Biñan

Coordinates: 14°20′N 121°05′E / 14.33°N 121.08°E / 14.33; 121.08
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Biñan
City of Biñan
(From top, left to right: Plaza Rizal · Alonte Sports Arena · City Hall · Southwoods City · Biñan Football Stadium)
Flag of Biñan
Official seal of Biñan
Map of Laguna with Biñan highlighted
Map of Laguna with Biñan highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Map
Biñan is located in Philippines
Biñan
Biñan
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°20′N 121°05′E / 14.33°N 121.08°E / 14.33; 121.08
CountryPhilippines
RegionCalabarzon
ProvinceLaguna
District Lone district
FoundedFebruary 4, 1747
CityhoodFebruary 2, 2010
Barangays24 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorWalfredo R. Dimaguila Jr.
(Lakas–CMD)
 • Vice MayorAngelo B. Alonte (Lakas–CMD)
 • RepresentativeMarlyn B. Alonte-Naguiat
(Lakas–CMD)
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate223,491 voters (2022)
Area
 • Total43.50 km2 (16.80 sq mi)
Elevation
68 m (223 ft)
Highest elevation
343 m (1,125 ft)
Lowest elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total407,437
 • Rank3 out of 30 (in Laguna)
 • Density9,400/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
 • Households
117,720
DemonymBiñanense
Economy
 • Income class1st municipal income class
 • Poverty incidence
1.69
% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 2,698 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 8,958 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 2,572 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 2,856 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
4024, 4034 (Laguna Technopark)
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)49
Native languagesTagalog
Patron saintIsidore the Laborer
Websitewww.binan.gov.ph

Biñan (IPA: [biˈɲan]), officially the City of Biñan (Filipino: Lungsod ng Biñan), is a 1st class component city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 407,437 people.[3]

Biñan has become both a suburban residential community of Metro Manila and a location for some of the Philippines' largest industrial estates and export processing zones. Prior to its cityhood in 2010, Biñan was the richest municipality in the Philippines with an annual gross income of 677 million (US$14.383 million) and net income of ₱250 million (US$5.308 million), as of 2007 by the Commission on Audit.[5] According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 407,437, making it the third largest in population in the province of Laguna, after Calamba and Santa Rosa.[3]

By virtue of Republic Act No. 10658, signed on March 27, 2015, by President Benigno Aquino III, Biñan has been separated from the first congressional district of Laguna and formed the lone congressional district of Biñan. The first representative, the former mayor of the city, has been elected during the 2016 elections, unopposed.

Etymology[edit]

Where Biñan got its name is a mystery. Some deduced that before Captain Juan de Salcedo proceeded to Cainta and Taytay finally reaching Bay, he landed in Biñan. According to the story, Padres Alfonso de Alvarado and Diego Espinar planted a huge wooden cross on the spot where the present-day San Isidro Labrador parish stands and co-celebrated a Thanksgiving Mass. Curious natives gathered and the two Spanish missionaries took advantage of the situation. They baptized each one of them. From then on, old folks say they called the place “Binyagan,” which means a baptismal place in Tagalog. The place's root word binyag is originally a Brunei Malay word which means “to pour water from above,” according to the dictionary Vocabulario de la lengua tagala. The Spanish tongue's difficulty in pronouncing the local dialect acquired for the once town its name — "Biñan".

An 1846 book in French also spelled the town as Viñan.[6] It is also spelled in other references as Biniang, Binyang, Binang, or Biñang.

History[edit]

Alberto Mansion
Rizal in Biñan historical marker

Captain Juan de Salcedo explored Laguna de Bay and founded Biñan at the end of June 1571, a month after Miguel López de Legazpi established Manila. In 1644, Dominican friars turned the area into a hacienda known as Hacienda de San Isidro Labrador de Biñán, in honor of Saint Isidore the Laborer.[7][8] When the seat of the provincial government of the Provincia de la Laguna de Bay was transferred from Bay to Pagsanjan in 1688, Biñan separated from Tabuco (now the city of Cabuyao).

