 April 2014). "With Russia controlling Crimea, Ukrainian army allegiances waver". Sevastopol. Reuters. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
overwhelming majority of some 18,800 service personnel [...] ignoring orders [...]. Only about 4,300 will continue their service [...]
- "3,500 Russian Soldiers Died in Putin’s War in Ukraine, Rights Activists Say". The Interpreter.
- "Activist says 4,000 Russians killed or missing in Ukraine war". KyivPost. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Russian soldiers detained in Ukraine; leaders meet in Minsk". CNN. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Ukraine crisis: Pro-Russian troops storm naval base as Clinton warns of 'aggression' from Putin The Independent, 19 March 2014
- 594 killed by 13 August,  and 1,266–2,178 killed by 13 December, making a total of 672–1,584 dead since the first reported Russian deaths in the area
- "Russian marine kills Ukraine navy officer in Crimea, says ministry". Reuters. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Aleksander Vasovic; Gabriela Baczynska (24 March 2014). "Ukraine military to pull out from Crimea". The Sudbury Star. Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Two die in rallies outside Crimean parliament, says ex-head of Mejlis". Kyiv Post. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- JC Finley (27 February 2014). "Unrest in Crimea leaves 2 dead; government buildings seized". United Press International. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Perished Crimean Tatar on the way to military enlistment office was captured "vigilantes". LB. 17 March 2014
- "Зверски убитого крымского татарина звали Решат Аметов. Трое малолетних детей осиротели. ФОТО — Крым, Россия, татары, Украина, Агрессия России против Украины (18.03.14 01:57) " Политика Украины " Новости | Цензор.НЕТ". censor.net.ua. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "The war in Ukraine: Reversal of fortune - The Economist". The Economist.
- http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/04/14/what-would-russian-troops-do-once-they-cross-the-ukrainian-border/ the stealth invasion of Crimea
- "Ukraine crisis: Why the U.S. isn’t tougher on Russia". Fortune.
- Kramer, Andrew. "Ukraine Says Russian Forces Lead Major New Offensive in East". CNBC.
Tanks, artillery and infantry have crossed from Russia into an unbreached part of eastern Ukraine in recent days, attacking Ukrainian forces and causing panic and wholesale retreat not only in this small border town but a wide swath of territory, in what Ukrainian and Western military officials are calling a stealth invasion.
- Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Ukraine President Yanukovich impeached". Al Jazeera.
- "What is Russia doing in Ukraine, and what can West do about it?". CNN.
- Morello, Carol; Constable, Pamela; Faiola, Anthony (17 March 2014). "Crimeans vote in referendum on whether to break away from Ukraine, join Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Russian special forces on Crimea frontline: experts". Gulf News. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Ewen MacAskill (22 April 2014). "Does US evidence prove Russian special forces are in eastern Ukraine?". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
The US state department has claimed Russian special forces are engaged in covert actions in the Ukraine, citing as evidence controversial photographs that purportedly identify known personnel and show bullet-proof jackets and "Russian-designed weapons like AK-47s"
- Dilanian, Ken. "CIA reportedly says Russia sees treaty as justifying Ukraine moves", Los Angeles Times (3 March 2014): "CIA director John Brennan told a senior lawmaker Monday that a 1997 treaty between Russia and Ukraine allows up to 25,000 Russia troops in the vital Crimea region, so Russia may not consider its recent troop movements to be an invasion, U.S. officials said. The number of Russian troops that have surged into Ukraine in recent days remains well below that threshold, Brennan said, according to U.S. officials who declined to be named in describing private discussions and declined to name the legislator."
- "Putin's remarks raise fears of future moves against Ukraine — The Washington Post". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "President of Russia". Eng.kremlin.ru. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Kerry wil opheldering over Tsjetsjenen in Oekraïne — Onrust in Oekraïne — VK". volkskrant.nl. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Rebels in Besieged Ukrainian City Reportedly Being Reinforced". TIME. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ukraine says 2 columns of tanks from Russia have entered strategic town". Globalnews.ca. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Russia blasts US assessment of events in Ukraine's southeast". ITAR-TASS (Russia). 16 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Russians troops fighting in Ukraine? Naw. They're just on 'vacation.'". The Washington Post. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
"Among us are fighting serving [Russian] soldiers, who would rather take their vacation not on a beach but with us, among brothers, who are fighting for their freedom," Alexander Zakharchenko said in a reported interview with a Russian state television station.
- "Ukraine Leader Says 'Huge Loads of Arms' Pour in From Russia". The New York Times. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
Mr. Poroshenko scrapped a trip to Turkey to deal with the crisis and called an emergency meeting of the Ukrainian National Security and Defense Council. He dismissed Kremlin claims that any Russian soldiers in Ukraine were volunteers who had sacrificed their vacations to help the heavily pro-Russian east suffering oppression from the Kiev central government.
