|City of Lipa|
Lipa City poblacion
|Nickname(s): Next Wave City; Little Rome of the Philippines; City of All Seasons|
Location within Batangas Province
|Region||CALABARZON (Region IV-A)|
|District||Lone District of Lipa|
|Founded||1605 (as an Augustinian mission center with the name San Sebastian)|
|Founded||1702 (as a town)|
|Elevation as a villa under the Spanish Colonial Empire||October 21, 1887|
|Cityhood (under RA No. 162)||June 20, 1947|
|• Mayor||Meynardo A. Sabili|
|• Vice Mayor||Eric B. Africa|
|• Representative||Vilma Santos-Recto|
|• Total||209.40 km2 (80.85 sq mi)|
|Elevation||312 m (1,024 ft)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|• Total||332,386 (38th in country)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ZIP code||4217, 4218|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)43|
|Income Class||1st Class|
Lipa (Tagalog pronunciation: [liˈpaʔ]), officially the City of Lipa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Lipa), is a first class component city in the province of Batangas in the Philippines. It is one of the three cities in Batangas (the others are Batangas City and Tanauan). It is located 78 kilometres (48 mi) south of Manila and is the largest city of Batangas with a population of 332,386 people according to the 2015 census.
Lipa City is a recreational, religious, commercial, industrial and educational center. The city is also home to the Fernando Air Base, headquarters of the Philippine Air Force's Air Education and Training Command (AETC), known in military circles as the Baguio of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The summer camp of the Air Force of the Philippines.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Local government
- 9 Education
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Batangueños from the early years had their settlement in Bombon Lake and began dispersing to other places when the volcano erupted. While a group of people was moving to another settlement area, the image of St. Sebastian was stolen from them and later on was found on a tree called “lipa”. People believed that the patron saint wished to name that place “Lipa" .
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The primal composition in the southeastern region of Bombon Lake were elements of the dispersed colonial families founded by Datus Dumangsil and Balkasusa in Taal, Batangas, between the 10th and 13th century AD. These pioneer settlers under the leadership of the fleeing Datu Puti, chief of state of the then mighty Srivijaya Empire, purchased the lowlands from King Marikudo of the Mountain Province at his kingdom. The purchased lands consisted of Panay in the Visayas and the lowlands in Luzon including Batangas. The ten (10) Bornean Datus divided among themselves the purchased lands, the Batangas Bay were apportioned among the Dumangsil and Balkasusa Clans.
It is however subject to conjecture whether the pre-historic Negritos 12,000 to 15,000 years age or the much later waves of Austronesian seafarers from 5,000 to 300 B.C. were able to settle along the coasts of Batangas into the inner lake region of Taal which was accessible to navigation through the Pansipit River, thus, the possibility of miscegenetic marriages and cross culture among the aboriginal inhabitants, the old settlers and the latter Dumangsil and Balkasusa Clans. Or whether violent wars had been waged between old inhabitants and new colonizers is uncertain too, incontrovertible proofs being wanting.
Out of this Bornean Tribe of the Dumangsil and Balkasusa Clan was born the ancestry of Lipa and as later on their descendants spread out towards Laguna de Bay and Bicol Peninsula. The remains excavated from their ancient settlements in Butong, Taal, Calatagan Bay Area and Balayan attest to the fact of their presence in the said site at least in the latter part of the 12th century down to the coming of Goiti and Legaspi in Batangas in 1570. The flourishing trade relations between these early Batangueños with a number of Chinese merchants prior to the Spanish conquest explained the presence of hundreds of Chinese wares from potteries to stonewares and vases of Song dynasty period to the latter part of the 16th century, in the burial grounds at Calatagan sites of Pulung Bakaw, Kay Tomas, Pinagpatayan I and II at Butong, Taal Batangas.
By origin the early Lipeños were Buddhist in religion and Indian in civilization. With its not infrequent contact with the Chinese traders, the Batangueños have absorbed and been influenced too by China. With the Spanish colonization of the Philippines and the Salcedo conquest of Batangas in 1572, the Lipeños were forced to embrace Western Civilization.
