Angeles, Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Angeles City)
Jump to: navigation, search
Angeles
Highly Urbanized City
Lungsod ng Angeles
(From top, left to right): Exterior of Holy Rosary Church, nave of Holy Rosary Church, Salakot Arch, Jose Abad Santos Hall of Justice, Philippine International Hot-Air Balloon Fiesta, Clark International Airport, Angeles City Hall
(From top, left to right): Exterior of Holy Rosary Church, nave of Holy Rosary Church, Salakot Arch, Jose Abad Santos Hall of Justice, Philippine International Hot-Air Balloon Fiesta, Clark International Airport, Angeles City Hall
Flag of Angeles
Flag
Official seal of Angeles
Seal
Nickname(s): Culiat
Motto: Kapampangan: "Sulagpo Ta Na!" ("Let's Fly!")
Map of Pampanga showing the location of Angeles
Map of Pampanga showing the location of Angeles
Angeles is located in Philippines
Angeles
Angeles
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 15°09′N 120°35′E / 15.15°N 120.58°E / 15.15; 120.58Coordinates: 15°09′N 120°35′E / 15.15°N 120.58°E / 15.15; 120.58
Country Philippines
Region Central Luzon (Region III)
Province Pampanga (geographically only)
Districts 1st District of Pampanga
Settled 1796
Incorporated 8 December 1829
Cityhood 1 January 1964
Barangays 33
Government[1]
 • Representative 1st District Carmelo "Jon" Lazatin II (Lingap Lugud)
 • Mayor Edgardo Pamintuan (PAK)
 • Vice Mayor Bryan Matthew Nepomuceno (NPC)
Area[2]
 • City 60.27 km2 (23.27 sq mi)
 • Metro 596.89 km2 (230.46 sq mi)
Elevation 90.0 m (295.3 ft)
Population (2015 census)[3]
 • City 411,634
 • Density 6,800/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,132,933
 • Metro density 1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Angeleños (Male), Angeleñas (Female), Angelenean
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2009
IDD:area code +63 (0)45
Website angelescity.gov.ph

Angeles (Kapampangan: Lakanbalen ning Angeles; Filipino: Lungsod ng Angeles) is a highly urbanized city located geographically within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines.[2] It is bordered by Mabalacat to the north; Mexico to the east; San Fernando to the southeast; Bacolor to the south; and Porac to the southwest and west. The city administers itself autonomously from Pampanga and, as of the 2015 census, it has a population of 411,634.[3]

Angeles is served by Clark International Airport in the Clark Freeport Zone.[4][5][6][7] As the former home of Clark Air Base (then the largest United States military facility outside the continental United States), it was significantly affected by the fallout brought about by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The economy of Angeles was heavily dependent on the American base at that time.[8]

In 1993, a full cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began and the former U.S. base re-emerged as Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ).[9] The creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs previously generated by the presence of the U.S. base in the city. Today, Angeles and Clark form the hub for business, industry, aviation, and tourism in the Philippines as well as a leisure, fitness, entertainment and gaming center of Central Luzon.[10]

Angeles ranked 15th in a survey by MoneySense magazine as one of the "Best Places to Live in the Philippines" in its March–April 2008 issue.[11] In August 2007, the greater metropolitan area centered on Angeles, called Metro Angeles, which includes the cities of San Fernando and Mabalacat and the towns of Porac and Bacolor, was also mentioned as one of the 12 Metropolitan Areas in the Philippines by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and named as one of the six region-based metropolitan areas with relatively high GDP rates, with Metro Angeles garnering 8.5%.[12]

Angeles is 83 kilometres (52 mi) from Manila and 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the provincial capital, San Fernando.

Etymology[edit]

The name Ángeles is derived from the Spanish El Pueblo de los Ángeles ("The Town of the Angels") in honour of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles Custodios (Holy Guardian Angels), and the name of its founder, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda.

History[edit]

Spanish period[edit]

In 1796, the gobernadorcillo or town head of San Fernando, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda, and his wife, Doña Rosalía de Jesús, along with some followers, staked out a new settlement, which they named Culiát because of the abundance of vines of that name in the area. The new settlers cleared the woodland and cultivated the area for rice and sugar farming. Don Ángel built his first house with light materials at the northwest corner of the intersection of Sapang Balen and the road going towards the town of Porac. It was later donated to the Catholic Church and became a cemetery called "Campo Santong Matua" (today the site of Nepomuceno Coliseum).[13]

On 12 May 1812, the new settlers tried to make Culiat a self-governing town but the friars resisted the move, led by Fray José Pometa. Ten years later, on 11 February 1822, Don Ángel filed a petition for the township of Culiat to secede from San Fernando, but it was denied. This was followed by another petition within the same year, jointly signed by Don Ángel, his son-in-law, Mariano Henson, and the latter's father, Severino Henson. He donated 35 hectares for the construction of the first Catholic church, a convent and a primary school while Doña Agustina Henson de Nepomuceno, the niece of who would become the first gobernadorcillo of Angeles in 1830, Don Ciriaco de Miranda, gave land for the new public market. Don Ángel paid the complete amount required by law just for the secession of Culiat from San Fernando. There were only 160 taxpayers then but the law required that it should have at least 500 taxpayers.[14]

Located some 10 miles (16 km) north of Pampanga's capital, Culiat became a barrio of San Fernando for 33 years and on 8 December 1829, became a separate municipality. The newly-autonomous town was renamed "El Pueblo de los Ángeles" in honor of its patron saints, the Holy Angels, and the name of its founder, Don Ángel, coinciding with the rise of new barrios such as Santo Cristo (as the población or town proper), Cutcut, Pampang and Pulong Anunas. The progressive barrios developed some new industries like a sugar mill and a wine distillery. The transition of Angeles from a jungle clearing to a barrio, to a town and finally to a city took 168 years and in all that time, it survived locusts' infestations, wars, epidemics, volcanic eruptions and typhoons to become one of the fast rising towns in the country. When it received its first official municipal charter, the town contained some 661 people, 151 houses and an area of 38.65 km².[8][15]