In 1747, the Spaniards officially converted Biñan into a pueblo (town).[8][9][10] Santa Rosa separated from Biñan in 1791 and was later established as an independent town on January 18, 1792.[11]

Historically, Biñan has gained recognition nationwide for being part of the life of José Rizal, one of the country's national hero. In June 1869, when Rizal was a child, he traveled to Biñan with his brother Paciano. They moved into his aunt's home, which would serve as their lodging, near the town proper. Here, he received his first formal education through the tutelage of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz and, after a year and a half of instruction, recommended the young Rizal to pursue higher education in Manila. The home where José Rizal resided was given a plaque of appreciation in his honor. Biñan's town square now has a monument in the center honoring Biñan's connection to Rizal.[12]

In 1903, the adjacent towns of Muntinlupa, then part of Rizal province, and San Pedro Tunasan were consolidated with Biñan.[13][14] Both towns were later separated when Muntinlupa was returned to Rizal as part of Taguig in 1905 and San Pedro Tunasan regained its independent municipality status effective 1907.[15][16]

Cityhood[edit]

On February 2, 2010, by the virtue of the Republic Act No. 9740, Biñan became a component city after its voters accepted the ratification in the plebiscite. It became the 4th city in the province and 139th in the Philippines.

Geography[edit]

Biñan is located 35 kilometers (22 mi) south of Manila and 52 kilometers (32 mi) from Santa Cruz. It is bounded on the north by San Pedro, on the west by General Mariano Alvarez, Carmona, and Silang, on the south by Santa Rosa, while on the east lies Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country.

The city covers a total land area of 43.50 km2 (16.80 sq mi) that represents 2.27 percent of the entire Laguna province. In 2020, Biñan had a total population of 407,437.[3] It is the third most populated in the province (12% of the provincial population), next only to Calamba (16%) and Santa Rosa City (12.3%).

Topography[edit]

Biñan is generally plain with 85.33 percent of its total area having a slope of zero to 2.5 percent. This covers all the 24 barangays except for small portions of Barangay Biñan and San Francisco having a slope ranging from 2.6 to 25 percent, meaning it is gently sloping to strongly sloping. With more than three-fourths of its area generally level to nearly level, this makes Biñan suitable for agricultural and urban development.

Soil properties[edit]

Of the eleven-soil series that compose the land area of Laguna, Carmona and Gingua series covers about two types that can only be seen in Biñan. Carmona series covers about 2,577 hectares (6,370 acres) or 59.24 percent seen in Biñan's land area. Agricultural land in these areas is primarily devoted to rice and sugar production. Gingua series, on other hand, specifically the fine sandy type covers 315 hectares (780 acres) which is one of the most productive soils in Laguna where a variety of crops especially vegetables are grown profitably. The other two basic soil series comprising Biñan are Guadalupe series covering 660 hectares (1,600 acres) and Lipa series with 798 hectares (1,970 acres).

Barangays[edit]

Map of Biñan showing the barangays

Biñan is politically subdivided into 24 barangays, all classified as urban. Each barangay consists of puroks and some have sitios.

Barangay San Francisco occupies the largest area, which is about 16.83 percent of Biñan, while Barangay Casile has the smallest area with only 12 hectares (30 acres) or 0.27 percent.

  • Biñan
  • Bungahan
  • Santo Tomas (Calabuso)
  • Canlalay
  • Casile
  • De La Paz
  • Ganado
  • San Francisco (Halang)
  • Langkiwa
  • Loma
  • Malaban
  • Malamig
  • Mampalasan (Mamplasan)
  • Platero
  • Poblacion
  • Santo Niño
  • San Antonio
  • San Jose
  • San Vicente
  • Soro-Soro
  • Santo Domingo
  • Timbao
  • Tubigan
  • Zapote

Climate[edit]

The climate of Biñan is characterized by two pronounced seasons: dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. Maximum rainfall occurs from June to September with an annual average rainfall of 200 mm (7.9 in). Biñan is protected by mountains in the peripheral areas, and thus it is making the area cooler.

Climate data for Biñan, Laguna
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
34
(93)
33
(91)
32
(90)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
31
(87)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
94
(3.7)
153
(6.0)
206
(8.1)
190
(7.5)
179
(7.0)
120
(4.7)
54
(2.1)
39
(1.5)
1,094
(43)
Average rainy days 5.2 4.5 6.4 9.2 19.7 24.3 26.9 25.7 24.4 21.0 12.9 9.1 189.3
Source: Meteoblue[17]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Biñan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 9,563—    
1918 10,692+0.75%
1939 16,238+2.01%
1948 20,794+2.79%
1960 33,309+4.00%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 58,290+5.75%
1975 67,444+2.97%
1980 83,684+4.41%
1990 134,553+4.86%
1995 160,206+3.32%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 201,186+5.00%
2007 262,735+3.75%
2010 283,396+2.79%
2015 333,028+3.12%
2020 407,437+4.04%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[18][19][20][21]

Religion[edit]

Front view of Sto. Niño de Cebu Parish in Southwoods City

The majority of the people of Biñan are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups include the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Members Church of God International, Iglesia Ni Cristo (Church of Christ), Evangelical Christians, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, the United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Churches, Baptist and Bible Fundamental churches.

Economy[edit]

Biñan has been popularly recognized as a trading center area immediately south of Metro Manila. The city has the largest public market in the province of Laguna and in the Calabarzon Region. Retailers from nearby towns often plow the city proper to purchase goods and merchandise intended to be sold elsewhere. Biñan has also been a center of commerce in the region because of the numerous banking institutions across the city, plus the ever-growing number of commercial establishments and emerging shopping centers.

A common sight is the preparations and setting up of the wholesalers and the arrival of jeepneys and trucks carrying various items such as fruits, vegetables, dry goods, dairy products, meat, fish, etc. The market activity would be 24 hours with peak reaching the early hours (3:00–7:00 am PHT) as Filipinos are known to work in the early hours of the day trying to prevent exposure to the heating sun.

The city is also known for a type of pancake made from rice flour, topped with cheese or butter, called Puto Biñan. There are also slices of savory salted egg on top to contrast the mildly sweet pancake base. The best-known makers of Puto in Biñan are located in barangay San Vicente, and the city is renowned as "The Home of the Famous Puto Biñan in Laguna".

Panoramic view of Plaza Rizal

Major industries[edit]

Manufacturing of footwear, headwear, puto and special pasalubong like pinipig and ampaw are some of the major industries of Biñan.

Shopping centers[edit]

Central Mall Biñan

Notable malls and shopping centers in the city include the Southwoods Mall (managed by Megaworld), Pavilion Mall (managed by Ayala Malls), Central Mall Biñan, C. Morales Mall, and Umbria Commercial Center.

Investment sites[edit]

Southwoods City

Biñan has two industrial parks namely, the Laguna International Industrial Park (LIIP) and the Laguna Technopark Incorporated (LTI). The two industrial parks have created a good image in contributing favorably in Biñan as well as in the Philippine economy in terms of local employment and the generation of foreign exchange. To date, Biñan has benefited a large number of residents being employed in different companies there. To name a few, they are Honda Parts Manufacturing Corporation, Kito Corporation, Nissin Brake, Ryonan Electric, Cirtek Electronics, SunPower, Nidec Corporation, Isuzu Philippines, Atlas Copco, Diageo, Furukawa Electric, Takata, Toshiba Philippines, Optodev, Inc., Transitions Optical Philippines Inc., Hitachi Computer Products Asia, Amkor Technology Philippines, Inc., Integrated Microelectronics, Inc. (IMI), TDK, Gardenia Bakeries Philippines Inc., and several other multi-national companies.

