Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (January 2015)|
|Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
|IATA: AMS – ICAO: EHAM|
|Elevation AMSL||-11 ft / −3 m|
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Dutch: Luchthaven Schiphol, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʏχtˌɦaːvə(n) ˈsχɪpɦɔlˤ]) (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) is the main international airport of the Netherlands, located 20 minutes (4.9 NM (9.1 km; 5.6 mi)) southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer. It is the fifth busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.
Schiphol is the primary hub for KLM and its regional affiliate KLM Cityhopper as well as for Arkefly, Corendon Dutch Airlines, Martinair, and Transavia.com.The airport also serves as a hub for Easyjet and as a European hub for Delta Air Lines and as a base for Vueling.
The airport's official English name, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, reflects the original Dutch word order (Luchthaven Schiphol).
- 1 Description
- 2 History
- 3 Infrastructure
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Statistics
- 6 Other facilities
- 7 Ground transport
- 8 Incidents and accidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Schiphol is an important European airport, ranking as Europe's 4th busiest and the world's 14th busiest by total passenger traffic in 2013 (16th in 2012). It also ranks as the world's 6th busiest by international passenger traffic and the world's 16th busiest for cargo tonnage. 52.569 million passengers passed through the airport in 2013, a 3% increase compared with 2012. Schiphol's main competitors in terms of passenger traffic and cargo throughput are London Heathrow Airport, Frankfurt Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport and Madrid–Barajas Airport.
In 2010, 65.9% of passengers using the airport flew to and from Europe, 11.7% to and from North America and 8.8% to and from Asia; cargo volume was mainly between Schiphol and Asia (45%) and North America (17%).
In 2010, 106 carriers provided a total of 301 destinations on a regular basis. Passenger destinations were offered by 91 airlines. Direct (non-stop) destinations grew by 9[when?] to 274. Regular destinations serviced exclusively by full freighters (non-passenger) grew by 8[when?] to a total of 27.
The airport is built as one large terminal (a single-terminal concept), split into three large departure halls, which connect again once airside. The most recent of these was completed in 1994, and expanded in 2007 with a new section, called Terminal 4, although it is not considered a separate building. Plans for further terminal expansion exist, including the construction of a separate new terminal between the Zwanenburgbaan and Polderbaan runways that would end the one-terminal concept.
Because of intense traffic and high landing fees, some low-cost carriers decided to move their flights to smaller airports, such as Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Many low-cost carriers, such as EasyJet, however, continue to operate from Schiphol, using the low-cost H-pier.
Schiphol is equipped with 18 double jetway gates in preparation for airlines introducing the Airbus A380. Emirates was the first airline to fly the A380 to Schiphol in August 2012, deploying the aircraft on its daily Dubai–Amsterdam service.
Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol which was part of the Stelling van Amsterdam defence works. Before 1852, the Haarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. The most popular story is that in the shallow waters sudden violent storms could claim many ships. This was the main reason for reclaiming it. In English, Schiphol translates to 'Ship Grave', a reference to many ships supposedly lost in the lake. When the lake was reclaimed, however, no ship wrecks were found. Another possible origin of the name is the word 'scheepshaal'. A scheepshaal is a ditch or little canal in which ships would be towed from one lake to another. A third explanation would be that the name derived from the words 'scip hol'. This is a low lying area of land (hol, like in the name Holland) from where wood would be obtained to build ships.
Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase, with a few barracks and a field serving as platform and runways. When civil aircraft started to use the field (17 December 1920) it was often called Schiphol-les-bains. The Fokker aircraft manufacturer started a factory near Schiphol airport in 1919. The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely.
By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles, all 1,020 metres (3,350 ft) or less. One was extended to become today's runway 04/22; two others crossed that runway at Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and Vogelenzang in an attempt to confuse allied bombers. A railway connection was also constructed. Despite these defences, the airfield was still bombed intensively, and an exceptionally heavy attack on 13 December 1943 caused so much damage that it rendered the airfield unusable as an active base. After that it served only as an emergency landing field, until the Germans themselves destroyed the remainders of the airfield at the start of Operation Market Garden. At the end of the war, the airfield was restored quickly, with the first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, landing again on 8 July 1945.. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. A large amount of anti-aircraft defences were installed in the vicinity of the airport and fake decoy airfields were constructed in the vicinity near
A new terminal building was completed in 1949 and it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. Expansion came at the cost of a small town called Rijk, which was demolished to make room for the growing airport. The name of this town is remembered in the name of the present Schiphol-Rijk industrial estate. In 1967, Dutch designer Benno Wissing created signage for Schiphol Airport well known for its clear writing and thorough color-coding; to avoid confusion, he prohibited any other signage in the shades of yellow and green used. This was part of the new terminal building which replaced the older facilities once located on what is now the east side of the airport. The A-Pier of the airport was modified in 1970 to allow Boeing 747 aircraft to make use of the boarding gates.