On 17 March 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo transferred the seat of the First Philippine Republic to Angeles. It then became the site of celebrations for the first anniversary of Philippine independence, which was proclaimed a year earlier in Kawit, Cavite. Events included a parade, led by the youngest ever Filipino generals, Gregorio del Pilar and Manuel Tinio, with General Aguinaldo viewing the proceedings from the Pamintuan Residence, which was the Presidential Palace from May to July 1899 (and later was the Central Bank of the Philippines office in Central Luzon, before its ownership passed to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines). Aguinaldo's sojourn was short, however, for in July of this same year he transferred his government to the province of Tarlac following Angeles' occupation by the American forces.[16]

American period[edit]

On 10 August 1899, U.S. forces began the attack on Angeles confident in capturing it in a few days. However, the Filipino Army defending the town refused to give in so easily and fiercely fought back and for three months, they battled the Americans in and around the town. It was only after the battle on 5 November 1899 that the town finally fell into American hands. The Battle of Angeles was considered to be the longest in the history of the Filipino-American War in Pampanga. This led to the establishment of an American camp in Barrio Talimundoc (in what is now Lourdes Sur), located next to the railroad station, in order to establish control over the central plains of Luzon. In January 1900, General Frederick D. Grant organized the first U.S. Civil Government in Angeles by appointing an alcalde or municipal mayor, beginning American rule over Angeles.[17]

In 1902, the United States Army studied relocating their post from Barrio Talimundoc to a fertile plain in Barrio Sapang Bato, which supposedly had better grass for their horses. A year after that, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order on 1 September, establishing 7,700 acres (31 km2) of land in Sapang Bato as Fort Stotsenburg (which later would expand to 156,204 acres (632.14 km2) in 1908 to become Clark Air Base). It was centered on what would in later years become Clark Air Base's parade ground.[18]

The Americans quickly commandeered Holy Rosary Parish Church and converted it into an army hospital, with the choir loft served as a dental clinic. The convento, which now houses Holy Family Academy, was the barracks for medical officers and enlisted men. The sacristy was the only portion where Angeleños could hear Mass. When the Americans finally vacated the church in 1904 and relocated to Fort Stotsenburg, parish priest Rev. Vicente Lapus listed a total of US$638 for portions of the church destroyed, looted church items and treasures, and arrears on rentals.

World War II[edit]

Hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines, targeting the American military presence, as well as the Philippine Army, and taking over the civilian government. During the Japanese occupation in the country, 57,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war passed the town of Angeles. They were forced to join the Bataan Death March, going to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac. Angeleños showed their sympathy by handing them foods, milk, boiled eggs, rice cakes, cigarettes, and water. Angeleños followed them up to the train station in Dau railway station in Mabalacat to give moral and spiritual support, and even helped the escapees.

War historians considered the bombing of Fort Stotsenburg on 8 December 1941 at 12:30 p.m. as one of the most destructive air raids in World War II, because almost all the American war planes were wrecked on the ground. In thirty minutes, the air might of America in the Far East was completely destroyed.

On the early morning of New Year's Day 1942, the first Japanese troops entered Angeles; they would occupy it until January 1945. During the Japanese invasion, another type of local government was set up on 22 January 1942. During the Japanese occupation, Clark Air Base then became a major centre for staging Japanese air operations. Japanese aircraft flying out of Clark participated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, considered to be the largest naval battle of the Second World War and possibly the largest naval battle in history.[19][20]

Clark Air Base was recaptured by the Americans in January 1945, after three months of fierce fighting in the Philippines. After three years of atrocities committed by Japanese forces, the town and the rest of the Philippines were finally liberated by the combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth troops in 1945. The building of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was situated in Angeles from January 1945 to June 1946, during and after World War II.

Independence and cityhood[edit]

After World War II, the Philippines gained independence from the United States on 4 July 1946, but then would be tied to a neo-colonial relationship. The "Treaty of General Relations" signed on independence day itself signified the Americans' withdrawal and surrender of possession, control and sovereignty over the Philippines, except the use of their bases. It was followed by the Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement on 14 March 1947, allowing the U.S. to maintain territorial integrity and sovereignty over Clark Air Base and Subic Naval Base for the next 44 years. Clark occupied 63,103 hectares and served as the tactical operational U.S. air force installation in the entire Southeast Asian region that had the capacity to accommodate the U.S. military transport planes, which served the entire Western Pacific.

Through the years, although Fort Stotsenburg continued to expand to become what is now known as Clark Air Base, Angeles, despite its proximity to the American camp, did not progress fast and remained fairly small until the end of World War II. It was finally inaugurated on 1 January 1964 as a chartered city under Republic Act No. 3700 and then it entered a period of tremendous growth that has resulted in its present position as the "Premier City in Central Luzon." It was then Mayor Rafael del Rosario's brainchild that Angeles became a city. He gained the distinction of being the last municipal mayor of Angeles. He was assisted in the preparation of the City Chapter by Attorney Enrique Tayag, a prominent resident of the town. Congresswoman Juanita L. Nepomuceno of the first district of Pampanga sponsored the bill in Congress, which was approved by then President Diosdado Macapagal, the ninth Philippine president and a native of the province of Pampanga.[21]

Mount Pinatubo eruption and Angeles today[edit]

Collapsed hangars at the Clark Air Base after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo

On 15 June 1991, Angeles was affected by the cataclysmic eruption of nearby Mount Pinatubo, with up to 60,000 people being evacuated from the city. It was the second-largest volcanic eruption of the twentieth century and, by far, the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area. The province of Pampanga, Clark specifically, were badly hit and the agricultural lands, as well as other businesses, were covered by tons of lahar.[22] There were no casualties reported inside Clark two days from the initial eruption because the 18,000 personnel and their families were transported to Guam and the Subic Naval Base in Zambales.

