Laguna (province)

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Laguna
Province
Laguna Provincial Capitol
Laguna Provincial Capitol
Flag of Laguna
Flag
Official seal of Laguna
Seal
Nickname(s): "The Resort Capital, Detroit and Silicon Valley of The Philippines"[1][2]
Motto: Bagong LagUNA, Una sa Lahat!
(New Laguna, Always First!)
Map of the Philippines with Laguna highlighted
Map of the Philippines with Laguna highlighted
Coordinates: 14°10′N 121°20′E / 14.167°N 121.333°E / 14.167; 121.333Coordinates: 14°10′N 121°20′E / 14.167°N 121.333°E / 14.167; 121.333
Country Philippines
Region CALABARZON (Region IV-A)
Founded July 28, 1571[3][4]
Capital Santa Cruz
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Ramil L. Hernandez (Nacionalista)
 • Vice Governor Katherine Agapay (UNA)
Area[5]
 • Total 1,917.85 km2 (740.49 sq mi)
Area rank 63rd out of 81
Population (2010)[6]
 • Total 2,669,847
 • Rank 6th out of 81
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
 • Density rank 3rd out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 6
 • Municipalities 24
 • Barangays 674
 • Districts 1st to 4th districts of Laguna
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Tagalog (91%), Others (4%), Bicolano (3%), Bisaya (2%)
 • Languages Tagalog, English
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code 4000 to 4033
Dialing code 49
ISO 3166 code PH-LAG
Website www.laguna.gov.ph

Laguna (PSGC: 035400000), officially known as the Province of Laguna (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Laguna), is a province of the Philippines found in the CALABARZON region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is located southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna hugs the southern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. The city with the highest population (based on 2010 census) is Calamba, while the least populated is the Municipality of Famy.[7]

Laguna is notable as the birthplace of Jose Rizal, the country's national hero. It is also famous for attractions like Pagsanjan Falls, the University of the Philippines Los Baños campus, the hot spring resorts of Los Baños and Calamba on the slopes of Mount Makiling, Pila historic town plaza, Taytay Falls in Majayjay, the wood carvings and papier-mâché created by the people of Paeté, the annual Sampaguita Festival in San Pedro, the turumba of Pakil, the tsinelas footwears from Liliw, the Pandan Festival of Luisiana, the Seven Lakes of San Pablo (the first city in the province), and the Nagcarlan Underground Cemetery in Nagcarlan

Province of Laguna is the second ISO 9001:2008 certified province in the Philippines.[8]

History[edit]

Liliw Catholic Church

The Province of Laguna, which was formerly called La Laguna and La Provincia de la Laguna de Bay, was named after Laguna de Bay, the body of water that forms its northern boundary.[9] Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Bay (Laguna de Bay is Spanish which means "Lake of Bay"), the first provincial capital. Captain Juan de Salcedo with a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers and many Bisayan allies conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spain in 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscan friars started the work of Christianization.

In 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in Manila, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong (now Rizal), Tayabas (now Quezon) and the Bicol Peninsula. Juan de Plasencia and Diego de Oropesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places. From 1580, the towns of Bay, Caliraya, Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Liliw, Pila, Santa Cruz, Lumban, Pangil and Siniloan were founded. In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes (now San Pablo City) and built a wooden church and convent considered as the best and finest in the province.[10]

In 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban, Majayjay and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the provincial government was moved to Pagsanján, and later in 1858, to Santa Cruz. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay and Lucban.[10]

The province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain.[9] In 1603s, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, and in 1639, they fortified themselves in the highlands of Cavinti and Lumban, surrendering in Pagsanjan a year later.

The natives of Laguna proved loyal to the Spanish crown during the British invasion (1762–1764) when thousands rallied to its defense. When a detachment of British troops under Captain Thomas Backhouse entered the province in search of the silver cargo of the galleon Filipino, Francisco de San Juan of Pagsanján led a band of volunteers that fought them in several engagements in and around the town which was then the provincial capital (1688–1858). Backhouse plundered the town and burned its newly reconstructed church but San Juan succeeded in escaping with the precious hoard to Pampanga where the treasure greatly bolstered the defense effort of Simón de Anda, leader of the resistance movement. For his heroism, San Juan was made a brigade commander and alcalde mayor of Tayabas (now Quezon) province.[10]

The people's loyalty gradually degenerated into bitter hostility. Grave abuses by the colonizers, especially those of the clergy, caused the resentment of the natives to be fanned into a rising flood of insurrection. In 1840 for instance, religious intolerance led the people of Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Bay, and Biñan to join the revolt of Hermano Pule (Apolinario de la Cruz) of Lucban, Tayabas.[10]