At the coming of the Spaniards to Batangas in 1570, the Malay settlements along the southern shores of Taal Lake at Tagbakin was inhabited by the warlike descendants of the two (2) datus called the Tagalogs. In 1605, after Marshall Gabriel de Rivera received the encomienda of Bombon, the Augustinian Fathers made Tagbakin the first settlement of the Lipeños and a mission center with the name of San Sebastian, perhaps after the installed Patron Saint, which continued to the present. The settlement was made a regular municipality in 1702 and a regular parish in 1716 with Fray Diego de Alday as the first curate.
With the eruption of Taal Volcano in 1724, the people moved to what is now "Lumang Lipa" and, again, in 1754, they moved to Balete where they settled for two years until 1756 when they moved inland to the present site obviously for more security from volcanic eruptions. When Don Galo de los Reyes was the governadorcillo of Lipa, he introduced the cultivation of coffee. The seeds of the Arabica species were said to be of two chupas brought in from Mexico by an Agustinian missionary. The coffee industry so flourished and made Lipa the richest municipality in the country with an annual income of P4,000,000.00 that on October 21, 1887 the Queen regent Maria Christina, acting for the young King Alfonso XIII, signed a decree elevating Lipa to a city known as "Villa de Lipa", and later authorized to use a coat of arms by the Royal Overseas Minister Don Víctor Balaguer.
At the celebration of the elevation of Lipa to a city in January 1888, José Rizal was invited by Dr. Jose Lozada, Catalino Dimayuga and the brothers Celestino and Simeon Luz but Rizal responded only with his Hymno Al Trabajo which he dedicated to the zeal and industry of the Lipeños.
The Lipeños also engaged themselves in livestock raising and varied home crafts for men, and small industries, like weaving, embroidery and sewing for women. After World War II, citrus production prevailed until 1970 and, after its decline, about 1965, poultry and swine raising began to take roots and to thrive in no small degree until the present.
The first newspaper in Batangas, published in Spanish, was the Lumubog-Lumutang, printed in Lipa in 1889, and established by the well-known writers Cipriano Kalaw, Gregorio Katigbak, Benito Reyes, Hugo Latorre and Pedro Laygo. Other pioneer Spanish writers were Bernardo Solis, Catalino Dimayuga and Manuel Luz. During the revolution, Gregorio Aguilera Solis edited a newspaper Columnas Voluntas de la Federacion Malaya. This paper became the media for notable poems and literary works of Albino Dimayuga, Baldomero Roxas, Luis Lina Kison, Bernardo Solis, Benedicto Solis, Emiliano Manguiat and Petronio Katigbak. Roman Dimayuga wrote plays, while Pedro Laygo published articles on domestic and international politics and Tomas Umali on military affairs. Hispanistas during the American regime included national figures like Teodoro Kalaw, Fidel Reyes, Arsenio Luz, Max B. Solis, Enrique Laygo and Claro M. Recto. Lipeños also served in the Revolutionary Republic. These were Gregorio Aguilera who was delegate to the Malolos Congress; Ceferino Pantoja, also a member of that congress; Jose Lozada, as envoy to Washington, D.C. and Paris, and Cipriano Kalaw, the first vice-president and Treasurer of the Central Committee of Hong Kong.
In the field of education, Father Valerio Malabanan was foremost among Lipeños who established schools. Others were Sebastian Virrey, Jacinto Silva, Candido Lantin and Gregorio Katigbak. In 1894, Brigido Morada established his own school at his house in Mataas na Lupa. Under Father Valerio Malabanan were such well-known figures as Apolinario Mabini, General Miguel Malvar and Sotero Laurel. Sebastian Virrey countered with such former students as the brothers Alfonso and Claro M. Recto; Fidel and Carmelo Reyes; Teodoro and Maximo Kalaw; Pacifico, Jose and Enrique Laygo; and Manuel Luz Roxas, Jose D. Dimayuga, Bernabe Africa, Pablo Borbon, Potenciano Malvar, Leoncio Aranda and Bishop Alfredo Obviar.. The later school, perhaps marked for permanence by the enthusiastic patronage of its high standard maintained through the years since its founding in 1922 until the present, is the Mabini Academy established by Dr. Jose Ma. Katigbak, Randall A. Rowley, Tarcila Malabanan-Katigbak and Emilia Malabanan. The fact that Lipeños, even up to the present, are very religious, may be attributed to the fact that Fr. Benito Baras, who was Parish Priest of Lipa for almost three decades (1865–1894), has considered Villa de Lipa as his very own and had shown great paternal love for the Lipeños. He constructed the Parish Church (now Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Lipa) and a new and bigger cemetery with a beautiful chapel. Without aid from the State, he constructed the bridge at Sabang and the road that served as a national highway to Manila and Laguna. The Lipa Parish, established in 1716, became a diocesan center in 1910, included the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas (Quezon), Marinduque and Mindoro, with Msgr. Jose Petrelli as the first bishop. On August 15, 1972, the diocese was raised to an eccelesiastical province composed of Batangas province and the dioceses of Lucena, Infanta and Calapan, with Msgr Alejandro Olalia as the first Archbishop. On August 31, 1947, Lipa was inaugurated as a chartered City created under Republic Act No. 162 approved on June 20, 1947.