The eruption of Mount Pinatubo forced the leadership of the U.S. to prematurely abandon its military installation at Clark Air Base. This is in addition to the voting by the Philippine Senate in 1991 to no longer extend the Laurel–Langley Agreement, which allows the presence of U.S. military forces on Philippine territory, thus ending the long chapter of Filipino-American relations in the history of Angeles. The U.S. military never returned to Clark, turning over the damaged base to the Philippine government on 26 November 1991[23][24][25]

In 1993, cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began. The former base re-emerged as Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) approved by then President Fidel V. Ramos on 3 April of the same year. The airfield infrastructure was improved and destined to be the premiere airport in the country in the next five years and one of the most modern in Asia.[9] The creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs previously generated by the presence of the U.S. base. Today, Angeles and Clark together form the hub for business, industry, aviation and tourism, as well as the entertainment and gaming center of Central Luzon.[10] According to the Center for Kapampangan Studies, the dish sisig originated in this city and has been on the menu since the 1730s. Pampanga is well known as the culinary center of the Philippines.[26][27][28]

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Angeles has a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Aw/Am). Angeles experiences two distinct seasons: a dry season from November through April, with a wet season from May through October. From 1953 to 1991, the mean daily low was 73.6 °F and the mean daily high was 88.1 °F, with June being warmest and January and February being the coolest. The average annual rainfall is 78.39 inches. Typhoons tend to approach from the east during the summer and fall. Many damaging storms struck the city, including Typhoon Irma on 28 November 1974 (generally considered to be the strongest one); Typhoon Rita on 27 October 1978; Typhoon Irma (the name was reused) on 24 November 1981; Typhoon Ruby on 25 October 1988; and Typhoon Yunya on 15 June 1991 which coincided with the Mount Pinatubo blast. In July 1972, Central Luzon experienced a month of nearly continuous rain, resulting in 96 inches falling on the plain around Angeles.

Climate data for Clark Air Base, Angeles, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35
(95)
35
(95)
36
(97)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
38
(100)
36
(97)
35
(95)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
(73)
Record low °C (°F) 14
(57)
14
(57)
16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
13
(0.51)
18
(0.71)
33
(1.3)
130
(5.12)
254
(10)
422
(16.61)
432
(17.01)
356
(14.02)
193
(7.6)
145
(5.71)
23
(0.91)
2,042
(80.39)
Source: National Climatic Data Center.[29]

Barangays[edit]

Angeles is divided into 33 barangays.

  • Agapito del Rosario
  • Amsic
  • Anunas
  • Balibago
  • Capaya
  • Claro M. Recto
  • Cuayan
  • Cutcut
  • Cutud
  • Lourdes North West
  • Lourdes Sur (Talimundoc)
  • Lourdes Sur East
  • Malabanias
  • Margot
  • Ninoy Aquino (Marisol)
  • Mining
  • Pampang
  • Pandan
  • Pulungbulu
  • Pulung Cacutud
  • Pulung Maragul
  • Salapungan
  • San José
  • San Nicolas
  • Santa Teresita
  • Santa Trinidad
  • Santo Cristo
  • Santo Domingo
  • Santo Rosario (Población)
  • Sapalibutad
  • Sapangbato
  • Tabun
  • Virgen Delos Remedios
Barangay Population
(2010)[30]
Population

(2015)

Agapito del Rosario 2,313 3,230
Anunas 15,213 20,911
Balibago 32,291 40,087
Capaya 8,280 8,870
Claro M. Recto 4,741 3,981
Cuayan 4,852 10,363
Cutcut 21,601 27,843
Cutud 16,531 23,177
Lourdes North West 10,450 9,896
Lourdes Sur 4,772 4,797
Lourdes Sur East 4,656 4,741
Malabanias 23,034 33,174
Margot 3,606 5,239
Mining 2,492 3,186
Pampang 16,198 20,419
Pandan 14,901 20,598
Pulung Maragul 14,750 18,067
Pulungbulu 11,237 12,198
Pulung Cacutud 18,413 23,891
Salapungan 6,102 5,443
San Jose 4,785 5,579
San Nicolas 2,778 3,424
Santa Teresita 8,263 8,402
Santa Trinidad 4,980 5,036
Santo Cristo 4,443 4,222
Santo Domingo 14,378 17,693
Santo Rosario (Pob.) 3,515 4,902
Sapalibutad 8,854 12,698
Sapangbato 9,910 10,965
Tabun 5,663 10,914
Virgen Delos Remedios 1,634 1,651
Amsic 7,736 14,379
Ninoy Aquino (Marisol) 12,964 11,658

Anunas[edit]

Anunas is the barangay that houses the city's Korean Town, a chain of Korean establishments along the Fil-Am Friendship Highway. Anunas is also identified as one of the growth centers of the city, focusing on light industries such as woodcarving and rattan craft.

Balibago and Malabañas[edit]

Malabañas skyline

Balibago is the main entertainment district of Angeles. It contains Casino Filipino Angeles and the famous Fields Avenue tourist belt. Entertainment-related establishments such as The Dollhouse Group, Kokomo's Hotel Group also spill to Malabañas, which is situated next to Balibago. Hotels, such as Penthouse Hotel, Lewis Grand Hotel, and Angeles Beach Club (ABC) Hotel are also abundant along Don Juico Avenue, which stretches from Balibago to Malabañas. The city's biggest mall, SM City Clark, is also situated in Barangay Malabañas.

Pampang and San Nicolas[edit]

These two barangays form the main public market district of the city. The Pampang Wet Market, San Nicolas Market, Friday Flea Market (locally referred to as Apu), Jumbo Jenra Angeles, Puregold Angeles, and the Angeles Slaughterhouse are found here. The Pampang Wet Market is the largest and most frequented wet market in the province of Pampanga. It also attracts people from nearby towns. Ospital Ning Angeles (ONA),City College of Angeles, Angeles City National High School are located in Pampang.

Pulung Maragul[edit]

Marquee Residences in Pulung Maragul (under construction)

Pulung Maragul is the barangay that houses the city's government complex, which includes the Angeles City Hall, the Angeles City Hall of Justice, and other government buildings. It is also the location of the Angeles Exit of the North Luzon Expressway and Marquee Mall, Ayala's first mall in Central Luzon. Marquee Place and Marquee Residences later rose in Pulung Maragul as well, next to the mall.

Santo Rosario[edit]

Santo Rosario is the poblacion. It is home to most of Angeles' heritage and historical structures such as the Holy Rosary Church, Pamintuan Mansion which is privately owned by Maverick Pamintuan, Bale Herencia, and Museo ning Angeles (former City Hall building). Holy Angel University, Central Luzon's largest university in terms of population,[31] is also located here. Plans of declaring the barangay or parts of it a heritage zone are ongoing.[32]

Sapangbato[edit]

Sapangbato is the largest barangay in Angeles in terms of territory, with a total land area of 187,694 sq. meters and a population of 9,920. Located northwest of Angeles near Clark Freeport Zone, it is identified as the barangay in Angeles with the highest elevation of 750 feet above sea level. It is home to Fort Stotsenburg, also known as the Parade Grounds of Clark. apl.de.ap, member of the hip hop group The Black Eyed Peas, hails from Sapangbato. The famous Puning Hot Springs of Brgy. Inararo in Porac are accessed through Sitio Target in Sapangbato.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Angeles City
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1970 134,544 —    
1975 151,164 +2.36%
1980 188,834 +4.55%
1990 236,686 +2.28%
1995 234,011 −0.21%
2000 263,971 +2.62%
2007 314,493 +2.44%
2010 326,336 +1.35%
2015 411,634 +4.52%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][33][34][35]

Economy[edit]

Skyline of Balibago, Angeles

Despite the major challenges that were faced by the city, such as the removal of the U.S. Clark Air Base and the Mount Pinatubo's eruption in 1991, all these have been surpassed by Angeleños. The improvement in the economy of Angeles was said to have been triggered by the transformation of the U.S. base into Clark Freeport Zone, where the Clark International Airport is located.[36] Angeles is home to an emerging technology industry. Its economy is based also on tourism and gambling. Fields Avenue forms the hub of the night life industry focused in Angeles.[37] With close proximity to an international airport in Clark Freeport, Angeles is visited by foreigners all year round.[38]

Al-fresco restaurants at the backside of Marquee Mall.

In the 2000s, the local government of Angeles rebranded the Fields Avenue tourist belt as a high-end destination with fine restaurants and luxury hotels and casinos[39][40] The finishing of roads, such as the Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway, has improved trade and transport.[10][41][42] The project connects the industrial, transport and business hubs of Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan and Tarlac. The project is crucial to bolstering growth in Central Luzon.[43][44]

The city has cottage industries producing rattan furniture, coconuts, and charcoal briquettes. It also has many thriving export businesses in handicrafts, metal crafts, toys, houseware and garments.[45] Apart from the Clark Freeport Zone, industrial areas include the Angeles Livelihood Village and the Angeles City Industrial Estate.[46]

Call centers present are e-Telecare,[47] CyberCity, Sutherland and IRMC, plus other American IT industries are major employers as well.[48] The establishment of a number of shopping malls also fueled the city's economy, including SM City Clark, Robinson's Place Angeles, Jenra Grand Mall, Nepo Mall, Saver's Mall and the Marquee Mall, next to the City Hall.[49][50]

There is also a proposal of constructing a new Formula One quality circuit in a 2,000-hectare lot fronting the North Luzon Expressway between Angeles and Subic Bay, from which the country may soon play host to prestigious international car-racing events and possibly bid to become one of the venues of the world-renowned Formula One series.[51]

Tourism[edit]

Historical sites[edit]