The construction of a new Air Traffic Control tower was completed in 1991 as the existing tower could no longer oversee all of the airport. New wayfinding signage was designed that year as well by Paul Mijksenaar. A sixth runway was completed at quite some distance west of the rest of airport in 2003 and was nicknamed the Polderbaan, with the connecting taxiway crossing the A5 motorway. The distance of this runway means that taxi times to and from this runway can take between 10 and 20 minutes. It also required the construction of an additional Air Traffic Control tower as the primary tower is too far away to oversee this part of the airfield.
On 25 February 2005, a diamond robbery occurred at Schiphol's cargo terminal. The robbers used a stolen KLM van to gain airside access. The estimated value of the stones was around 75 million euros, making it one of the largest diamond robberies ever. Later that year a fire broke out at the airport's detention centre, killing 11 people and injuring 15. The complex was holding 350 people at the time of the incident. Results from the investigation almost one year later showed that fire safety precautions were not in force. A national outrage resulted in the resignation of Justice Minister Donner (CDA) and Mayor Hartog of Haarlemmermeer. Spatial Planning Minister Dekker (VVD) resigned as well, because she bore responsibility for the construction, safety, and maintenance of state-owned buildings.
Schiphol uses a one terminal concept, where all facilities are located under a single roof, radiating from the central 'plaza'. The terminal, though, is divided into three sections or halls designated 1, 2 and 3. To all of these halls, piers or concourses are connected. However, it is possible, on both sides of security or border inspection, to walk from between piers, even those connected to different halls. The exception to this is the low-cost pier M: once airside (past security), passengers cannot access any other areas. Border control separates Schengen from non-Schengen areas. Schiphol Airport has approximately 165 boarding gates.
Schiphol has large shopping areas as a source of revenue and as an additional attraction for passengers. Schiphol Plaza is the shopping centre before customs, hence it is used by air travelers and non-traveling visitors.
Departure Hall 1
Departure Hall 1 consists of Piers B and C, both of which are dedicated Schengen areas. Pier B has 14 gates and Pier C has 21 gates.
Departure Hall 2
Departure Hall 2 consists of Piers D and E.
Pier D is the largest pier and has two levels. The lower floor houses non-Schengen flights, and the upper floor is used for Schengen flights. By using stairs, the same jetways are used to access the aircraft. Schengen gates are numbered beginning with D-59, non-Schengen gates are numbered from D-1 to D-57.
Pier E is a dedicated non-Schengen area and has 14 gates. It is typically home to SkyTeam hub airlines Delta Air Lines and KLM, along with other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Other Middle Eastern and Asian airlines such as EVA Air, Etihad Airways, Iran Air, Air Astana, and Malaysia Airlines also typically operate out of Pier E.
Departure Hall 3
Departure Hall 3 consists of piers F, G, H and M. Pier F has 8 gates and is typically dominated by SkyTeam members such as primary airline KLM, Kenya Airways, and other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Pier G has 13 gates and is the only terminal that handles daily Airbus A380 service, by Emirates. Piers H and M have 7 gates each and are home to low-cost airlines. Piers F, G and H are non-Schengen areas. Pier M is a dedicated Schengen area.
General Aviation Terminal
A new General Aviation Terminal was opened in 2011 on the east side of the airport, operated as the KLM Jet Center. The new terminal building has a floorspace of 6,000 m2 (65,000 sq ft); 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for the actual terminal and lounges, 4,000 m2 (43,000 sq ft) for office space and 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for parking. Due to the high traffic volume of Schiphol and the surrounding airspace, a slot must be requested for both inbound and outbound General Aviation flights, with an exception of state, emergency and humanitarian flights.
The Rijksmuseum operates an annex at the airport, offering a small overview of both classical and contemporary art. Admission to the exhibits is free. The airport museum is closed until the end of 2015, due to refurbishment.