Lipa covers an area of 20,940 hectares (209.4 km2) at an elevation of 1,025 feet (312 m) above sea level. Lipa City's fishing area is located at Barangay Halang, in the west of the city; it is actually a portion of Taal Lake, which is connected to other municipalities (Cuenca, Mataas na Kahoy and Balete).
Lipa City is bounded by the town of Santo Tomas in the northeast, San Pablo City of Laguna and San Antonio, Quezon in the east, the municipalities of Padre Garcia and Rosario in the southeast, the municipalities of Ibaan and San Jose in the southwest, the municipalities of Cuenca and Mataas Na Kahoy and Taal Lake in the west and the municipalities of Balete and Malvar in the northwest.
The city's location, in a valley between Mount Malarayat and Mount Makulot, makes it a low-risk area for natural disasters. These two mountains serve as a windbreak during typhoons. Mount Makulot, in the west, also served as shield during eruptions of the Taal Volcano.
Lipa City is subdivided into 72 barangays; San Jose was formerly known as Patay. In 1955, the sitios of Duhatan, Tagbakin, Initan, Malabong and Halang (then part of the Pinagtungolan barrio) became an independent barrio. In 1957, the sitios of Waniwani, Sayatin and Look were moved from the Balete barrio to the barrio of Look.
The barangays are:
- Antipolo Del Norte
- Antipolo Del Sur
- Bagong Pook
- Bugtong na Pulo
- Mataas Na Lupa
- Munting Pulo
- Pagolingin Bata
- Pagolingin East
- Pagolingin West
- Poblacion Barangay 1
- Poblacion Barangay 2
- Poblacion Barangay 3
- Poblacion Barangay 4
- Poblacion Barangay 5
- Poblacion Barangay 6
- Poblacion Barangay 7
- Poblacion Barangay 8
- Poblacion Barangay 9
- Poblacion Barangay 9-A
- Poblacion Barangay 10
- Poblacion Barangay 11
- Poblacion Barangay 12
- San Benito
- San Carlos
- San Celestino
- San Francisco
- San Guillermo
- San Isidro (formerly Sapac)
- San Jose
- San Lucas
- San Salvador
- San Sebastian (Balagbag)
- Santo Niño
- Santo Toribio
Its climate is generally warm, except during typhoons and in summer. The average yearly temperature is 28 °C (82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 35.7 °C (96.3 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is 16.4 °C (61.5 °F). Rainfall is sporadic during the year; it is dry from January to May, and wet from June to December.
|Climate data for Lipa|
|Average high °C (°F)||30
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.8
|Average low °C (°F)||23
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||24
|Source: World Weather Online|
|Population census of Lipa City|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
The population of Lipa, Batangas, in the 2015 census was 332,386 people, with a density of 1,590 inhabitants per square kilometre or 4,100 inhabitants per square mile.
Tagalog is the most widely spoken language in the city. A mere percent of the population can still speak basic Spanish. English is the medium of instruction in schools and is widely understood and spoken especially in the business community and for all official documents.