Laguna was also exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. José Rizal, who was born in Calamba. The persecution of the Rizal family, along with their fellow landowners toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation. In 1896, thousands of inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Nagcarlan, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, and Pagsanjan had joined the revolutionary Katipunan.[10]

Laguna was one of the eight provinces to rise in revolt against the Spanish misrule led by Generals Paciano Rizal of Calamba, Severino Taino of Pagsanjan, Agueda Kahabagan of Calauan, and Miguel Malvar of Batangas.[9] The ill-equipped revolutionaries fought the well-armed enemy until on August 31, 1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards. There had been only one respite, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato on December 14 to 15, 1897.[10]

Laguna actively supported the First Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23, 1899. Its two delegates to the Malolos Congress were Don Higino Benítez and Don Graciano Cordero, both natives of Pagsanján.[10]

Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899–1901), Generals Juan Cailles and Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30, 1901, when surrender became inevitable. Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag.

Laguna was also the birhtplace of a famous revolutionary hero Teodoro Asedillo during the American colonization period. He was considered as bandit during those times by the Americans but hailed as hero by the local town folks of Laguna. He fought for labor and civil rights of the Filipino people.

The Province of Laguna progressed rapidly in peace. Roads were built, schools were established, and in 1917, the Manila Railroad Company extended its line to Laguna as far as Pagsanjan.

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines (1942–1945), Laguna was a center of Filipino resistance despite the presence of Makapili collaborators.[10]

The establishment of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the Philippine Constabulary is a military unit organization was founded on 1942 to 1946 in the province of Laguna, and aided of the local military regular units of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 4th and 42nd Infantry Division and the Philippine Constabulary 4th Infantry Regiment. Started the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Military Operations in Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945 against the Japanese Imperial forces.

Beginning in 1945, attacks by the Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 46th and 47th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the recognized guerrillas against Japanese forces in Laguna increased in anticipation of the Liberation of the Philippines by joint Filipino & American forces.

Geography[edit]

Laguna lies on the southern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. On the southern border of the province are Mt. Makiling and Mt. Banáhaw, both are long dormant volcanoes, but still sources of geothermal energy. Mt. Makiling is popular for the numerous hot spring resorts that are found on its slopes. Pagsanjan Falls, is a popular waterfall that tumbles down a deep gorge in the hills.

The eastern portion of Laguna straddles the southernmost portions of the Sierra Madre mountain range.

Climate[edit]

The province is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year for a small portion near the southern boundary. The other parts, west of Santa Cruz municipality, experience a dry season from November to April and rainy season during the rest of the year. The eastern and southern most portions do not have distinct season, with rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year.

Subdivisions[edit]

Political subdivisions

Laguna is subdivided into 24 municipalities and 6 cities.