Angeles Heritage District featuring Museo ning Angeles and Santo Rosario Church
Fort Stotsenburg
Fort Stotsenburg, named after Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, a captain of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, was the location of the permanent quarters of the American forces in Sapang Bato, Angeles. It is also known as the "Parade Ground," which served as a venue for many important celebrations by the Americans before the Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement ended in 1991.
Salakot Arch
Salakot Arch is a landmark of Angeles. From 1902 to 1979, Clark Air Base remained a U.S. territory, guaranteed by the Military Bases Agreement in 1947. In 1978, the Philippines, under the dispensation of then President Ferdinand Marcos, and the U.S. finally agreed to establish Philippine sovereignty over the U.S. bases and thus the Clark Air Base Command (CABCOM) of the Armed Forces of the Philippines came into being, following the signing of a revised Military Bases Agreement on 7 January 1979. To commemorate this unprecedented and bold event, the government constructed a special structure based upon the design of a salakot or native hat, which soon became a widely recognized symbol of this renewed Filipino spirit.
The Pamintuan Mansion used to house the Central Bank of the Philippines in Region III.
Old Pamintuan Residence
Old Pamintuan Residence served as the seat of government of the First Philippine Republic under General Emilio Aguinaldo from May to July 1899 and the central headquarters for Major General Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the father of General Douglas MacArthur. It used to serve as municipal hall of Angeles and later the Central Bank of the Philippines in Central Luzon. Currently, the National Historical Commission and the city government with the help of the embassy of France in the Philippines are funding the restoration of the mansion into the Museum of Philippine Social History.[52]
Founders' Residence (Bale Matua)
Located at the heart of Santo Rosario, it is the oldest building in the city. It was built in 1824 by the city founder, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda, and his wife, Doña Rosalia de Jesus, and was inherited by their only daughter, Doña Juana de Miranda de Henson. This house, which is made of high stone and an ornate gate, nostalgically symbolizes the glorious past of Angeles amidst the overwhelming onslaughts of modernization.
Camalig
Camalig was built in 1840 by Don Ciriaco de Miranda, the first gobernadorcillo of Angeles, and was used as a grain storehouse along Santo Rosario Street. It was restored in 1980 by Armando L. Nepomuceno and is now the site of Armando's Pizza and the historic Camalig Restaurant.
Post Office Building (Deposito)
It is a building that was constructed in 1899 for the purpose of depositing religious statues and carriages of the Catholic Church, hence the name Deposito. It was also used as the headquarters of the 11th Film Exchange U.S. Army from 1946 to 1947 and was then used as a jailhouse for recalcitrant U.S. troops during the Philippine–American War. On 6 February 1967, the Angeles Post Office moved to this building. It is now the site of Angeles Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Center.
The Santo Rosario Church.
Holy Rosary Church (Santo Rosario Church)
Holy Rosary Church (Santo Rosario Church) was constructed from 1877 to 1896 by the "Polo y Servicio" labor system, a kind of forced labor imposed on Filipino peasants by the Spanish colonial government. It was used as a military hospital by the U.S. Army from August 1899 to December 1900. Its backyard was the execution ground to the Spanish forces in shooting down Filipino rebels and suspects.
Holy Family Academy Building
Holy Family Academy Building was once a convent and was served as a military hospital of the U.S. Army in 1900. It was later used as troop barracks, officers' quarters and arsenal by the Japanese Imperial Military Forces in the year of 1942.
The Bale Herencia (Ancestral House) as of 2009.
Bale Herencia (Ancestral House)
Built in 1860, is situated in Lakandula Street corner Santo Rosario Street. It is a picturesque house with the unsavory reputation of having been built for the mistress of a parish priest. The current owners have leased the place to various restaurants, food stalls, and other businesses like salons and computer shops. The antique architecture, however, is still preserved.
Juan D. Nepomuceno Center for Kapampangan Studies
Houses a library, museum of archives and gallery, research center and theater, put up by the Holy Angel University in 2002 to preserve, study and promote Kapampangan history and culture. In 2012, the Museum of Kapampangan Arts was also opened in the university, housing some of National Artist Vicente Manansala's works and drafts.
Lily Hill
Lily Hill was a strategic observation post for monitoring Japanese movement in World War II. Remains of Japanese aircraft were found here at the end of the war. Along this hill can now be found Lily Hill Duty Free Store.
Bayanihan Park
Bayanihan Park (formerly Astro Park) is an ideal spot for sports and recreational activities having basketball and volleyball courts and huge space for jogging and other recreational activities. This is where the famous and historical "Salakot Arch" is now located. It is being managed by SM City Clark.
The Museum of Angeles
Museo ning Angeles (Museum of Angeles)
Museo ning Angeles (Museum of Angeles) is a vintage building located at the prime "Santo Rosario Historic District" across the Holy Rosary Church. This edifice was constructed in 1922 and served as the Municipio del Pueblo or Town Hall until 1998. The Museum has become the venue of the city's cultural activities be it from the or government sector. From the time it opened in the year 1999, it has been a beehive of activity from exhibits, art classes, concerts, venue for performances and climax for traditional celebrations. In June 2012, the National Museum of the Philippines declared the Museo ning Angeles as an "Important Cultural Property of the Philippines," the first cultural property to be given such a distinction. The museum is currently administered by Kuliat Foundation, Inc.
  • Inside the museum is Balikdan (meaning "to look back") which is about understanding Angeles's past for the present. It encapsulates coherently our colorful and evolving history, and enabling us to arrive at our expected destination. The sections begin with the establishment of Culiat in 1796 and finish with Mt. Pinatubo's fury in 1991.
  • Also within the infrastructure is the Culinarium. Pampanga, most specifically Angeles, is known as the "Culinary Capital of the Philippines." This is dedicated to the Kapampangan culinary arts and science that has emanated from the basic concept that the preparation of food is a heritage and a legacy worth preserving.
  • Dioramic Scenes of Traditional Life in Pampanga, which is depicted in ten tableaus, are scenes of traditional town and country life in Pampanga. These dioramas were created by fashion designer Beatriz 'Patis' Pamintuan Tesoro using her Nenita dolls dressed in the most intricately embroidered Filipiniana outfits, with amazing detailing not only on the clothes, but also in the accessories and background.
The Museum of Angeles and the Angeles City Public Library during the Christmas season
Reynaldo G. Alejandro Culinary Library
The Reynaldo G. Alejandro Culinary Library is dedicated to the memory of Mr. Reynaldo ‘Ronnie’ Gamboa Alejandro (1941–2009), who was a leading exponent of Filipino arts and culture. Some years before his untimely demise, Ronnie donated a part of his extensive library to the Culiat Foundation in support of its efforts to promote and preserve the Kapampangan culinary heritage.

Festivals and celebrations[edit]

Preparing for the Octoberfest 2009 along McArthur Highway in Balibago district.
  • Philippine International Hot-Air Balloon Fiesta is held annually between January and February at Clark Field, Angeles, Pampanga. Considered to be the biggest aviation sports event in the country, it features multicolored hot-air balloons with more than a hundred balloon pilots from around the world.[53]
  • La Naval Fiesta is held every second Sunday of October in honour of Our Lady of La Naval de Manila, whose intercession ensured the five victories of the Spanish fleet over the Dutch Navy in 1646. The city celebrates this fiesta with typical religious programs and homes display the finest traditions of hospitality in entertaining guests with the finest food and drinks.[54]
  • Tigtigan Terakan keng Dalan (Music and Dancing on the Streets) is held every last Friday and Saturday night of October. It is the biggest street party held each year in the city, which lasts up to the wee hours of the following day. Attended by celebrities and citizens alike, it features music from amateur and OPM bands.[55]
  • Apu Fiesta (Piyestang Apu) is held on the last Friday of October. Devotees from all over Pampanga flock to the Apu shrine every Friday to venerate the supposedly miraculous image of Jesus Christ lying in the sepulchre. It is also every Friday when people buy household items, clothes and audio-video equipment in a makeshift market called tiangge at bargain prices.[56]
  • Sisig Festival (Sadsaran Qng Angeles) is also held every year in the month of December, celebrating the Kapampangan dish, sisig. It was later held at SM City-Clark but it was usually celebrated along the stretch of McArthur Highway in Balibago.[57] In 2008, the festival was put on hiatus following Aling Lucing Cunanan's untimely demise. Marquee Mall then incorporated the festival in 2014 by including it within their annual Big Bite! Northern Food Festival held every last quarter of the year. Currently, the Angeles City Tourism Office is once again organizing the festival this coming 29 April 2017.
  • Big Bite! Northern Food Festival is a 3-day October tradition of Marquee Mall since 2012, where various culinary dishes and treats all over the Northern Philippines are being showcased. The highlight of this festival is the giant Sisig. Cooking demos, cook-offs, and about 100 food stalls all over Northern Philippines are also featured.
  • Sabat Santacruzan of Sapangbato