Majority of the city's population are Roman Catholics, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa today comprises the civil province of Batangas. Formed as the Diocese of Lipa on April 10, 1910, the archdiocese once covered other provinces such as Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, Marinduque and Mindoro, with Most Reverend Joseph Petrelli, D.D. as the first bishop. Currently, the archdiocese is divided into 6 vicariates, each headed by a vicar forane. There are 49 parishes in all, served by 143 priests (122 of which are diocesan), 13 religious brothers, and 197 religious sisters. There are also 23 existing Catholic schools, two high school seminaries, three college seminaries, and two pastoral centers.
Protestants and other groups
There are other Christian groups such as various Protestant denominations including Evangelicals, Born Again, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Members Church of God International (MCGI), Kingdom of Jesus Christ, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Lipa’s proximity to the country’s capital, Manila, having an approximate distance of 86 kilometers or an hour and half drive via the Southern Luzon Expressway enhances its strategic access to development trends. It is fast emerging as a key city in the province, becoming a major institutional/administrative center, medical center, commercial center, financial center, agro-industrial center and residential center.
It is identified as an ideal hub and center of the CALABARZON Agro-Industrial Region in the Regional Physical Framework Plan of Region IV-A. In the recent past, Lipa is being transformed from basically agricultural to a highly urbanizing area. A significant portion of the agricultural land area of the city has been converted to residential subdivisions, industrial area with the establishment of LIMA Technology Center utilizing lands in the city and Malvar Municipality. Recently, the influx of business process outsourcing (BPO) firms such as call centers have contributed much to the growth of the local economy. BPO sites are scattered throughout the city. It ranked 6th out of 10 in the Top 10 next wave cities of 2010 by the Commission of Information and Communication Technology (ICCT).
Lipa has a few technologically advanced infrastructure.
Museo de Lipa, inaugurated on November 2007, is the brainchild project of the Lipa City Tourism Council envisioned by its Past President, Lucila R. Resurreccion. It provides a chance for the people of Lipa to have a historical journey back to the city’s past. On display are antique mementos such as: the Coffee Corner – an exhibit of the different tools used in coffee production; Las trajes de mestizas and ternos – gowns worn by women during the pre-war days and during festive occasions; the Satsuma Vase – a gift given by the Luna brothers to the unparalleled hospitality shown by the aristocratic couple Doña Germana Solis and Dr. Jose Lozada; and the office tables of Don Claro Mayo Recto and Mayor Carlos Solis, the 24-hour Mayor.
Other artifacts exhibited are certain collections of furniture and objects of art loaned and donated by different antique collectors and by some of the famous and landed gentry of Lipa: antique cabinets, tables, mirrors, antique silverware chinaware, tea sets, religious images and articles, jars, and brass artifacts.
The ground floor serves as a function area and currently features works of several contemporary Lipeño visual artists.
In 1605, Don Diego de Salcedo discovered a community of farmers living in fairly good economic conditions at Lake Bombon, now Tagbakin, Lipa City. The Augustinians among them started a religious mission called “Convent of San Sebastian in Comintang”.
However, the residents noticed that the land area- residential and agricultural-was getting smaller due to the rising waters of Taal Lake, they transferred to Balete. But the site was submerged by the lake in 1754 after the eruption of Taal Volcano. To avoid a similar occurrence, the townsfolk decided to transfer the town to a place far from the lake and the volcano. Legend has it that they agreed to pray the rosary while walking and whenever they may be at the end of the 24th mystery, there the town would be relocated. And they walked upland, away from the lake and the volcano, and at the end of the 24th mystery, they reached what is now called Mataas na Lupa. The temporary poblacion and the church were thus resettled there.
The location benefited everybody since it was along the main road that led to the coastal towns, the ground was high enough and the east winds were hedged in by high mountains. But after some time, the settlers had to seek another location due to the problem of water supple. The “better site” is the present site of the Cathedral. The Augustinians administered the parish until the end of the 19th century.
The first church building was made of light materials. The building of “serious architecture, proven solidity and great proportions” was begun in 1779 and finally completed in 1865, on the first year of Fr. Benito Varas who administered the town until 1894.
The church was made of hewn stone and tiled roof, in accordance with the usual pattern of churches. It was a rectangular structure with artistically painted wooden panelings in lieu of an arch to which were attached support and strong beams which crisscrossed the walls to protect the building from earthquakes, attractive and hade plain and simple altar ornaments without the extravagant carvings that were characteristic of the past century.