In summer 2010, Schiphol Airport Library opened alongside the museum, providing passengers access to a collection of 1,200 books (translated into 29 languages) by Dutch authors or on subjects relating to the country's history and culture. The 968 sq ft (89.9 m2) library offers e-books and music by Dutch artists and composers that can be downloaded free of charge to a laptop or mobile device. The Schiphol Airport Library closed in Sept. 2014 for refurbishment until the end of 2015.
For aviation enthusiasts, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has a large rooftop viewing area, called the Panoramaterras. It is not accessible to connecting passengers unless they first exit the airport. Enthusiasts and the public can enter, free of charge, from the airport's landside. Since June 2011, it is the location for a KLM Cityhopper Fokker 100, modified to be a viewing exhibit. Besides the Panoramaterras, Schiphol has other spotting sites, especially along the newest Polderbaan runway and at the McDonald's restaurant at the north side of the airport.
Schiphol is building a new state of the art Hilton Hotel, with 433 rooms. The new building designed by the architect firm Mecanoo will have a cube shape, with rounded corners and diamond shaped windows. The spacious atrium will have a 135 foot high ceiling made of glass, and will be in the heart of the building. A covered walkway will connect the hotel directly to the Terminal. In 2015 the hotel will be completed.
In 2012, Schiphol Group announced a big expansion of Schiphol, featuring a new Pier, an expansion of the Terminal and a new parking garage. Pier A will be part of Departure Hall 1 which already has Pier B (14 gates) and Pier C (21 gates). The new Pier A will have 10 gates. The first activities are expected to start in 2016 and to be completed in 2018. The expansions will cost about 500 million euros.
The new Pier A will be built next to the Pier B, this place is now used as a freight-platform for planes. The Pier A will mainly be used for flights within Europe. To handle the extra passengers that come with this new Pier, Schiphol will expand the Terminal and build new facilities for check-ins and arrivals. From the new building, direct access will be made to the platforms of the underground railway station. When finished, Schiphol wants to grow to around 65 million passengers in 2020.
The Schiphol air traffic control tower, with a height of 101 m (331 ft), was the tallest in the world when constructed in 1991. Schiphol is geographically one of the world's lowest major commercial airports. The entire airport is below sea level; the lowest point sits at 11 ft (3.4 m) below sea level (or 4.5 ft (1.4 m) below the Dutch Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP)); the runways are around 3 m (9.8 ft) below NAP.
Schiphol has six runways, one of which is used mainly by general aviation aircraft. The northern end of the Polderbaan, the last runway to be constructed, is 7 km (4.3 mi) north of the control tower, causing taxi times of up to 20 minutes to the terminal.
(in metres and feet)
|Runway common name||Source of the name||Surface||Notes|
|Polderbaan||Decided via contest. 'Polder' is the Dutch word for land reclaimed from a body of water. Schiphol Airport is situated in a polder.||Asphalt||Newest runway, opened 2003.
Located to reduce the noise impact on the surrounding population; aircraft have a lengthy 15-minute taxi to and from the Terminal. The intended landing runway for Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, which crashed in a field just short of the runway.
|Kaagbaan||Named after the Kagerplassen which lies at the end of the runway||Asphalt||The Kaagbaan offered a location for spotters until the spotting location was closed in January 2008.|
|Buitenveldertbaan||Named after Buitenveldert, a part of Amsterdam||Asphalt||El Al Flight 1862 was trying to make an emergency landing on this runway when it crashed into a block of flats in the Bijlmermeer.|
|Aalsmeerbaan||Named after Aalsmeer||Asphalt|
|Zwanenburgbaan||Named after the village Zwanenburg||Asphalt||El Al Flight 1862 took off from this runway before crashing into flats in the Bijlmermeer when the plane was trying to return to the airport.|
|Oostbaan||Most Eastern (Oost) of all runways||Asphalt||In October 2010 a B-737 of Corendon Airlines overshot this short runway and ended up with its nosegear in the mud.|
Airlines and destinations
Note: The piers listed are not definite since very few airlines have dedicated piers or gates; the piers listed below are based on typical conditions.
|Air Cairo||Charter: Cairo||G|
|Arkefly||Charter: Antalya, Arrecife, Aruba, Banjul, Boa Vista, Bodrum, