Coordinates: 14°40′N 120°58′E / 14.66°N 120.96°E / 14.66; 120.96
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From top, left to right: San Bartolome Church, Malabon City Hall, Hulong Duhat Market, Malabon People's Park, Malabon Zoo, Oreta Sports Center
Official seal of Malabon
Malabon Ahon!
Anthem: Ang Bagong Malabon (The New Malabon)
Map of Metro Manila with Malabon highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with Malabon highlighted
Malabon is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°40′N 120°58′E / 14.66°N 120.96°E / 14.66; 120.96
RegionNational Capital Region
District Lone district
FoundedMay 21, 1599
CharteredJune 11, 1901
Cityhood and HUCApril 21, 2001
Barangays21 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorJeannie Ng-Sandoval (Nacionalista)
 • Vice MayorBernard C. Dela Cruz (NUP)
 • RepresentativeJosephine Veronique "Jaye" R. Lacson-Noel (NPC)
 • Councilors
 • Electorate258,115 voters (2022)
 • Total15.71 km2 (6.07 sq mi)
23 m (75 ft)
Highest elevation
274 m (899 ft)
Lowest elevation
−2 m (−7 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total380,522
 • Density24,000/km2 (63,000/sq mi)
 • Households
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2021)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 2,056 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 4,064 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 1,860 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 1,363 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Native languagesTagalog

Malabon, officially the City of Malabon (Filipino: Lungsod ng Malabon), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 380,522 people.[3]

Located just north of the city of Manila, it is primarily a residential and industrial area, and is one of the most densely populated cities in the metropolis. It has a total land area of 15.96 square kilometers (6.16 sq mi).

Malabon is part of the sub-region of Metro Manila informally called CAMANAVA, an area which derives its name from the first syllable of its component cities: Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, and Valenzuela. Caloocan lies to the south and east, Navotas to the west, and Valenzuela to the north. Malabon also borders the town of Obando in the province of Bulacan to the northwest.


The name Malabon is from Tagalog malabon, meaning "having many silt deposits". The name was previously also used for two other places in Cavite during the early Spanish colonial period: Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza) and San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias).[5]


Spanish colonial era[edit]

Originally called Tambobong (tambúbong, a rural Tagalog word for barn[6]), Malabon was founded as a visita (hamlet) of Tondo by the Augustinians on May 21, 1599.[citation needed] It remained under the administrative jurisdiction of the Province of Tondo (renamed to Manila in 1859) from 1627 to 1688.

Malabon played an important economic role in the late 19th century with the founding of La Princesa Tabacalera tobacco company in 1851 and the Malabon Sugar Company in 1878. La Princesa was under the corporate umbrella of Compañia General de Tabacos de Filipinas (owned by the Spanish Crown), while the latter pioneered the refined sugar industry in the Philippines.

In 1859, three barangays under Malabon - San Jose, Navotas, and Bangkulasi were separated from Malabon to form a new town that is now Navotas.[7]

The newspaper La Independencia was first printed in Malabon's Asilo de Huérfanos (Orphanage), where children orphaned by the Plague of 1882 were housed.[8][9]

American invasion era[edit]

The first Mayor of Malabon was Don Agustín Salamante, a Spanish mestizo[citation needed] originally from Cavite. The first Filipino Mayor of Malabon was Don Vicente P. Villongco, in 1899 during the onset of the American regime.[citation needed]

Malabon was officially made a municipality of the newly created Province of Rizal on June 11, 1901, by virtue of Philippine Commission Act No. 137.[10] From 1903 to 1906, Navotas was returned to Malabon to form a single municipality.[11][12]

Philippine independence[edit]

Malabon remained a municipality of Rizal until November 7, 1975, when Malabon became a part of the National Capital Region or Metro Manila by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824.[13]


Malabon became a highly urbanized city on April 21, 2001, under Republic Act No. 9019, 407 years after its founding.[14]


The permanently flooded area at the Artex Compound in Barangay Dampalit

Malabon is one of the most densely populated cities in the Philippines and its low-lying, flat terrain makes it prone to frequent flooding, especially during high tides, heavy rains and when river and dams overflow. The four cities in CAMANAVA are commonly affected by interconnected rivers, one of which is the Tullahan River.

The river system used to be navigable and fishing was the major livelihood activity in the area. The river used to be wider and deeper with better quality water, and was a regular source of different species of fish, an important food source for local residents. Also, trees and crops like palay (rice) and vegetables used to be grown along the riverbanks. However, these agricultural plots have been replaced by industrial yards, which also became home to thousands of informal settlers who built makeshift dwellings without legal claim to the land.