-  NPR, "Russia Reports Troop Deaths in Ukraine, But Calls Them 'Volunteers'"
- Channel 4 News, 2 September 2014 tensions still high in Ukraine
- New York Review of Books, October 2014 what putin has won
- Kyiv post 25 September 2014 how the war transformed
- the guardian.com 3 September 2014, truth horrible moscow
- reuters, 23 October 2014 tanks white circles
- newsweek November 2014
- Luke Harding, The Guardian, 17 December 2014
- "Ukraine and pro-Russia rebels 'sign ceasefire deal'". BBC News Online. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- New York Times, 11 September 2014
- "AP, 13 September 2014". The Big Story. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "AFP 20 September 2014". Yahoo News. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Kiev claims 'intensive' movements of troops crossing from Russia". AFP. 2 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Nataliya Vasilyeva (8 November 2014). "Ukraine rebels seen moving large military convoys". Associated Press. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- various reuters (9 November 2014). "worst east Ukraine shelling for month". Reuters. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "Spot report by the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine (SMM), 8 November 2014". osce.org. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- shane harris (11 November 2014). "thousands of putins troops now in Ukraine analysts say". Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian 'Cargo 200' crossed border — OSCE". BBC. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Moscow Stifles Dissent as Soldiers Return From Ukraine in Coffins". The Moscow Times. Reuters. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Axis of Evil Shaping Against Moscow — Kommersant Moscow". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Gregory L. White (23 February 2014). "Russia Stung By Ally Yanukovych's Defeat in Ukraine". WSJ.
- "Ukraine didn’t stop weapon supply to Georgia". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Luke Harding. "Ukraine extends lease for Russia's Black Sea fleet — World news — The Guardian". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Yanukovych flexes but will resist EU over jailed rival". KyivPost. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Review – Putin’s Wars: The Rise of Russia’s New Imperialism". E-International Relations. 5 August 2014.
- "Speech by Andrei Illarionov at NATO PA Session in Vilnius". The Lithuania Tribune. 16 June 2014.
- "Putin's former aid: Russia has been preparing for global war since 2003". Delfi. 26 September 2014.
- "The Guardian, September 22, 2013". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- John Feffer. "Who Are These 'People,' Anyway? | John Feffer". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Ukraine Protestors Seize Kiev As President Flees". Time. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Rada removes Yanukovych from office, schedules new elections for May 25", Interfax-Ukraine (24 February 2014)
- David Stern (22 February 2014). "BBC News — Ukrainian MPs vote to oust President Yanukovych". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian.
- Ayres, Sabra (28 February 2014). "Is it too late for Kiev to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?". The Christian Science Monitor.
- "На отмену закона о региональных языках на Украине наложат". Lenta.ru. 1 March 2014.
- Чуркин сообщил об обращении Януковича к Путину (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 4 March 2014.
- "Putin declared war against Ukraine (in Ukrainian)". Ukrayinska Pravda. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Russian Troops Take Over Ukraine's Crimea Region". ABC News. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Armed men seize two airports in Ukraine's Crimea, Russia denies involvement — Yahoo News". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Mackinnon, Mark (26 February 2014). "Globe in Ukraine: Russian-backed fighters restrict access to Crimean city". The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Russia flexes military muscle as tensions rise in Ukraine's Crimea". CNN. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
A CNN team in the area encountered more than one pro-Russian militia checkpoint on the road from Sevastopol to Simferopol.
- "Checkpoints put at all entrances to Sevastopol". Kyiv Post. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
Checkpoints were put up at all entrances to Sevastopol last night and the borders to the city are guarded by groups of people, police units, and traffic police.
- ""Little green men" or "Russian invaders"?". BBC.
- "Ukraine crisis: 'Russians' occupy Crimea airports". BBC News. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Putin Reclaims Crimea for Russia and Bitterly Denounces the West". The New York Times. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ukraine Parliament declares Crimea temporarily occupied territory". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Putin: Russia to set up military force in Crimea". ITV. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Russia Seizes Gas Plant Near Crimea Border, Ukraine Says". NY Times.
- "Russia withdrew its troops from Kherson oblast of Ukraine". Capital.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian troops crossed border, Nato says". BBC News.
- Rachkevych, Mark (12 April 2014). "Armed pro-Russian extremists launch coordinated attacks in Donetsk Oblast, seize buildings and set up checkpoints". Kyiv Post.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russia backs results of Sunday's referendums in Donetsk and Luhansk". Independent. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Alec Luhn. "The Guardian, 20 July 2014". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "The Guardian, 29 July 2014". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Yans, Georgy (9 June 2014). ""Груз 200" из Донецка". MK.RU. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Makarenko, Victoria (11 June 2014). "Фермы для "диких гусей"". Novaya Gazeta. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Putin Taunts US And Ukraine Leaders Ahead Of D-Day Anniversary Meeting, Business Insider, 4 June 2014.