City or Municipality Type and income class[11] District[11] Area
(km²)[11]
Population
(2010)[7]
Pop. Density
(per km²)
No. of
Barangays
Mayor
Biñan 1st Class Component City 1st District 43.50 283,396 6,500 24 Marlyn "Len-Len" B. Alonte-Naguiat
Cabuyao 1st Class Component City 2nd District 43.30 248,436 5,700 18 Isidro "Jun" L. Hemedes, Jr.
Calamba 1st Class Component City 2nd District 149.50 389,377 2,600 54 Justin Marc SB. Chipeco
San Pablo 1st Class Component City 3rd District 197.60 248,890 1,300 80 Loreto Amante
San Pedro 1st Class Component City 1st District 24.05 294,310 12,000 20 Lourdes S. Cataquiz
Santa Rosa 1st Class Component City 1st District 54.13 284,670 5,300 18 Arlene B. Arcillas-Nazareno
Alaminos 3rd Class municipality 3rd District 57.46 43,526 757.5 15 Eladio Magampon
Bay 2nd Class municipality 2nd District 42.66 55,698 1,300 15 Bruno Ramos
Calauan 2nd Class municipality 3rd District 65.40 74,890 1,100 17 George Berris
Cavinti 3rd Class municipality 4th District 125.54 20,809 170 19 Melbert Oliveros
Famy 5th Class municipality 4th District 53.06 15,021 280 20 Renonia B. Muramatsu
Kalayaan 3rd Class municipality 4th District 46.60 20,944 450 3 Teodoro A. Adao, Jr.
Liliw 4th Class municipality 3rd District 39.10 33,851 870 33 Cesar C. Sulibit
Los Baños 1 1st Class municipality 2nd District 54.22 101,884 1,900 14 Caesar Perez
Luisiana 4th Class municipality 4th District 73.31 20,148 270 23 Nestor Rondilla
Lumban 3rd Class municipality 4th District 96.08 29,470 310 16 Reynato Añonuevo
Mabitac 5th Class municipality 4th District 80.76 18,618 230 15 Ronald Sana
Magdalena 4th Class municipality 4th District 34.88 22,976 660 24 David Aventurado Jr.
Majayjay 4th Class municipality 4th District 69.58 26,547 380 40 Victorino C. Rodillas
Nagcarlan 2nd Class municipality 3rd District 78.10 59,726 760 52 Nelson Osuna
Paete 4th Class municipality 4th District 39.47 23,523 600 9 Mutuk Bagabaldo
Pagsanjan 2nd Class municipality 4th District 26.36 39,313 1,500 16 Girlie "Maita Sanchez" Ejercito
Pakil 5th Class municipality 4th District 46.50 20,822 450 13 Vipops R. Martinez
Pangil 4th Class municipality 4th District 45.03 23,201 520 8 Jovit Reyes
Pila 3rd Class municipality 4th District 31.20 46,534 1,500 17 Boy Quiat
Rizal 5th Class municipality 3rd District 27.90 15,518 560 11 Antonino A. Aurelio
Santa Cruz 1st Class municipality 4th District 38.59 110,943 2,900 26 Domingo Dennis G. Panganiban
Santa Maria 4th Class municipality 4th District 108.40 26,839 250 25 Cindy Carolino
Siniloan 2nd Class municipality 4th District 64.51 35,363 550 20 Eduardo Tibay
Victoria 4th Class municipality 3rd District 22.35 34,604 1,500 9 Raul Gonzalez

1 Los Baños was declared as the "Special Science and Nature City of the Philippines" through Presidential Proclamation No. 349.[12] This proclamation does not convert the municipality to a city or give it corporate powers that are accorded to other cities.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Laguna
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 1,370,232 —    
1995 1,631,082 +3.32%
2000 1,965,872 +4.08%
2007 2,473,530 +3.22%
2010 2,669,847 +2.82%
Source: National Statistics Office[6]

Economy[edit]

Present-day Laguna shows a thriving economy. With a population of 2,669,847 (2010 Census),[7] and a total area of 1,760 km2 (680 sq mi) of land, Laguna produces millions of pesos worth of coconuts, rice, sugar, citrus fruits, lanzones and other products. Tourists flock to its beauty spots, especially Pagsanjan Falls, Calamba and Los Banos hot springs, Mount Makiling, Caliraya Lake and many others. Levels of development vary. The towns near Metro Manila have become industrialized whereas the inner towns continue to engage in agricultural production or pursue agri-based industries and cottage and small-scale industries.[10]

Natural resources[edit]

Laguna is located in the foothills of three mountains namely, Mount Makiling, Mount Banahaw, and the Sierra Madre Range.

There are about forty rivers in Laguna with a total area of almost 0.5 square kilometres.[citation needed] The Laguna de Bay has an approximate area of 3800 km² broken down into 2900 km² of land and 900 km² of lake proper with 220 km shoreline.[citation needed]

Laguna has an estimated 300 million US gallons (1,100,000 m³) of underground water. At least seven principal water basins in the province with a total of 5,773 km² drainage area and 1,316 km² level area provide an estimated 9.238 km³ total run-off annually.[2]

Agricultural activities[edit]

Laguna has 60,624 hectares of alienable and disposable agricultural land. About 41,253 ha or 23.44% of Laguna’s total land area is forest land.

Laguna de Bay, with a surface area of 900 km, is the province's main fishing ground producing 410,000 mt(?) of fish. Carp and tilapia fingerlings are also being grown in inland ponds and freshwater fish pens. The research institutions located in Los Baños are: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ASEAN Center for Biodiversity (ACB) and the Southeast Asian Regional center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), among others.[2]

Infrastructure[edit]

Laguna is labeled as the Detroit of the Philippines because of the presence of major vehicle manufacturers in the city of Santa Rosa. It is also considered as the Silicon Valley of the Philippines because of the vast number of electronic and semi-conductor companies operating in the province. Laguna is also the Resort Capital of the Philippines for it houses more than 700 hot spring resorts in the areas of Calamba and Los Baños.[1][2]

Road network[edit]

The South Luzon Expressway (SLEx) passes through Laguna. A public-private partnership initiative of the national government include plans to build a circumferential road along Laguna de Bay shoreline, the Laguna de Bay Flood Control Dike Expressway (or C-6 Extension),[13] from San Pedro to Siniloan. Some of the proposed road networks is the Calamba-Los Baños Expressway [2][14] and the Cavite–Laguna Expressway that will connect the provinces of Cavite and Laguna.