Floods have worsened in recent years, occurring more frequently and reaching depths of several feet. Most affected are families in the communities that are along or near the riverbanks. The river has become narrower and shallower over the years, and its capacity to hold water has decreased. With more frequent intense rains, the riverbanks flood regularly and flooding reaches farther into low-lying and densely populated areas of the city.[15]


Climate data for Malabon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 20
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7
Average rainy days 3.3 3.5 11.1 8.1 18.9 23.5 26.4 25.5 24.5 19.6 10.4 6.4 181.2
Source: Meteoblue (modeled/calculated data, not measured locally)[16]


Political map of Malabon

Before the present-day Malabon, the town was originally composed of sitios (barangay) and others were further divided into two or more purok (zone).

Malabon is divided into 21 barangays.

Barangays District Population[17] Area (ha)[18] Density (/ha) Zip Code
Baritan 1st 11,476 33.01 347.65
Bayan-bayanan 1st 7,326 8.46 865.96
Catmon 1st 36,450 97.77 372.81 1470
Concepcion 1st 11,806 33.97 347.54
Dampalit 1st 11,245 261.90 42.94 1480
Flores 1st 4,282 9.00 475.78 1471
Hulong Duhat 1st 10,466 56.61 184.88
Ibaba 1st 7,630 16.56 460.75 1470
Maysilo 1st 11,213 126.53 88.62 1477
Muzon 1st 5,689 49.71 114.44 1479
Niugan 1st 5,936 31.38 189.17
Panghulo 1st 12,772 121.53 105.09
San Agustin 1st 11,156 31.59 353.14
Santulan[19] 1st 15,872 46.85 338.78 1478
Tañong (Poblacion) 1st 14,620 33.83 432.16
Acacia 2nd 5,735 19.54 293.50 1474
Longos 2nd 48,039 89.99 533.83 1472
Potrero 2nd 41,407 302.71 136.79 1475
Tinajeros 2nd 17,901 84.78 211.15
Tonsuya 2nd 39,354 59.40 662.53 1473
Tugatog 2nd 22,960 55.40 414.44


Population census of Malabon
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 20,136—    
1918 21,695+0.50%
1939 33,285+2.06%
1948 46,455+3.77%
1960 76,438+4.24%
1970 141,514+6.35%
1975 174,878+4.34%
1980 191,001+1.78%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 280,027+3.90%
1995 347,484+4.13%
2000 338,855−0.54%
2007 363,681+0.98%
2010 353,337−1.04%
2015 365,525+0.65%
2020 380,522+0.79%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[20][21][22][23]


Immaculate Conception Parish in Concepcion, Malabon
Santo Rosario Church in Dampalit, Malabon

Malabon belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kalookan under the episcopal seat of Bishop Pablo Virgilio David. Almost 80% of the people here adhere to this religion. Today there are eight Roman Catholic Parishes in Malabon.

Malabon bears the old images of San Bartolome in the Poblacion and the La Inmaculada Concepcion, canonically crowned since 1986 during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II.

List of Roman Catholic Parishes in Malabon
Parish Date of Establishment Barangay
San Bartolome Parish May 17, 1614 San Agustin
Immaculate Conception Parish September 8, 1907 Concepcion
Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish November 6, 1960 Tugatog
Sts. Peter and John Parish August 9, 1963 Potrero
Santo Rosario Parish March 15, 1983 Dampalit
Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish December 9, 1988 Maysilo
San Antonio de Padua Parish July 1, 1989 Tonsuya
Exaltation of the Holy Cross Parish September 26, 1994 Hulong Duhat
Sta. Clare of Assisi Parish August 15, 2017 Longos
Holy Trinity Quasi Parish December 7, 2018 Tinajeros

Other religions in Malabon include Iglesia Filipina Independiente (belongs to the Diocese of Rizal and Pampanga, Parish of La Purisima Concepcion de Malabon), Baptists, Jesus the Living Stone International Assembly of God, Iglesia ni Cristo or Church of Christ, Members of the Church of God International, Jesus Is Lord Church, IEMELIF and Seventh-day Adventist.


Rufina Patis & Bagoong Factory

Poverty Incidence of Malabon


Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Malabon industries include sugar refinery, patis- (fish sauce) making, cigar-making, candle production, fishing and ilang-ilang flower-extract production (the distilled perfume is exported).