- "ПІД СЛОВ'ЯНСЬКОМ З'ЯВИЛИСЯ "ЗЕЛЕНІ ЧОЛОВІЧКИ"". Ukrainska Pravda. 12 April 2014.
- Ukrainska Pravda, "Вторгнення військ РФ на сході країни відбулося — джерела [Sources say that Russian troops have invaded the east of the country]", 12 April 2014.
- "На Донбасі сепаратисти і міліція влаштували перестрілку". Ukrainska Pravda. 12 April 2014.
- Ukrainska Pravda, "У Слов'янськ на вантажівках привезли "зелених чоловічків" із Криму [In Sloviansk are "little green men" brought in lorries from the Crimea]", 14 April 2014.
- CNN, "Ukraine: Photos show undercover Russian troops", by Arwa Damon, Michael Pearson and Ed Payne, 22 April 2014.
- The Guardian, Does US evidence prove Russian special forces are in eastern Ukraine?, by Ewen MacAskill, 22 April 2014.
- Los Angeles Times, Kerry warns Russia of new sanctions because of Ukraine moves, by Paul Richter 12 April 2014.
- Nick Paton Walsh, Tim Lister and Steve Almasy, "U.N. Security Council meets as Ukraine 'teeters on the brink'," CNN (14 April 2014).
- Financial Times, Ukraine raises rates as West discusses more sanctions, 15 April 2014.
- Breedlove, Philip (20 April 2014). "NATO COMMANDER: Ukraine 'Activists' Are Clearly A Professional Military Force Under Russian Control". Business Insider.
- "Депутат Госдумы: Путин не может остановиться, иначе его назовут слабаком : Новости УНИАН". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Silke Mülherr und Inga Pylypchuk (26 July 2014). "Putin realisiert, dass er die Falschen bewaffnete". Die Welt. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Миссия ОБСЕ в Донецке не располагает доказательствами присутствия российских военных на Украине (in Russian). Interfax. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Sundqvist, Vesa (14 April 2014). "EU:n tiedustelujohtaja: Venäjä ei ole asemoitunut sotilaallisesti Ukrainaan" (in Finnish). Yle. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "CNN не нашел связи между донецкими активистами и Кремлем" (in Russian). RT. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Crisis in Ukraine; Interview with Zbigniew Brzezinski; Interview with Nir Barkat; The Year of China?". CNN. 13 April 2014.
- C. J. Chivers; Noah Sneider (3 May 2014). "Behind the Masks in Ukraine, Many Faces of Rebellion". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Ukraine forces claim upper hand over pro-Russia rebels". Irish Independent. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Stephen Ennis (20 June 2014). "UK journalist caught up in Russia-Ukraine media battle". BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Pavel Gubarev (7 July 2014). "Full press conference of Kurginyan in Donetsk".
- "Ідеолог сепаратистів: Росія постачає 'ДНР' сучасною бронетехнікою". Hromadske.tv. 8 July 2014.
- "Terrorists of DNR admitted that Russia delivers them the weapon and equipment, but complain of quality". News.pn. 8 July 2014.
- "shooting-down-of-ukrainian-military-aircraft-at-cruising-altitude-reflects-ongoing-escalation-risk-and-possible-russian-support". janes.com. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "The Guardian 4 September 2014". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- The Guardian, 23 July 2104, , news.com.au 18 July 2104 
- "Obama administration: Russia firing artillery at Ukraine military targets | Fox News". foxnews.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- theguardian.com , 27 June 2014 Ukraine Donetsk airport russia fighter
- "Financial Times, 16 August 2104". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Reuters 20 August 2014". Reuters. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Russian military vehicles enter Ukraine as aid convoy stops short of border". The Guardian. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Russian armoured vehicles and military trucks cross border into Ukraine". The Telegraph. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Ukraine's Forces Attack Russian Armoured Convoy". Sky News. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Putin talks of peace in annexed Crimea". ABC AU. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "AFP, Sydney Morning Herald". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "The Guardian 18 August 2014". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Militants have Russian weapons that have never been in service with Ukrainian army – Heletei, Interfax-Ukraine (22 August 2014)
- "Ukraine's injured rebels vow to fight on", Financial Times (18 August 2014)
- "Главная военная прокуратура подтвердила факты гибели десантников". Vedomosti.ru. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "В Пскове прошли закрытые похороны местных десантников" [In Pskov closed burial ceremonies of local paratroopers were held]. Slon.ru. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "СМИ: под Псковом тайно похоронили десантников, возможно, погибших на Донбассе" [Secret paratrooper burials in Pskov, possible loses from Donbass]. Novaya Gazeta. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Rosyjskie media: Pod Pskowem pochowano w tajemnicy żołnierzy poległych na Ukrainie". wiadomosci.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Denver Nicks (22 August 2014). "NATO: Russia Artillery Fires on Ukraine Forces". TIME. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- JIM HEINTZ Associated Press. "Ukraine: Russian Tank Column Enters Southeast — ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "BBC News — Ukraine crisis: 'Column from Russia' crosses border". Bbc.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Russian Separatists Open New Front in Southern Ukraine". Europe. National Public Radio (NPR). 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Hilsum, Lindsay. "'Tell them please don't think that Putin will stop at Ukraine'". Newsblog (Channel 4 News). Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Lindsey, Hilsum (4 September 2014). "Pride and despair along the country roads of Ukraine". Channel 4. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Russian soldier: 'You're better clueless because the truth is horrible' | World news | The Guardian". theguardian.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Tim Judah, New York Review of Books, 5 September 2014". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "CNN". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Lindsey Hilsum, Channel 4 report, 6 September 2014". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "The Guardian 13 September 2013". the Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Captured Russian troops 'in Ukraine by accident'". BBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Frizell, Sam. "U.S.: Satellite Imagery Shows Russians Shelling Eastern Ukraine". TIME.