During the 19th century, keen competition among Tanauan, Lipa, Batangas, Bauan and Taal for the choice of the seat of new diocese in the Southern Tagalog Region, with Batangas Province at the center, motivated the people to build extraordinary big churches. On April 10, 1910, the historic creation of the new diocese took place and the first bishop, Most Rev. Joseph Petrelli, D.D. selected LIPA as the See because of its cool climate. In later years, there were moves to transfer the See to San Pablo City but the late Bishop Alfredo Verzosa turned it down due to poor religious environment of San Pablo during that time.
The church suffered heavily in 1944. Msgr. Alejandro Olalia repaired the façade, the dome, the transept, the roof, the main altar, and the belfry. The interior painting was retouched. Two side aisles were added. The church was awarded the title CATHEDRAL of the Archdiocese incorporating Batangas Province during the administration of the late Rufino Cardinal Santos.
Fr. Pedro G. Galende, OSA wrote that “the emphasis (of the edifice)is placed on the mass, which appeals much more to the senses due to its harmonic organization. The three buildings – church, convent and bell tower are so closely associated with each other that they well exemplify the typical mission complex.”
At present, the 220-year old Cathedral and convent is undergoing massive restoration and repairs as an appropriate tibute to the Lord Jesus Christ on His 2000th birthday. Through the concerted efforts of the Parish Priest, Msgr. Alfredo A. Madlangbayan, and the San Sebastian Millenium Restoration Committee, the church façade and the belfry have been beautifully repainted, the pews are newly varnished, the ceiling and the roof of the dome have been repaired, the old and leaking roof of the church and convent are replaced with long span GI sheets, and there is a new altar at the vigil room. On account of the multitude of faithful gathering at the church during liturgical activities, especially for Archdiocesan affairs, the sound system was also upgraded.
In the previous years, Lipa City had the Coffee Festival as its official city festival being coffee granary of the Philippines. The Coffee Festival was then celebrated from December 11 to 16.
Then Lipa also had the Walistik Festival celebrated on the second week of January where walis (broom) was used in costumes and props. Walis symbolizes unity and this was what the Lipeños had in mind everytime they celebrate Walistik Festival.
Now, Lipa City is celebrating Lomi Festival. Lomi, being one of the most popular dishes in this side of the province, Lipa City has quite a number of lomi houses which never cease to entice people.
Lipa has an extensive road network. The city is a transportation hub for Batangas and nearby provinces.
National highways and expressways
Lipa is served by a network of national highways and an expressway. The Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR Tollway) connects the city with Batangas City, Tanauan and Santo Tomas, with a connection to South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), thereby linking the city with Calamba and Metro Manila. Jose P. Laurel Highway, or Ayala Highway on one portion, connects Lipa with the municipalities and cities of Malvar, Tanauan, Santo Tomas, and Calamba in the north and San Jose and Batangas City to the south. P. Torres Street or Lipa-Padre Garcia Road, links the city with Padre Garcia and also serves as a route to the municipalities Rosario and San Juan. Another highway, the Alaminos-Lipa City Road, serves the northern barangays of the city, runs northeast to Alaminos and serves as a route to the city with San Pablo in Laguna. Governor Feliciano P. Leviste Highway or Lipa-Balete Road links Lipa with Balete.
Claro M. Recto Avenue, General Luna Avenue, and B. Morada Avenue serve the city center or poblacion. On the rural areas within the city boundary, arterial roads, like Lodlod Avenue, Santo Tomas-Lipa Road and Lipa-Ibaan Road, serve the barangays and also connect with nearby municipalities, like Ibaan, and San Jose, and Santo Tomas. An arterial road running beside Fernando Air Base serves the municipality of Mataasnakahoy.
Buses, vans, jeepneys, tricycles, and multicabs common means of transportation in the city. Large numbers of jeepneys ply their trade around the city, and are becoming the primary mode of transportation. A grand terminal built beside SM City Lipa mall now serves as the city's central transport terminal.
There are plans to convert the Basilio Fernando Airbase into an economic zone and international airport handling domestic flights and international cargo. Also in the making of new airport, JAD Airport (target is 2050).