Power[edit]

Three power generating plants are operating in the province.[2]

  • Botocan Hydro-electric Plant (25MW) - Majayjay
  • Caliraya Hydro-electric Plant (23.5 MW) - Kalayaan
  • Mak-Ban Geothermal Plant (20MW) - Bay

Meralco, the main electricity distributor of Metro Manila, has also the franchise for most of Laguna.[2]

Government[edit]

Elected Officials:

Board Members:

  • 1st District:
    • Dave Almarinez (NP)
    • Carlo Almoro (LP)
    • Emilio Tiongco (UNA)
  • 2nd District:
    • Neptali Bagnes (UNA)
    • Pursino Oruga (UNA)
    • Juan Unico (LP)
  • 4th District:
    • Joseph Kris Benjamin Aragao III (LP)
    • Rai-ann Agustine San Luis (Ind.)

House of Representatives[edit]

On May 21, 2014, the COMELEC En Banc unseats E.R. Ejercito in a unanimous decision for overspending of campaign funds for his running for the 2013 Laguna gubernatorial elections, Vice Governor Ramil Hernandez will take over the position of Ejercito.[15] And on May 27, 2014, Vice Governor Ramil Hernandez took oath and became the acting governor of the province, making Ejercito the first local official in the Philippines to be formally ousted in office due to overspending.

Tourism[edit]

Historical[edit]

Rizal Shrine
Underground Cemetery
A Spanish colonial church in Paete, Laguna, with the Sierra Madre mountain range at the background.
City/Municipality Name of Landmark Roads from Manila Description
Calamba Rizal Shrine South Luzón Tollway - Calamba Exit via National Road to J.P. Rizal Avenue The Rizal Shrine is located in Calamba and features the home of José Rizal.
Biñan Alberto House South Luzón Tollway - Batangas City Exits, via National Road Ancestral House of Teodora Alonzo's (Jose Rizal's mother) clan.
Pagsanjan Pagsanjan Municipal Hall Calamba Exit via National Road Served as the first site of public High School in Laguna
Los Baños Homma-Yamashita Shrine South Luzón Tollway - Calamba Exit via National Road to Los Baños
Cavinti Japanese Garden South Luzón Tollway - Calambâ Exit via National Road to Famy-Panty Road
Nagcarlán Nagcarlan Underground Cemetery South Luzón Tollway - Calamba Exit via National Road to San Pablo-Nagcarlan Road
Pagsanjan Pagsanjan Arch/ Puerta Real of Pagsanjan Calamba Exit via National Road
Mabitac The Battle of Mabitac Mural, Mabitac Ortigas Avenue heading to Manila East Road (Rizal)
Pila Pila Town Plaza and Ancestral Homes South Luzón Tollway- Calamba Exit via National Road to Pila
Pinagbayanan Crematorium South Luzón Tollway- Calamba Exit via National Road to Pila The Philippines' oldest crematorium.
Los Baños Baker Hall, UP Los Baños South Luzón Tollway - Calamba Exit via National Road to Los Baños
Santa Cruz Emilio Jacinto Shrine Burial Site, Villa Valenzuela and Santa Cruz Town Plaza South Luzón Tollway- Calamba Exit via National Road to Santa Cruz

Natural[edit]

City/Municipality Name of Landmark Roads from Manila Description
Cavinti Pagsanjan Falls SLEX - Calamba Exit via National Road The Magdapio Falls used to be called the Magdapio Falls but have become popularly known as the Pagsanjan Falls because the trip starts in Pagsanjan.
Calamba and Los Baños Mount Makiling Hot Springs
Los Baños Crocodile Lake
Nagcarlán Eight mountains It includes Mt. Atimla, Mt. Mabilog, Mt. Nagcarlán, Mt. Malauban, Mt. Lansay, Mt. Bayaquitos, Mt. Cristóbal and Mt. Banaháw.
San Pablo Seven Lakes of San Pablo It includes like Sampaloc Lake, Lake Bunot, Lake Calibato, Lake Pandin, Lake Yambo, Lake Palakpakin, and Lake Muhikap.
Botocan, Majayjay Dalitiwan River, Taytay Falls
Famy Natural Drinking Water, Mayatba & Spill Way Resort Natural Drinking Water in the middle of the town proper, near Famy Municipal Hall
Siniloan Buruwisan Falls
Cavinti Cavinti Underground River and Caves Complex A newly discovered tourist attractions that according to native Cavintinians is composed of more than a hundred Caves.