Satellite imagery shows evidence of Russian artillery attacks against the Ukrainian military, U.S. officials say
- Tsevtkova, Maria. "'Men in green' raise suspicions of east Ukrainian villagers". Reuters.
Unidentified, heavily-armed strangers with Russian accents have appeared in an eastern Ukrainian village, arousing residents' suspicions despite Moscow's denials that its troops have deliberately infiltrated the frontier.
- "Poroshenko: ATO Is Ukraine's Patriotic War".
President Petro Poroshenko considers the government's anti-terrorist operation (ATO) against separatists as Ukraine's patriotic war.
- "#UkraineUnderAttack #RussiaInvadedUkraine RT PLZ". MFA of Ukraine on Twitter. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Border guards retreat as 2 columns of Russian tanks enter Ukraine". FoxNews.com. FOX News Network. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "NATO Military Officer: More Than 1,000 Russian Troops Operating Inside Ukraine". The Huffington Post (TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc.). Reuters. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Report: Russia Invades Ukraine, Prompts Emergency U.N. Meeting". US News and World Report. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "ДНРівець: За нас воюють російські військові "у відпустці" (DNRivets: Russian troops fighting for us "on holiday")". Українська правда (Ukrainian Pravda). 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "NY Post". New York Post. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Demirjian, Karoun; Birnbaum, Michael. "Russia escalates tensions with aid convoy, reported firing of artillery inside Ukraine". washingtonpost.com (The Washington Post). Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Babiak, Mat (17 July 2014). "Provallia in flames, details on Russian rocket strike". Euromaidan Press. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Videos Reportedly Show GRAD Rockets Fired From Inside Russia". Pressimus. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "U.S. Says Russia Firing Across Border into Ukraine — WSJ". online.wsj.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Członkini Rady Praw Człowieka przy Putinie: Działania Rosji na Ukrainie to inwazja (Member of the Human Rights Council to Putin: Russia's actions in Ukraine are invasion)". gazeta.pl. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Gowen, Annie; Gearan, Anne (28 August 2014). "Russian armored columns said to capture key Ukrainian towns". washingtonpost.com (The Washington Post). Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "gazeta.pl August 28 (in Polish)". gazetapl. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "BBC:Ukraine crisis: 'Thousands of Russians' fighting in east, August 28". BBC News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "U.S. says Russia has 'outright lied' about Ukraine". USA Today. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Balmforth, Richard; Croft, Adrian (30 August 2014). "Ukraine says Russian tanks flatten town; EU to threaten more sanctions". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Survivors recall Ilovaisk massacre". kyivpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Russia Massacres Ukrainian Volunteer Battalions—Surviving Members Alleged — International Business Times". au.ibtimes.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Russian troops kill 'hundreds' of Ukrainian soldiers in massacre: report — NY Daily News". nydailynews.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Fears of massacre after accusations Russians reneged on safe passage for Ukrainian forces — Telegraph". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Hundreds of Ukrainian troops 'massacred by pro-Russian forces as they waved white flags' - Mirror Online". mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "В Кремле и Киеве разъяснили заявление о прекращении огня в Донбассе — Интерфакс". interfax.ru. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Kremlin denies that Poroshenko and Putin agreed on ceasefire (UPDATES)". kyivpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Weekly update from the OSCE Observer Mission at the Russian Checkpoints Gukovo and Donetsk, 28 August until 08:00, 3 September 2014". OSCE. 2014-09-03. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "Russia Sends Dozens Of Tanks Into Ukraine". Sky News. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Lithuania's statement at the UN Security Council briefing on Ukraine". Permanent Mission of the Republic of Lithuania to UN in New York. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- foreignpolicy.com Russian tanks Ukraine battlefield radar reinforcements
- "Plenty of room at the top of Ukraine's fading rebellion". New York Times. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Josh Rogin; Eli Lake (29 April 2014). "Kerry: U.S. Taped Moscow’s Calls to Its Ukraine Spies". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "bbc news report". YouTube. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- The Guardian, 17 July 2014 , the buk that downed flight mh17 inside Russia controlled by Russian troops
- "Channel 4 news 28 August 2014". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "NATO Commander ‘Concerned’ by Flow of Weapons Into E. Ukraine". NATO. 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian troops crossed border, Nato says". BBC. 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
- Courtney Weaver (2014-10-23). "Café encounter exposes reality of Russian soldiers in Ukraine". Financial Times. Retrieved 2014-10-23.