As of 2008, Biñan, headed by its Historical, Tourism and Cultural Council has formed "Biñan Business Club", a non-government organization composed of all business establishments of the then-municipality. The Biñan Business Club works to anticipate trends and provide support to help local business enterprises and the community face them head on. The Club commits itself to the essential aspects of economic development and poverty alleviation. It knows that the Biñan community counts on the help of the organization to attract, retain and enhance business through traditional and non-traditional strategies.

One Asia Business Center is a 10-hectare (25-acre) development located within the Jubilation New Biñan. This business park will be a major component of an integrated master planned development of Jubilation or what is called the New Biñan City which is composed of residential, commercial, recreational and institutional uses.[29]

Inaugurated on July 25, 2012, Southwoods City, located in Barangay San Francisco, situated at Southwoods Exit along the South Luzon Expressway, has been proclaimed by the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) as of July 2010 as a Special Economic Zone. It is a 15-hectare (37-acre) project which includes a strip mall, residential condominium towers, an outlet center, a lifestyle park and a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) center, the existing Splash Island water park, among other facilities.[30]

Other upcoming developments in Biñan are Greenfield City Biñan,[31] Meadowcrest (by Federal Land),[32] and Broadfield (by Alveo), all in the southern portion of the city.[33]

Transportation[edit]

Manila South Road in Barangay Santo Domingo

The city is accessible to all types of land transportation via South Luzon Expressway through Greenfield City/Unilab (Mamplasan), Southwoods, and Carmona exits. The Cavite–Laguna Expressway starts in the city, specifically at Mamplasan Rotonda, and has an interchange near Laguna Technopark Gate 3 and a toll plaza within the city limits. The Manila South Road (N1) also passes through the city. General Malvar Street, mostly part of N65, connects the city to the province of Cavite.

Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly by inexpensive jeepneys and tricycles especially for short distances. The Biñan and Golden City 1 railway stations of the Philippine National Railways (PNR) serve the city. The PNR is slated to be succeeded by the under construction North–South Commuter Railway with one station at Biñan. The old city proper hosts terminals for bus companies that operate routes to and from Metro Manila.

List of accredited transport cooperatives as of January 2021:[34]

  • Biñan Driver Operator Transport Cooperative
  • Bringing the Lord Message UV Transport Service Cooperative
  • Heartlink Transport and Multipurpose Cooperative
  • Highway Stars Transport Service Cooperative
  • Pagasa ng Mamayanang Nagkakaisa Transport Service and Multipurpose Cooperative (PAMANA TSC-MPC)

Government[edit]

Biñan City Hall at night
The old Biñan Municipal Hall is the previous seat of municipal government. It now houses the Sentrong Pangkultura ng Biñan.

Biñan is classified as a component city. The mayor is the chief executive and is assisted by the vice mayor, who presides over a legislative council consisting of 14 members: 12 elected members at-large, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions.

The incumbent mayor is Walfredo "Arman" Dimaguila Jr., who previously served as the city's vice mayor. Angelo Alonte is the incumbent vice mayor. It is represented in the Congress by Marlyn Alonte, a former mayor of the city.

The new Biñan City Hall in Barangay Zapote currently serves as the seat of city government. It was constructed to reflect its status as a component city. It succeeded the former municipal hall that is located in Barangay Poblacion (old town proper) and is still standing and has been repurposed as the Sentrong Pangkultura ng Biñan (lit. transl. Cultural Center of Binan). This initiative aims to preserve and promote the city's rich cultural and artistic heritage.