Man-made[edit]

Nuvali Calamba Republic Wakepark
St. Gregory Catholic Church
City/Municipality Name Road from Manila Remarks
Santa Rosa Enchanted Kingdom SLEX - Calamba Exit via National Road
Santa Rosa, Cabuyao, Calamba Nuvali Evoliving
Los Baños Boy Scouts of the Philippines Camp, University of the Philippines, Los Baños
Calamba Private and Public Resorts Calamba has 661 resorts making the city as the "Resort Capital of the Philippines".[citation needed]
Calamba The Plaza Calamba and Rizal Monument A park along the Calamba City Hall Complex
Calamba St. John the Baptist Church One of the oldest churches in Laguna. Jose Rizal has been baptized in this church by Fr. Pedro Casañas.
Los Baños Immaculate Conception Parish Church A centuries old church at the town proper (Poblacion/Bayan)
Pila Pila Municipal Museum
Cabuyao St. Polycarp Church
Cavinti Transfiguration of Our Lord Parish Church The oldest Transfiguration of Our Lord Church in the Philippines, established in March 1606
Mamatid, Cabuyao Diocesan Shrine of San Vicente Ferrer SLEX - Cabuyao Exit via Mamatid Road
Majayjay St. Gregory the Great Parish Church Declared as a National Culture Treasure
Paeté St. James the Apostle Parish Church
Pakil San Pedro de Alcantara Church Also known as the Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Turumba
San Pedro Salvador Laurel Museum, Laurel Hills SLEX - Via Magsaysay Road
San Pedro San Pedro Apostol Parish Church SLEX - Via Magsaysay Road- Mabini St.
Landayan, San Pedro Diocesan Shrine of Santo Sepulchre National Road
Calamba Nuvali Republic Wakepark SLEX - Canlubang Exit via National Road Newest and Most Innovative Wakepark in the World. Located at Nuvali, Canlubang, Calamba City.
Mabitac Our Lady of Candelaria Church National Road Known as church above the hill
Pagsanjan Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe
Biñán Splash Island, San Isidro Labrador Church, Biñan City Plaza
San Pablo St. Paul the First Hermit Cathedral
Santa Cruz Immaculate Concepcion Parish Church
Liliw St. John the Baptist Parish Church

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

The College of Development Communication building inside the University of the Philippines campus in Los Baños, Laguna
Pamantasan ng Cabuyao Main Building in Cabuyao City

Colleges[edit]

MCL Rizal Hall at Malayan Colleges Laguna

Institutes[edit]

  • STI
    • STI San Pedro
    • STI Calamba
    • STI San Pablo
    • STI Santa Rosa
    • STI Southwoods
    • STI Santa Cruz
  • AMA
    • AMA Computer College - Biñan
    • AMA Computer College - Calamba
    • AMA University Santa Cruz
  • International Electronics and Technical Institute Inc. (I.E.T.I.)-San PedroMain Campus
  • Southeast Asia Institute of Science, Arts and Technology
  • Calamba Institute
  • MSC Institute of Technology
  • Rizal Institute – Canlubang

Arts and culture[edit]

Laguna is a major contributor to the development of arts in the Philippines. Paintings and sculptures from Paete, which is the Woodcarving Capital of the Philippines, won national and international awards. Famous artists include Manuel Baldemor, Fred Baldemor, Felix "Kid" Baldemor and Dominic Rubio.

Church Paintings in Paete
Church Mural
Church Mural
Church Mural

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Laguna, pangunahing lugar na puntahan, tirhan, at pangalakalan". Philippine Information Agency.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Province Profile". Provincial Government of Laguna.
  3. ^ "28 JULY 1571: The Foundation date of the Province of Laguna". Academia.edu.
  4. ^ Young historian finds Laguna birth date|Inquirer News
  5. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  8. ^ PGL now ISO 9001:2008 certified
  9. ^ a b c Caliraya Lake - History of Laguna
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i History - Laguna, Philippines
  11. ^ a b c "Province: LAGUNA". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Los Baños". Laguna Travel Guide. 2000-09-17. Retrieved 2012-10-29. 
  13. ^ dpwh.gov.ph "Private-Public Partnership - Laguna de Bay Flood Control Dike Expressway (C-6 Extension)"
  14. ^ dpwh.gov.ph "Private-Public Partnership - Calamba-Los Baños Expressway"
  15. ^ Comelec unseats ER Ejercito for overspending

External links[edit]