- "NATO says Russian military equipment entering east Ukraine". AFP. 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
- "Russian units participating in combat actions in Ukraine". Center for Eurasian Strategic Intelligence. 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
- Andreas Umland. "Russia — The Uses of Extremism: The Emergence of Three Far-Right Discussion Clubs and Their Links to the Kremlin Spell More Bad News for East-West Relations".
- Alexandr Prokhanov, Igor Strelkov (2014-11-20). «Кто ты, «Стрелок»?» [Who are you, Strelok?] (in Russian). Zavtra. Retrieved 2014-11-20.
- "'We started Ukraine war', confesses insurgent leader Girkin". Ukraine Today. 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
- Morgan, Martin (5 September 2014). "Russia 'will react' to EU sanctions". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Alfred, Charlotte (6 September 2014). "Russian Journalist: 'Convincing Evidence' Moscow Sent Fighters To Ukraine". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Warketin, Alexander (29 August 2014). "Disowned and forgotten: Russian soldiers in Ukraine". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Catherine A. Fitzpatrick (2014-10-24). "Russia This Week: Kremlin Announces Compensation for Missing and Killed Servicemen". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "Внесены изменения в закон о денежном довольствии военнослужащих". President of the Russian Federation. 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- Marcus, Jonathan (27 August 2014). "Ukraine crisis: T-72 tank shoots hole in Russian denial". BBC. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Exclusive: Charred tanks in Ukraine point to Russian involvement". Reuters. 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
- "The British Embassy In Kiev Is Trolling The Kremlin". Business Insider. 2014-11-19. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- "Из-за неграмотного командования нас расстреливают в упор!" [Because of poor command we are being killed!]. URA.ru. 2014-10-03. Archived from the original on 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Гостайна о гибели псковских десантников [Classified response on death of Pskov paratroopers] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
- "Ukraine — Security Council, 7311th meeting". United Nations. 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
- "Raising Red Flags: An Examination of Arms & Munitions in the Ongoing Conflict in Ukraine". Armaments Research Services. 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-20.
- Aric Toler (2014-12-13). "Ukrainian Hackers Leak Russian Interior Ministry Docs with ‘Evidence’ of Russian Invasion". Global Voices Online. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian mothers of killed and captured soldiers ask 'why are our sons fighting in Ukraine?' - Europe — World — The Independent". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "What does Russia tell the mothers of soldiers killed in Ukraine? Not much. - The Washington Post". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Mothers of captured Russian soldiers vent anger at Putin, beg for his help | National Post". news.nationalpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Russian soldier dies in Ukraine because 'there was no other job'". kyivpost.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "The Russian Mothers Waiting for News of Their Missing Soldier Sons". newsweek.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Here's Why Putin Calling Eastern Ukraine 'Novorossiya' Is Important". The Huffington Post. 18 April 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Away From Show of Diplomacy in Geneva, Putin Puts on a Show of His Own". The New York Times. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ukraine condemns 'direct invasion' as Russian aid convoy crosses border". The Guardian. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ukraine Rebels Boast About Troops and Tanks Coming from Russia". The Daily Beast. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "In Ukraine, an armoured column appears out of nowhere". Reuters. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "На Донеччині затримано десять громадян Росії, які незаконно перетнули кордон України зі зброєю у складі диверсійної групи" [Group of Russian citizens held in Donetsk region crossed the border with weapons as part of sabotage group]. Security Service of Ukraine. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Оприлюднено фото затриманих російських військових" [Released photos of Russian soldiers]. Unian.ua. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Москва: задержанные на Украине военные пересекли границу случайно" [Moscow: soldiers arrested in Ukraine crossed the border by accident date=2014-08-26]. Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Сенсация, которой лучше бы не было. Pskovskaya Guberniya (in Russian). Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Russian reporters 'attacked at secret soldier burials'". BBC. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "BBC News 31 August 2014". BBC News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Captured Russian paratroopers return home in swap with Ukraine". Channel NewsAsia. AFP/nd. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- New York Times 27 August 2014
- "Sky Films Troops 'In Russian Gear' In Ukraine". Sky News. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- The Guardian, 5 September 2014
- "Russia denies reports of military presence in Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Russian TV shows funeral of soldier killed 'on leave' in Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian soldiers captured in conflict area crossed border 'by accident'". The Independent. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "More than 1,000 Russian troops operating in Ukraine: NATO". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Наши солдаты. Расследование". Rain TV. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "LostIvan: российские солдаты и наемники пропавшие в Украине". Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Член Совета по правам человека при Президенте России Сергей Кривенко" [(Interview with) Member of Council for Civil Society and Human Rights Sergey Krivenko]. 7x7. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "Reuters, 28 August 2014". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- buzzfeed 14 September 2014 journalist hospitalized violent street attack
- BBC News, 18 September 2014 , The Guardian 18 September 2014, 
- "Непризнанные солдаты России" [Russia's unrecognized soldiers]. Krym. Reali. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- "Исчезнувший десант" [Disappeared paratroopers]. '100 TV. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Максим Солопов (2 October 2014). Расследование РБК: откуда на Украине российские солдаты (in Russian). RBC.