Elected officials[edit]

Biñan City Officials (2022-2025)
Name Party
House of Representatives
Marlyn B. Alonte-Naguiat Lakas
City Mayor
Walfredo R. Dimaguila Jr. Lakas
City Vice Mayor
Angelo B. Alonte Lakas
City Councilors
Jonalina A. Reyes Lakas
Libunero O. Alatiit Lakas
Romel R. Dicdican Lakas
Flaviano D. Pecaña Jr. Lakas
Christopher A. Alba Lakas
Jayson A. Souza Lakas
Victor L. Cariño Lakas
Elmario B. Dimaranan Lakas
Rafael L. Cardeño Jr. Lakas
Alvin Z. Garcia Lakas
Elvis L. Bedia Lakas
Jose Francisco Ruben P. Yatco Nacionalista
Ex Officio City Council Members
ABC President Rodolfo C. Montañez Jr. (Langkiwa)
SK President Maria Angelica Querubin A. Alonte (Canlalay)

City seal[edit]

The then-mayor of Biñan, Marlyn Alonte, envisioned the new seal of the city, as Biñan became a city of the province of Laguna. The seal symbolized the following:

  • The Rizal Monument is used to depict the heroism of the National Hero of the Philippines, Dr. José Rizal, who had his first formal education at Biñan under the tutelage of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz who after a year and a half of tutelage advised the young Rizal to continue his education in Manila.
  • The large mortar and pestle signify subterranean and earth-related resources, thus emblematizing the agricultural activities of the city, the renowned “Puto Biñan” and the “family” represents solidarity and the result of human industry and initiative in the areas of manufacturing and intellectual production.
  • The “2010” represents the year that Republic Act No. 9740 was signed into law creating the City of Biñan and ratified by majority vote of its people during the plebiscite held on February 2, 2010.
  • The book signifies the city's continuous quest for knowledge and its commitment to providing quality free education to its constituents.
  • The industries represent the budding industries located at the Laguna Technopark and the Laguna International Industrial Park.
  • The Heroes Monument symbolizes the bravery, sacrifice and valor of Biñan's ancestors.
  • The pair of slippers had been adapted from the old Municipal Seal which, together with the cap represent the small businesses which originated from Biñan and entrepreneurial skills of its people.
  • The 24 barangays that constitute the demographic profile of the Municipality of Biñan.
  • Their golden color signifies their individual verdant and abundant indigenous resources readily available for conversion into productive and profitable uses.
  • The elements enumerated above are encircled at the outer edge by a golden circle, wherein the words “City of Biñan” are written within.
  • The two golden stars flanking the words “City of Biñan” represent Service and Integrity.

The Lone District of Biñan[edit]

On January 26, 2015, a 15–0 vote from senators approved the House Bill No. 3917 in the third and final reading, amending the charter city of Biñan to a congressional district in Laguna and will be separated from the first district.[35] Republic Act No. 10658, which President Aquino signed into law on March 27, 2015, separated Biñan from the first legislative district of Laguna. Under the law, the incumbent representative of the first district of Laguna will continue to represent the new district until the expiration of his term. The Commission on Elections was tasked to issue the necessary rules and regulations to implement the measure within 30 days after its effectivity.[36]

Education[edit]

The University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Biñan is also considered the educational center of the first legislative district of Laguna, having the greatest number of secondary and tertiary schools in the area. Most barangays in the city also have their own respective public elementary schools.

Biñan has 3 universities: the University of Perpetual Help System Laguna, the first university in the city, located at Barangay Santo Niño via the National Highway; the Biñan campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, located at Barangay Zapote; and the Laguna Campus of De La Salle University[37] at Barangays Malamig and Biñan.