Expatriates and sex industry[edit]

Owing to the presence of the U.S. base and consequent Freeport Zone,[58] many Americans chose to permanently settle in the area, particularly in the Balibago district, and thus Angeles became home to a large colony of expatriates. During the American colonial period (1898–1946), more than 800,000 Americans were born in the Philippines, and a large concentration of Filipino mestizos or Filipinos with American ancestry were located in this city.[59][60][61] It is said that, aside from the high Amerasian population in the city, prostitution was another consequence of the U.S. bases' presence in the country. Since the early days of Clark Air Base, Fields Avenue in Balibago district is an area frequently visited by the U.S. servicemen, has been known as a center for prostitution and sex tourism.[62][63][64][65][66] A BBC article characterized it as "the centre of the Philippines sex industry" and dubbed it "Sin City".[67] Elsewhere and in later years, Philippine travel publications have described it as the "Entertainment Capital of Central Luzon" and "Entertainment City"[68][69]

Schools[edit]

Tertiary and higher education[edit]

Angeleños[edit]

  • Lea Salonga is a Tony Award–winning singer and actress who is best known for her portrayal of Kim in the musical, Miss Saigon. She spent the first six years of her childhood in Angeles City before moving to Manila.[70][71]
  • apl.de.ap, born Allan Pineda Lindo in Sapang Bato, Angeles City, is a member of the Grammy award–winning group The Black Eyed Peas. He is famous throughout the Filipino community after the release of his life story of his homeland the Philippines in a song called "The Apl Song" found on the Peas' 2003 album, Elephunk.[72][73]
  • Servillano Aquino was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution against Spain (1896–1898) and the Philippine–American War (1898–1902). He served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress and was the grandfather of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr.
  • Vanessa Minnillo is an American television personality born in Clark Air Base, Angeles City, and raised in Seattle, Washington, and Charleston, South Carolina. She was Miss Teen USA 1998 and was a host on MTV's Total Request Live.[74]
  • Efren "Bata" Reyes, referred to as "The Magician", is a very popular Filipino pool player. He is a former world champion and considered to be one of history's greatest practitioners of pool.[75]
  • Hilda Koronel, born Susan Reid, is an award-winning actress who starred in around 45 films, many of which are critically acclaimed, since 1970. Her father is an American who was a serviceman in Clark Air Base.[76][77]
  • Pepe Smith is a Filipino singer-songwriter, drummer and guitarist, and is considered an icon of original Filipino rock music or "Pinoy rock".
  • Jaclyn Jose, born Mary Jane Sta. Ana Guck, and known for her memorable roles in the films Salome and Santa Juana, is a versatile cinematic and television actress having captured best actress accolades in both local and foreign scenes.[78]
  • Cris Judd is an American actor. He has choreographed for Michael Jackson and Usher, but he is best known for having been married to American actress/singer Jennifer Lopez. He spent his childhood years at Clark Air Base.[79][80][81]
  • Arwind Santos is a local basketball player, playing for Far Eastern University in the UAAP and the Magnolia Ice Cream Spinners in the Philippine Basketball League. He is now a San Miguel Beermen team player in the PBA. He was selected PBL's Most Valuable Player (2004), two-time UAAP's Most Valuable Player (2004–2005) and one-time UAAP's Most Valuable Player (2005).[82][83]
  • Calvin Abueva is a local basketball player, playing for San Sebastian College in the NCAA and the NLEX Roadwarriors in the Philippine Basketball D-League. He is now an Alaska Aces star player in the PBA. He was selected NCAA's Most Valuable Player (Season 87)and PBA Rookie of the year 2013.[83][84]
  • Donita Rose born Donita Rose Cavett is a famous local television host and a former MTV VJ in Asia. Although born in Utah, U.S., she moved to Angeles City, where her American father was stationed at the U.S. base, when she was five years old.[85][86]
  • Rodolfo Luat is one of the highest-ranking pool players of the Philippines. Popularly known as "Boy Samson" since the 1970s because of his powerful break, he holds many Asian individual and team titles.[87][88]
  • Peter Valdes is an American-based software entrepreneur who was awarded one of the "10 Most Inspiring Technopreneurs in the Philippines in 2006". He was a co-founder of the globally successful Tivoli Software (an IBM Company).[89][90][91]
  • Kristine Johnson is a co-anchor at WCBS-TV, making her the first Filipino-American to serve as the face of a major network newscast in New York and the entire U.S. East Coast. She was previously an anchor of Early Today and Weekend Today. She was born at Clark Air Base, and currently resides in New Jersey with her husband and two children.[92][93]
  • Victonara Galang is a Filipino volleyball athlete. She is currently an Open Hitter and the team captain of the De La Salle University Lady Spikers.
  • Ryzza Mae Dizon is a Filipina child actress. She rose to fame by way of the competition 'Little Miss Philippines 2012', associated with the noontime show Eat Bulaga!. She works as a co-host on Eat Bulaga! and once hosted the morning talk show The Ryzza Mae Show.
  • Whitney Tyson is a Filipino actress and comedian.