- "Russia Blocks Pro-Ukraine Groups on Social Media". Mashable. 3 March 2014.
- Ukraine has released to their relatives 16 Russian military servicemen. Ukrayinska Pravda. 16 October 2014
- "Terrorists for Ukraine trained in Rostov-on-Don, Parubiy says- Ukrinform". Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- В Харькове задержали снайпера двух чеченских кампаний : Новости УНИАН
- "Daily Press Briefing: June 20, 2014". US Department of State. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Weiss, Michael. "Putin Is Just Getting Started in Ukraine". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Norman, Lawrence. "NATO Says Images Show Russian Tanks in Ukraine". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Thomas Grove, Warren Stroble (29 July 2014). "Special Report: Where Ukraine's separatists get their weapons". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Weekly update from the OSCE Observer Mission at the Russian Checkpoints Gukovo and Donetsk, for the period 6–12 August 2014". OSCE. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Turchynov: Russia starts aggression in Crimea". Kyiv Post. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Ukraine live: Prime Minister of Ukraine says Russian military intervention would lead to war". The Daily Telegraph. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Ukraine Puts Military on Full Alert After Russian Intervention Threat".
- "U.S. pledges $1 billion in aid to Ukraine". Los Angeles Times. 4 March 2014.
- Scislowska; Pablo Gorondi; Karel Janicek; Jovana Gec; Corneliu Rusnac (12 March 2014). "Russian aggression unnerves other neighbours". The Chronicle Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Russia's Neighbors Want Stronger Defenses After Ukraine Incursion". Global Security Newswire. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Gearan, Anne (1 April 2014). "NATO chief recommits to defending Eastern European, Baltic nations". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "NATO diplomat: Russia now more an ‘adversary’ than an ally". The Hill.
- "NATO to triple Baltic air patrol from next month". Reuters.
- Bendavid, Naftali (16 April 2014). "NATO Boosts Its Operations in Response to Russia's Moves on Ukraine -- Update". Brussels. Reuters. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Fred, Lucas (14 April 2014). "White House: U.S. and Russia Are Not in a New Cold War". The Blaze. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- de Nesnera, Andre (16 April 2014). "Are US and Russia in New Cold War?". Voice of America. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- 'Cold War Against Russia — Without Debate' by Katrina vanden Heuvel and Stephen F. Cohen. 2 May 2014, Russian Times, accessed 5 May 2014
- Kettle, Martin (24 April 2014). "Russia is a hostile power, but this is not a new cold war". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Webb, Isaac (1 May 2014). "Isaac Webb: Containment starts at home". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "The New Yorker, August 2014". The New Yorker. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Agencies" (22 April 2014). "Ukraine to restart anti-terrorist operation as military plane 'hit by gunfire'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Shinkman, Paul (1 May 2014). "NATO Countries Planning Comms Mission in Ukraine". US News. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Helena Bedwell; Henry Meyer (30 April 2014). "Georgia Pushes for Fast-Track NATO Entry to Ward Off Russia (3)". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Kirtzkhalia, Nana (1 May 2014). "NATO to review deployment of U.S. missile defense system in Georgia". Trend.az. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Stewart, Phil (5 March 2014). "More U.S. jets on NATO patrol in Baltic amid Ukraine crisis: source". Reuters.
- Jim Miklaszewski; Courtney Kube (5 March 2014). "U.S. Moves Six Fighter Jets to Baltic, More Airmen to Poland". NBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Kashi, David (17 March 2014). "UK Sends Typhoon Fighters to Baltic States To Guard Against Russia". International Business Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "France offers 4 warplanes for Baltic air patrols". The Times of India. Associated Press. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Jennings, Gareth (23 March 2014). "France and Czech Republic offer fighter support as Ukraine crisis continues". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly (London). Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Denmark to send six fighter jets to the Baltic: Media". Business Standard. Agence France-Presse. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Germany ready to give military aid to Baltic states over Ukraine crisis". Global Post. Agence France-Presse. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Jennings, Gareth (23 April 2014). "France sends Rafale fighters to Poland". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly (London). Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "NATO minesweepers set off on Baltic deployment". FOX News (Kiel, Germany). Associated Press. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "NATO preps for military exercises in Baltic airspace". Lithuania Tribune. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Siminski, Jacek (2 April 2014). "These days, the Baltic region is a buzzing hive of NATO planes". The Aviationist. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Hõbemägi, Toomas (28 March 2014). "US may deploy rotating units in Baltic states". Baltic Business News. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "NATO to open air base in Estonia in response to Ukraine conflict". London South East. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "Lithuania says rising number of Russian jets flying too close for comfort". The Sydney Morning Herald. Reuters. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Baldor, Lolita (6 March 2014). "US fighter jets, warship arrive in Ukraine region". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "Navy destroyer USS Truxtun crosses Dardanelles en route to Black Sea". RT. 7 March 2014.