Some other prominent schools and colleges in the city include:

Local educational institutions
  • AMA Biñan Campus
  • Caritas Don Bosco School
  • Colegio San Agustin – Biñan
  • La Consolacion College – Biñan
  • Saint Michael's College of Laguna
  • Alpha Angelicum Academy
  • Ann Arbor Montessori Learning Center – Biñan Campus
  • Biñan Integrated National High School
  • Biñan National High School (Dela Paz Annex)
  • Biñan Secondary School of Applied Academics
  • Casa Del Niño Montessori School – Biñan Branch
  • Catholic School of Pacita
  • Citi Global College (formerly Don Bosco Global College-Biñan)
  • Colegio San Antonio-Biñan (formerly Saint Anthony School of Biñan)
  • Escuela de Gracia of Binan Inc
  • HeadStarter Workshop
  • Holy Family of Nazareth School
  • Holy Infant Jesus Of Prague School
  • Holy Spirit School
  • Integrated Jubilation Montessori Center of Biñan (Formerly International Jubilation Montessori Center of Biñan)
  • International Electronics And Technical Institute (IETI)-Biñan
  • Jacob Alfred A. Young School – Biñan
  • Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial National High School
  • Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial School Of Arts And Trades, a technical-vocational school
  • Kidsfirst Integrated School
  • KIDS HAUS-Child Development Center Integrated School
  • Lake Shore Educational Institution
  • Liceo De Santo Tomas De Aquinas
  • Biñan Elementary School
  • Malaban East Elementary School
  • Malaban Elementary School
  • Mamplasan Elementary School
  • Manila Montessori School
  • Montessori Children's Workshop
  • Nereo Joaquin National High School
  • Nereo R. Joaquin National High School
  • Panorama Montessori School
  • Saint-Sebastien Elementary school
  • San Francisco Elementary School
  • San Vicente Elementary School
  • South City Homes Academy
  • St. Francis of Assisi College
  • Santa Catalina College – Biñan
  • Trimex Colleges
International schools

Notable personalities[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Local

References[edit]

  1. ^ City of Biñan | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2020). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  5. ^ "2007 Financial Statements Highlights for Local Government Units" (PDF). Commission On Audit Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  6. ^ Mallat De Bassilan, Jean-Baptiste (1846). Les Philippines: histoire, géographie, moeurs (in French). Paris: A. Bertrand. Retrieved March 13, 2024.
  7. ^ Santiago, Luciano P.R. (1997). "THE ROOTS OF PILA, LAGUNA: A SECULAR AND SPIRITUAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN (900 AD TO THE PRESENT)". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 25 (3/4). University of San Carlos Publications: 125–155. Retrieved March 13, 2024.
  8. ^ a b Alas, Pepe (February 4, 2022). "The evolution of Biñan from pueblo to city". Manila Standard. Retrieved March 13, 2024.
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  13. ^ Act No. 939 (October 12, 1903), An Act reducing the thirty municipalities of the Province of La Laguna to nineteen, retrieved June 15, 2023
  14. ^ Act No. 1008 (November 25, 1903), An Act Amending Act Numbered Nine hundred and thirty-nine, entitled "An Act reducing the thirty municipalities of the Province of La Laguna to nineteen," and Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, entitled "An Act reducing the thirty - two municipalities of the Province of Rizal to fifteen," and providing that the boundary line between the Provinces of La Laguna and Rizal be changed so as to include in La Laguna the municipality of Muntinlupa now a part of Rizal., retrieved April 24, 2022[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Act No. 1308 (March 22, 1905), An Act providing for the return of the former municipality of Muntinlupa from the Province of La Laguna to the Province of Rizal, repealing paragraph (e) of section one and sections two and three of Act Numbered One thousand and eight, and changing the name of the municipality of Pateros, of the Province of Rizal, to Taguig., retrieved April 24, 2022
  16. ^ Act No. 1553 (October 29, 1906), An Act Increasing the Number of Municipalities in the Province Of La Laguna from Twenty to Twenty-one, by Separating From Biñan the Former Municipality of San Pedro Tunasan, Reconstituting the Latter as a Municipality, and Giving to Each the Territory Which It Comprised Prior to the Passage of Act Numbered Nine Hundred and Thirty-nine., retrieved June 16, 2023
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  23. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  24. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
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  27. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
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