Sister cities[edit]

Angeles has the following sister cities:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 25 May 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "List of Cities". PSGC Interactive. National Statistical Coordination Board. June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2013-09-16. 
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  4. ^ Diaz, Jess. "Abaya keen on Clark as main Philippine airport". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  5. ^ "Weather in Diosdado Macapagal International (CRK), Angeles City | 14-day weather outlook of Diosdado Macapagal International (CRK)". Worldweatheronline.com. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  6. ^ "Angeles City Airport (Diosdado Macapagal International Airport)". Airport Central. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  7. ^ A-Z Group Ltd. "A-Z World Airports Online – Philippines airports – Pres Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (CRK/RPLC)". Azworldairports.com. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  8. ^ a b "Tourist information and services on Angeles City Philippines". Tourist Center. Tourist Center Corporation Philippines. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  9. ^ a b Navales, Reynaldo G. (27 June 2007). "Clark airport to post millionth int'l passenger". Sun.Star Network Online. Sun.Star Publishing. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. "Mr. Lucio Tan is very excited about the development of Clark as an international airport. Clark will become the premiere airport in the country in the next five years," PAL president Jaime Bautista said.
  10. ^ a b c "Clark Field Special Economic & Freeport Zone, Angeles City, Pampanga Philippines". TravelPH.com. Manila Forwarders Travel and Tours. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  11. ^ moneysense (1 April 2008). "Best places to live". MoneySense. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  13. ^ Angeles City | Philippines Travel Guide Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "General Tourist info Angeles City – Philippines". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  15. ^ Camiling, Alejandro S.; Camiling, Teresita Z. "Towns and Barangays of Pampanga". Andro's Kapampangan Page. Andro Camiling. Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2007-11-24. ... per the Year 2000 Census 
  16. ^ "Punch-drunk to fitness". philstar.com. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  17. ^ Angeles City History Pt. 2 (American Period) | Angeles City Bars | Angeles City Hotels | Forums | Photos | Videos Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ "Clark Air Base History". Clarkab.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  19. ^ Morison, Samuel E. (1956). "Leyte, June 1944 – January 1945". History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. XII. Boston: Little & Brown. 
  20. ^ Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan. 
  21. ^ "Efren Reyes most Angeles City citizen nowadays". Clarkton Hotel Angeles City Philippines. Clarkton Hotels Inc. Philippines. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 
  22. ^ "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Fact Sheet 113-97". Pubs.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  23. ^ "Mount Pinatubo Eruption: The Volcanic Eruption of 1991 that Cooled the Planet". About Geography. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  24. ^ "Clark Air Base". GlobalSecurity.org. John Pike. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  25. ^ Poarch, David Eric (14 March 2007). "Ruins". Adventures of the Coconuter. David Eric Poarch. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. 
  26. ^ Timbol, Ethel (25 November 2005). ""MANYAMAN" in pampanga means "delicious... masarap"!". Manila Bulletin. Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-19. Food donors for this longest buffet ... included Aling Lucing who brought her famous sisig 
  27. ^ "Angeles City". First Filipino Online Travel Access. Kalakbayan Travel Systems, Inc. 5 December 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-19. The city, and the rest of the Pampanga region, is known as the Culinary Center of the Philippines. 
  28. ^ "'Balikbayan' Donita Rose dines in Pampanga". The Manila Times: Life & Times. The Manila Times. 28 February 2007. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. ... today Donita Rose visits her hometown Pampanga, the "Culinary Center of the Philippines," on Balikbayan, the program hosted by Drew Arellano on QTV Channel 11. 
  29. ^ Summary of day data for National Weather Service (U.S.) and Department of Defense (U.S. and foreign) sites, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville NC, 1991.
  30. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  31. ^ "The Largest Universities in the Philippines". Adlsu.com. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  32. ^ "Angeles endeavors heritage zone dev't". Manila Bulletin. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  33. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  34. ^ Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City and Municipality. NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "Province of Pampanga". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  36. ^ "Breaking News: Abaya keen on Clark as main Philippine airport | Business News Philippines". Breakingnews.ph. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  37. ^ St. Cyr, Peter; Schwartz, Gadi. "Angeles City, the second largest sex tourism city in the world". Preda foundation and U.S.Media. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Angeles City | Philippines". Angelesboard.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  39. ^ "Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga, Philippines". Clark Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Your Economic Haven in the Asia Pacific 
  40. ^ "Repackaging Clark" (PDF). Clark Monitor. Clark Clark Development Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  41. ^ "Pampanga Travel Information". Asia Travel. AT Reservation Network Pte. Archived from the original on 24 May 2000. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Pampanga is populated by resourceful hardy folk, who are justifiably proud of their famous Kapampangan cuisine, regarded by many as the best regional food in the Philippines. 
  42. ^ "GlobalPinoy, Travel". GlobalPinoy.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  43. ^ Fabian, Dante M. (4 October 2005). "Official told to push for Subic-Clark junction in Angeles". Sun.Star Pampanga. Sun.Star Publishing. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  44. ^ "President Arroyo to lead groundbreaking rites for Subic-Clark-Tarlac expressway". Gov.Ph News. Republic of the Philippines. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  45. ^ "Things to Do and see in Pampanga...". WOW Philippines. Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  46. ^ "SM opens store in Clark May 12". Positive News Media. Positive News Media – Phil-Canada. 29 April 2005. Retrieved 2007-11-22. [dead link]
  47. ^ "eTelecare Global (ETEL) Acquires AOL's Customer Care and Technical Support Subsidiary". 
  48. ^ "Ground Broken for TI's $1 Billion Facility in the Philippines". ASM International. Asia Pulse Pte. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  49. ^ Likha C., Cuevas (9 May 2007). "ALI to build Makati hotel complex". The Manila Times. The Manila Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  50. ^ Salazar, Tessa (7 July 2007). "Pampanga a new haven for developers". Inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  51. ^ Pakingan, Mv (19 September 2007). "Formula −1 type track in Angeles City proposed". Yehey!. Yehey! Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Rainier Buchman, managing director of Hermann Tilke Architectural and Engineering Limited, met with San Miguel Corp. president Ramon Ang and Motorsports Director Boy Ochoa to look into a 2,000-hectare lot fronting the North Luzon Expressway between Angeles City and Subic, this according to Eddie Marcelo. 