- "U.S. Navy destroyer heads to Black Sea for pre-planned exercises", Reuters (6 March 2014)
- Destroyer USS Truxtun heads for Black Sea amid heightened tensions over Crimea Stars and Stripes. 6 March 2014
- Curry, Tim (30 March 2014). "House Intelligence Chairman Calls for Sending Arms to Ukraine". NBC News. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "U.S. sending additional Marines to Romania". CBS News. Associated Press. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Destroyer Donald Cook to enter Black Sea amid standoff. Navy Times, 9 April 2014
- Jim Miklaszewski; Courtney Kube (14 April 2014). "Russian Fighter Jet Buzzed U.S. Ship: Officials". NBC News. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Russian jet makes "provocative and unprofessional" pass at USS Donald Cook — CBS News". 14 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "USS Donald Cook ship departs Black Sea, USS Taylor stays". Romania Insider. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Cudmore, James (30 April 2014). "HMCS Regina to join NATO's Ukraine 'reassurance' mission". CBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Moore, Jack (6 March 2014). "Ukraine Crisis: Obama Orders 12 F-16 Fighter Jets and 300 US Troops to Poland". International Business Times. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Raf Sanchez; Bruno Waterfield (6 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: US sends fighter jets to Baltic and increases pressure on Vladimir Putin". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Vandiver, John (17 April 2014). "Hagel: US forces to stay in Poland until end of 2014". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Nato jets to monitor Ukraine border". BBC. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "NATO sends AWACS to monitor Ukraine borders with Poland, Romania as tension with Russia mounts over Crimea invasion". CBS News. Associated Press. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Sisk, Richard (26 March 2014). "US-UK: Expand Missile Defense in Eastern Europe". Military.com. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Waterfield, Bruno (1 April 2014). "Ukraine crisis: Poland asks Nato to station 10,000 troops on its territory". The Telegrapg. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Brewster, Murray (17 April 2014). "6 CF-18s headed to Poland to bolster NATO forces response to Ukraine". Global News (Canada). The Canadian Press. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Thibedeau, Hannah (29 April 2014). "CF-18s head to Romania amid 'uncertainty' about NATO mission". CBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Kanadyjskie myśliwce CF-18 Hornet trafią jednak do Rumunii a nie Polski". Defence24.pl (in Polish). 29 April 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Montgomer, Nancy (17 March 2014). "US Army to Proceed with Planned Exercise in Ukraine". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Ukraine Seeks Joint US War Games After Crimea Takeover". Defense News. Agence France-Presse. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "France suspends 'most' military cooperation with Russia". Expatica.com. Agence France-Presse. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Canada suspends military cooperation with Russia over Ukraine events". ITAR-TASS News Agency. Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Josie Ensor; Lucy Kinder (18 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: March 18 as it happened". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Norway suspends military cooperation with Russia". FOCUS Information Agency. FOCUS. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "NATO suspends civilian and military cooperation with Russia". RT. RIA Novosti. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Croft, Adrian (7 April 2014). "NATO limits access by Russian diplomats in Crimea fallout". Brussels. Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- Gertz, Bill (8 May 2014). "Russia Conducts Large-Scale Nuclear Attack Exercise". Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "Russia's strategic nuclear forces to conduct major military exercises with more than 4,000 soldiers". The National Post.
- "Ukraine's MFA: Russian military units holding exercise in territory of Belarus". Charter'97. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Taylor, Adam (9 April 2014). "No, Russia isn't about to invade Finland and Sweden". Washington Post (blog). Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- O'Dwyer, Gerard (26 March 2014). "Majority of Finns Support Swedish Military Alliance". Defense News (Helsinki). Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Sweden To Arm Fighter Jets With Cruise Missile 'Deterrent'". Defense News (Stockholm). Agence France-Presse. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Turkish Fighters Scrambled After Russian Spy Plane Spotted". Reuters. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Turkey Warns Russia it Will Blockade Bosphorus if Violence Occurs | Ukrainian Policy
- "Obama: Russia 'On The Wrong Side Of History' On Ukraine". Huffington Post.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russia faces 'costs and consequences', warns William Hague". The Telegraph. 3 March 2014.