Like other cities in the Philippines, Lipa City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head who leads the city's departments in the execution of city ordinances and in the delivery of public services. The vice mayor heads a legislative council that is composed of 13 members: twelve elected councilors and one ex officio office held by the Association of Barangay Chairmen President as the barangay sector representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of ordinances and resolutions.
|City Government of Lipa
|Vilma Santos-Recto (Liberal)|
|Meynardo A. Sabili (UNA)|
|Eric B. Africa (Liberal)|
|Sangguniang Panlungsod Members|
|Camille Angeline M. Lopez||Merlo P. Silva|
|Mark Aries P. Luancing||Leonilo A. Catipon|
|Gwendolyn K. Wong||Avior R. Rocafort|
|Joel D. Pua||Aries Emmanuel D. Mendoza|
|Ralph Peter S. Umali||Nonato R. Monfero|
|Oscar M. Gozos II||Emmanuel A. De Castro|
|Paulino V. Querubin (Cumba)|
|Provincial Board Members|
|Rowena S. Africa||Lydio A. Lopez, Jr.|
Pursuant to Chapter II, Title II, Book III of Republic Act No. 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991, the city government is to be composed of a mayor (alkalde), a vice mayor (bise alkalde) and members (kagawad) of the legislative branch Sangguniang Panlungsod alongside a secretary to the said legislature, all of which are elected to a three-year term and are eligible to run for three consecutive terms.
As with every Philippine city, Lipa's chief executive is the city mayor. Elected to a term of three years and limited to three consecutive terms, he or she appoints the directors of each city department, which include the office of administration, engineering office, information office, legal office, and treasury office. The incumbent mayor is Meynardo A. Sabili, from the United Nationalist Alliance Party, who first served as provincial board member of the old 4th District of Batangas upon which Lipa was still part of that district from 1995 to 2001. He was first elected as mayor of Lipa in 2010 defeating incumbent mayor and former congressman Oscar Gozos, despite disqualification due to his residency. Sabili was formerly a resident of San Juan, Batangas, prior to being elected as mayor.
The city's vice mayor performs duties as acting governor in the absence of the mayor. He or she also automatically succeeds as mayor upon the death of the incumbent. He or she also convenes the Sangguniang Panlungsod, the city's legislative body. The incumbent vice mayor of Lipa is Eric Africa from the Liberal Party. He first assumed office on 30 June 2013. He ran and was elected for a second term in 2016.
The city, which is a lone congressional district, is represented in the Philippine House of Representatives by congresswoman Vilma Santos-Recto from the Liberal Party. She first assumed office as city mayor from 1998 to 2007 where she became the first female chief executive. After finishing her term, she was elected as the first female Governor of Batangas form 2007 to 2016. Within the city, the City Board or Sangguniang Panlungsod crafts all city ordinances, performs appropriation of city funds, issues franchises and permits, impose fees on city services, and exercise other duties and powers as stipulated by the Local Government Code of 1991. Being a first-class city in terms of income, Lipa is entitled to a City Board composed of 12 member.
Lipa hosts a number of public and private universities such as the Kolehiyo ng Lungsod ng Lipa, The Mabini Academy, De La Salle Lipa, Lipa City Colleges, Canossa Academy Lipa, AMA Computer College, Philippine State College of Aeronautics, University of Batangas. ICT-ED Institute of Science and Technology, STI College and New Era University also hosts a campus in the city.
Lipa City is twinned with the following cities:
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- Lipa City's Famous Destinations Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Abs-Cbn Interactive, President Arroyo inaugurates Batangas port project
- For the text of the decree: Gaceta de Madrid. no. 307. pg. 345. November 3, 1887. BOE.es. Also published, along with the authorisation of a coat of arms, in the Gaceta de Manila: Año XXVII, tomo II, numero 174. pg. 805. December 21, 1887. digitallibrary.ust.edu.ph
- "An Act Changing the Name of the Barrio of Patay, in the City of Lipa, to San Jose". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- "An Act to Create the Barrio of Bungahan in the City of Lipa". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
- "An Act Creating the Barrio of Look in the City of Lipa". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
- "Average High/Low Temperature for Lipa City, Philippines". World Weather Online. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City and Municipality. NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011.
- "Province of Batangas". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "An Act Providing for a Local Government Code of 1991". 8th Congress of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
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