City hall[edit]

On April 21, 2008, Malabon's newly constructed 11-story city hall building along F. Sevilla Blvd. in Barangay San Agustin, was inaugurated by Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on Malabon's 7th City anniversary. It was dubbed as a "potential business center of the city," a one-stop shop for government transactions, due to its state-of-the-art facilities such as 3 high-speed elevators and the new city hall building and its offices' "digital system."[32]


The Malabon City Tourism Office launched the Malabon Tricycle Tours in December 2014. The tours take visitors to eight heritage sites including the newly renovated 400-year-old San Bartolome Church as well as to notable heritage houses like the Raymundo House and Ibaviosa House.[33]

On March 14, 2015, the tours started to offer visitors a unique gastronomic experience through visits to the city's home-based eateries. This culinary aspect was the brainchild of current Mayor Antolin Oreta III's wife Melissa Oreta, the next mayor of Malabon.[34]

The Malabon Zoo and Aquarium, located in Potrero, is a small zoo that features an array of caged animals, along with an aquarium and gardens.


Malabon is considered as the local Venice, due to year-long floods and gradual sinking. It is a place famous for its Pancit Malabon and its predominantly Atlantic ambience. It is also famous for other variety of foods (kakanin), such as puto sulot, puto bumbong, sapin-sapin, broas, bibingka and camachile. The culinary delights are abundant in its specialty eateries.

Its most famous festival is the "Pagoda-Caracol", a fluvial procession with street dancing to commemorate the Feast of the Immaculate Conception every December 8.[35][36][37]

Heritage houses[edit]

Raymundo Ancestral House in Barangay Ibaba

Malabon houses several old homes of historical value: the Dionisio family home, the Rivera house, the Villongco house, the Luna house, the Pascual house, the Chikiamco house, the Rojas-Borja house, the (Teodoro) Luna house, the Santos-Lapus house, the Pantaleon Bautista house, the Syjuco (formerly Gaza) house, and the Raymundo house, considered to be the oldest located along C. Arellano Street. Other old but well-preserved heritage houses in Malabon include the Asilo de Huérfanos, the Paez House, and the Nepomuceno House.[38]


A jeepney plying Paterio Aquino Avenue

There are various modes of transportation that people use to go in and out of the city and to the barangays.

Jeepney Routes[edit]

  • Malabon (Hulo) via Acacia Monumento (LRT/Wise) – it traverses the entire length of Gov. Pascual Ave. from Potero to Concepcion, and Gen. Luna St. from Concepcion to Hulong-Duhat. From Monumento, prominent loading/unloading stations are Tuazon, Del Monte, University Ave., Marcelo, Plastikan, Goldendale, Palengke (Acacia-Tinajeros), Robinsons Town Mall Malabon/Francis, Catmon, Gulayan, Niugan, BNR (Muzon), Santo Rosario Village, Arellano University, Concepcion, Ilang-ilang to Javier (Baritan), Celia (Bayan-bayanan), Hulong-Duhat Plaza Terminal. From Hulo, the jeepney takes M. Naval St., right to A. Bonifacio St., left to C. Arellano St. (one way southbound), left to Kalahi St. (before Burgos), left to Gen. Luna St. (one way northbound), and then right back to Gov. Pascual Avenue until it gets to either LRT Victory Mall terminal or Wise terminal in Monumento.
  • Malabon (Bayan) via Letre Monumento – it traverses Samson Road in Caloocan, C-4 Road (Longos), P. Aquino Ave. and Rizal Avenue. From Monumento, as it passes the city of Caloocan, loading/unloading stations within Malabon are: Paradise, Letre/MC, Tonsuya, Magsaysay St. and Bayan terminal. To go back, jeeps turn right to Gen. Luna St., left to Sacristia St. (Behind St. James Academy), left to F. Sevilla Blvd. around Malabon City Hall back to Rizal Avenue until it gets to Monumento.
  • Malabon (Hulo) via Bayan Navotas – it traverses C. Arellano St. (Malabon), M. Naval St. (Navotas) and Gov. Pascual St. (Navotas). From Hulo, prominent destinations within Malabon are: Badeo Cuatro, Concepcion, Burgos, Camus, Bayan/Palengke then it enters the streets of Navotas traversing M. Naval St. northbound and Gov. Pascual St. southbound.
  • Gasak (Hulo) via Agora Ilaya/Divisoria – it traverses C. Arellano St., Leoño St. (Tañong), C-4 Road (Tañong), NBBN Road (Navotas), NBBS Road, Honorio Lopez Blvd. (Manila), Juan Luna St. and Nicolas Zamora St.
  • Gasak (Hulo) Recto – from Hulo, it traverses C. Arellano St., Rizal Avenue, P. Aquino Ave., Letre Road, Dagat-dagatan Avenue then it enters the city of Caloocan until it gets to Recto, Manila.
  • Sangandaan via Tatawid Polo – it traverses M.H. del Pilar St. from Sangandaan (Caloocan) to Polo (Valenzuela). This route does not begin nor end in Malabon but it serves the people of Malabon from barangay Tugatog, Tinajeros, Maysilo and Tatawid (Santulan).
  • Monumento via Tatawid Polo – it traverses Gov. Pascual Ave., then turn right to M.H. del Pilar St. until it gets to Polo (Valenzuela) and back.