- "UK and France pull out of G8 preparatory talks over Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin has lost the plot, says German chancellor". The Guardian. 3 March 2014.
- Jones, Gavin (2 March 2014). "Italy appeals to Russia to negotiate, not invade Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Waterfield, Bruno (3 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: EU gives Russia 48-hour deadline to return troops to barracks in Crimea". The Telegraph.
- "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the situation in Ukraine | Prime Minister of Canada". Pm.gc.ca. 1 March 2014.
- "Japan announces steps to punish Russia over Ukraine crisis". Kyodo News. 18 March 2014.
- "The Netherlands is considering to send fighter jets to Ukraine. The Netherlands can also send ships to the Baltic or the Black Sea, Hennis Minister of Defense said in Pauw & Witteman. According Hennis is the commitment needed to help our European allies.". NOS. 16 April 2014.
- "Seoul refuses to recognize Russia's Crimea annexation". The Korea Herald. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "Georgian President Condemns 'Illegal Referendum' in Crimea". Civil Georgia. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Alexander Tanas (18 March 2014). "Moldova tells Russia: don't eye annexation here". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "No: 86, 17 March 2014, Press Release Regarding the Referendum held in Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Australia imposes sanctions on Russia after it 'steals' Crimea from Ukraine". The Guardian. 19 March 2014.
- "EU leaders to hold summit on Ukraine on Thursday". Yahoo! News. 3 March 2014.
- "Ukraine: Mounting evidence of war crimes and Russian involvement | Amnesty International". amnesty.org. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "UN Security Council meets on Ukraine". Yahoo!. Agence France-Presse. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- DeYoung, Karen (1 March 2014). "Obama speaks with Putin by phone, calls on Russia to pull forces back to Crimea bases". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: 'G7' condemn Russia". The Age. 3 March 2014.
- G-7 Leaders Statement (press release), The White House, 2 March 2014
- Chua, Ian (3 March 2014). "Yen holds ground as Ukraine jitters keep risk at bay". Reuters
- "Ukraine Crisis Sends Russian Markets, Ruble Plummeting".
- Sullivan, Tim, "Putin: troops to bases; warning shots in Crimea", Associated Press
- Dreibus, Tony. "Wheat, Corn Prices Surge on Ukraine Crisis". The Wall Street Journal.
- "German economy hammered by Russian sanctions". CNBC. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Russian artillery units in Ukraine, NATO says". Boston Globe. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "NATO: Russia Just Significantly Escalated The Crisis In Ukraine". Business Insider. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "EU orders preparation of 'urgent' Russia sanctions as Ukraine troops give more ground". Fox News. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Turchynov: Russia needs war with Ukraine to divert attention from crisis in Russia itself". Interfax. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
"It's a hybrid war that Russia has begun against Ukraine, a war with the participation of the Russian security services and the army," Turchynov said.
- "Ukraine crisis: Obama rules out military action". CBC. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "U.S. applauds European steps towards more Russia sanctions". Reuters. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Russian anti-war protesters detained in Moscow". Agence France-Presse. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Russian peace march draws tens of thousands in support of Ukraine". Washington Post. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Malaysia Airlines Ukraine Crash: Garry Kasparov on Cost of Inaction". TIME.com. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Garry Kasparov". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Garry Kasparov really wants Western countries to intervene in the Ukraine". The Week. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Putin walks a tightrope as evidence mounts of Russians dying in Ukraine". The Guardian. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Press release: "IRI UKRAINE PRE-ELECTION POLL SHOWS STRONG OPPOSITION TO RUSSIAN AGGRESSION, SUPPORT FOR KYIV GOVERNMENT" (Press release). International Republican Institute. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
Full text: "Public Opinion Survey – Residents of Ukraine: 12–25 September 2014". International Republican Institute. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Stephen Harper at G20 tells Vladimir Putin to 'get out of Ukraine' : Annual summit dominated by Western anger towards Putin". CBC News (cbc.ca). 2014-11-15. Retrieved 2014-11-16.
- Bremmer, Ian (1994). "The Politics of Ethnicity: Russians in the New Ukraine". Europe-Asia Studies 46 (2): 261–283. doi:10.1080/09668139408412161.
- Hagendoorn, A.; Linssen, H.; Tumanov, S. V. (2001). Intergroup Relations in States of the former Soviet Union: The Perception of Russians. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-84169-231-X.
- Legvold, Robert (2013). Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51217-6.
- RT News Anchor resigns on air citing propaganda. CNN World. 5 March 2014
- Russia's invasion of Ukraine (live updates). Kyiv Post. 2 March 2014
- (Ukrainian) Putin vs the people of Ukraine.. 2 March 2014. Ukrayinska Pravda.
- Ukraine crisis: an essential guide to everything that's happened so far - The Guardian
- Implications of Russia's aggression against Ukraine study by the Swedish Defence Research Agency
- bbc Ukraine timeline
- BBC as it happened Russia troops 'inside Ukraine'