  52. ^ "France funds conversion of Pamintuan Mansion in Pampanga into Museum of Philippine Social History". 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  53. ^ "Walk Inside a Hot Air Balloon! and other Province of Pampanga, Philippines Things to Do Tips". VirtualTourist.com. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  54. ^ "Holy Rosary Catholic Church Angeles City". rcf.usc.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-02-18. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  55. ^ Tuazon, Hazel C. (30 November 2006). "Fun at Tigtigan". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. 
  56. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  57. ^ Calapati, Jimmy. "Angeles City celebrates 4th Sisig Festival". Malaya. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. 
  58. ^ "The Bagelboy Club of the Philippines – History of the Bagelboy Club". Thebagelboyclub.com. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  59. ^ Beech, Hannah (16 April 2001). "The Forgotten Angels". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-18. Some ... live on the streets, surviving on handouts and sniffs of mind-numbing glue. ... [W]hen Clark closed in 1991, everything changed. By the mid-'90s, the town began marketing its nubile wares on the Web... by 1999, the visiting population of Angeles had shifted from young American G.I.s to boozy retirees. The population of unwanted mixed-blood children continued to grow. 
  60. ^ Gernot Mann. "Angeles City, Philippines". Angeles City, Philippines. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-20. 
  61. ^ "Ten Things to do in the Philippines". Experience Philippines. Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  62. ^ Marks, Kathy (28 June 2004). "In the clubs of the Filipino sex trade, a former RUC officer is back in business". The Independent. London: Independent News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15. This is the centre of the Philippines sex industry. 
  63. ^ Juvida, Sol F. (12 October 1997). "Philippines-Children: Scourge of Child Prostitution". Inter Press Service. IPS-Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 4 May 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-15. The country's top five spots for child prostitution all have more than their fair share of foreign visitors: Metro Manila, Angeles City, Puerto Galera in Mindoro province, Davao and Cebu. 
  64. ^ Cullen, Fr. Shay (3 May 2005). "Sex Tourism Is Big Money for Pimps and Politicians". imc-qc (Philippines). independent media center. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15. Angeles City, two hours north of Metro Manila, is the home of the most organized sex industry in the Philippines. 
  65. ^ Pfitzner, Dr The Bernice (14 August 1996). "Inquiry into Prostitution, Final Report". Ninth Report of the Social Development Committee of the Parliament of South Australia. President of the Legislative Council and the Speaker of the House of Assembly. pp. 38–39. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15. When the Manila local government attempted to close down the sex industry in central Manila, many of the businesses moved to Angeles. (Lauber, 1995, p 2) 
  66. ^ "Country Report: Philippines". The Protection Project. The Protection Project, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D.C. 27 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15. Fields Avenue in Angeles, a seedy city north of Manila, is the center of the sex industry in the Philippines ... The city grew up around the huge U.S. Clark Air Base, and although the base closed in 1992, prostitution is still the only industry in town. 
  67. ^ "UK | Northern Ireland | Far East sex tourists exposed". BBC News. 4 November 2003. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  68. ^ Veneracion, Connie (21 April 2006). "Fontana Resort". houseonahill.net. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Angeles City is popularly known as the "entertainment capital" of Central Luzon 
  69. ^ "Pampanga Travel Tips and Information". flyphilippines.info. Today, Angeles City known as the "entertainment city" of Central Luzon lies in a threshold of change after being severely affected by the Base pull out brought about the great eruption of Mt. Pinatubo 1991. 
  70. ^ "Salonga, Maria Lea Carmen Imutan biography". S9.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  71. ^ "Featured Artists: Lea Salonga – Here comes the". Koleksyon.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  72. ^ Apl.de.Ap – Biography
  73. ^ "Apl.de.ap is 'kuya' to Amerasians". INQUIRER.net. 2 June 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  74. ^ "Former Teen U.S.A, Vanessa Minnillo". Peety Passion. 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. 
  75. ^ "Efren ''Bata'' Reyes Profile – Easy Pool Tutor". Easy Pool Tutor. 4 April 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  76. ^ "Anansi: Hilda Koronel". 1.media.mit.edu. Retrieved 2008-10-02. [dead link]
  77. ^ Hilda Koronel – Biography
  78. ^ [1] Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ "www.bboythemovie.com". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  80. ^ Cris Judd – Biography
  81. ^ Carnay, Oliver (2 December 2005). "Celebrity L.A. Scene". Carouselpinoy.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  82. ^ [2] Archived 14 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  83. ^ a b Cruz, Ramil (11 August 2006). "Rookie profile: Arwind Santos (FEU)". Abante-tonite.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  84. ^ Calvin Abueva[dead link]
  85. ^ "Philippines] Donita Rose – AsianFanatics Forum". Asianfanatics.net. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  86. ^ The Manila Times | LIFE & TIMES – 'Balikbayan' Donita Rose dines in Pampanga Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  87. ^ "San Miguel Asian 9-Ball Tour. Richard Ace Guiao Tongol got it.". AzBilliards.com. 4 August 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  88. ^ "BILLIARDS CHAMPIONSHIP: Luat ousts Archer; Gaga shines in Motolite 9-Ball – Filipino Reporter – HighBeam Research". Highbeam.com. 24 February 2000. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  89. ^ Mike V. Garcia. ":: Vinta Systems Incorporated ::". Vintasystems.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  90. ^ Greenwood, Giselle (21 April 2006). "IBM, Tivoli – 10 years later – Austin Business Journal:". Bizjournals.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  91. ^ "e-Services Philippines 2007: 29". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  92. ^ "Hoy! Pinoy Ako!". Carouselpinoy.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  93. ^ "Kristine Johnson". wcbstv.com. 25 June 2009. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  94. ^ "Las Vegas, Angeles City: Sister cities". Today. 20 February 1997. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  95. ^ "Seo District, Daegu, Angeles City: Sister cities". Today. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  96. ^ "Angeles, San Fernando cities come 'full circle'". Sun.Star Pampanga. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  97. ^ "Angeles, Valenzuela ink sisterhood agreement". Philippine Information Agency. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 

External links[edit]