Ferry terminals which uses boats include the Badeo Cuatro, connecting Flores to San Roque, Navotas; and Badeo Tres, connecting Concepcion to Daanghari, Navotas.


Malabon National High School, the pilot secondary school of the city
City of Malabon University

Tertiary level[edit]

  • The De La Salle Araneta University is the seventh campus of De La Salle Philippines. It was formerly known as the Gregorio Araneta University Foundation which was established in 1946 as the Araneta Institute of Agriculture in Bulacan, then transferred to Malabon the year after. In 1978 it was renamed as the Gregorio Araneta University Foundation. Integration of the university to the DLS System started since 1987 and in 2002 became an official member of the system. The university specializes in Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences.
    • As an agricultural University – Salikneta Farm (formerly known as Saliksik-Araneta) located at the City of San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan. Its total land area is 64 hectares of farmland originally owned by Gregorio Araneta University Foundation. The wide farmland is used for forestry and agricultural operations for student training purposes. Aside from serving as a laboratory and research facility, an agricultural-forestry-ecology-tourism-integrated farm complete with recreational facilities such as horse back riding, carabao cart-pulling for passengers, fishing, camping, mini-zoo and conference area is envisioned in Salikneta.
  • Arellano University–Jose Rizal Campus and Elisa Esguerra Campus, established in 1950, is the fifth campus of Arellano University.
  • The City of Malabon University (CMU) is the city university. It is located in Longos, Malabon.
  • There are also TESDA-accredited schools in the city. It includes the City of Malabon Polytechnic Institute, St. Michael Arcangel Technological Institute, College of Saint Amatiel, and St. Catherine Institute of Technology

Secondary schools[edit]

  • Malabon National High School or MNHS is the pilot secondary school and the most populous school in the city. The school offers three curriculum: Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP; popularly known as Special Science Class or SSC), Special Program in the Arts (SPA) and the K-to-12 Education Curriulum.
  • There are other thirteen public secondary schools in Malabon namely the Malabon National High School and Malabon City National Science and Mathematics High School, Concepcion Technical Vocational School, Tinajeros National High School, Acacia National High School, Santiago Syjuco Memorial Integrated Secondary School, Malabon City TechVoc and Entrepreneurship Senior High School, Ninoy Aquino Senior High School, Panghulo National High School, Potrero National High School, Longos National High School, Tañong National High School, Tugatog National High School, and Imelda Integrated Secondary School.
  • There are also a number of private schools in Malabon area such as St. James Academy, Immaculate Conception Academy of Malabon (Formerly Immaculate Conception Parochial School), St. Therese of the Child Jesus Academy, Higher Ground Baptist Academy Foundation Inc, Philippine Malabon Cultural Institute, Seibo College, and PROBEX School.

Integrated schools[edit]

  • There are other four public integrated schools in Malabon area such as Dampalit Integrated School, Catmon Integrated School, Col. Ramon Camus Integrated School, Tañong Integrated School.
  • There are also a number of private schools in Malabon area such as The POTTER & The Clay Christian School, Philippine Buddhist Seng Guan Memorial Institute, and St. Michael Learning Center Inc.

Elementary schools[edit]

  • There are twenty other public elementary schools in Malabon area such as Malabon Elementary School, Dampalit Elementary School I, Maysilo Elementary School, Panghulo Elementary School Main and I, Santolan Elementary School, Concepcion Elementary School, Santiago Syjuco Memorial School, Dela Paz Elementary School, Amang Rodriguez Elementary School, Tañong Elementary School 1, Longos Elementary School, Ninoy Aquino Elementary School, Epifanio delos Santos Elementary School, Acacia Elementary School, Tinajeros Elementary School, Guillermo Sevilla Sanchez Memorial Elementary School, and Potrero Elementary School Main and I.
  • There are also a number of private schools in Malabon area such as Abakadang Kayumanggi Learning Center, Academia De La Lilia, Bright Beginnings Center for Young Children, CEC Berean Christian Academy Inc., Cedar Oaks Christian School Inc., Christian Academy of Malabon, La Cabecera de Montessori, Inc., La Felicidad Learning Center Inc., Labagala's Child Development Center, Learning Journey Child Growth Center, Inc., MFCBC Christian Academy, Inc., Power Minds Learning Center, Sacred Heart School, St. Narciseus Academy Inc., Salazar's School of Learning, Sampedro Children's Learning Center, SME Child Development Center, Inc., T.A.L.K. Learning Center, United Methodist Parish School of Malabon Inc., and White Angel Academy Inc.

Notable people[edit]

The city of Malabon is home for famous personalities in different sectors including businessmen, celebrities, politicians, among others.

Arts, science, and academia[edit]

Government, politics and society[edit]

Loren Legarda, Filipino senator and environmentalist was born in Malabon in 1960.
Loren Legarda, Filipino senator and environmentalist was born in Malabon in 1960.

* Jessica Marasigan - Model and former beauty queen who represent Malabon at Binibining Pilipinas 2019

Sports and athletics[edit]

Sister cities[edit]



  1. ^ City of Malabon | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  5. ^ Lesho, Marivic; Sippola, Eeva (2018). "Toponyms in Manila and Cavite, Philippines". Vergleichende Kolonialtoponomastik Strukturen und Funktionen kolonialer Ortsbenennung. De Gruyter. pp. 317–332. ISBN 9783110608618.
  6. ^ Filipina, Hispanidad (January 12, 2020). "When Malabon was the Half-Mestizo Tambobong". The Hispanic Indio. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  7. ^ "Our History". Navotas City. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  8. ^ ", Malabon City: A sight of progress".
  9. ^ "Malabon City Hall – Malabon".
  10. ^ Act No. 942 (June 11, 1901), An Act Extending the Provisions of the Provincial Government Act to the Province of Rizal
  11. ^ Act No. 942 (October 12, 1903), An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen, retrieved June 19, 2022
  12. ^ Act No. 1442 (January 16, 1906), AN ACT Increasing the number of municipalities in the Province of Rizal from sixteen, as established by Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, as amended, to seventeen, by making Malabon and Navotas separate municipalities, and transferring the former municipality of Baras from the municipality of Morong to the municipality of Tanay., retrieved April 24, 2022
  13. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 824 November 7, 1975. Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposes". The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation, Inc. November 7, 1975. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  14. ^ Republic Act No. 9019 (March 5, 2001), An Act Converting the Municipality of Malabon Into a Highly Urbanized City To Be Known as The City of Malabon, The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation, Inc., retrieved July 10, 2020
  15. ^ "INSIDE STORY: Understanding the risk of flooding in the city: The case of Barangay Potrero, Metro Manila | Climate & Development Knowledge Network". February 4, 2015.
  16. ^ "Malabon: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  17. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2023.
  18. ^ "Approved City Development Plan 2012-2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2022.
  19. ^ "Barangays".
  20. ^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  21. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region (NCR)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  22. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ "Province of Metro Manila, 3rd (Not a Province)". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  24. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  25. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  26. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  27. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  28. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  29. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  30. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  31. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  32. ^ "Local Government – Malabon City". Archived from the original on August 24, 2021.
  33. ^ Fenix, Micky (December 25, 2014). "Food trip: A taste of Malabon via tricycle". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  34. ^ Granali, Rima (March 29, 2015). "Malabon City 'tricycle tours': Narrow streets, wide choices". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  35. ^ "La Inmaculada Concepcion de Malabon borne on fluvial procession in Navotas River". December 22, 2012.
  36. ^ "Malabon maneuvers". December 3, 2016.
  37. ^ "Town revives pagoda 21 years after tragedy". June 27, 2014.
  38. ^ ", Malabon's old houses survive time and tide". Archived from the original on February 22, 2008.
  39. ^ Roces, Alejandro R. "Celebrating our freedom". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  40. ^ "National Artists". United Architects of the Philippines. Retrieved January 19, 2020.

External links[edit]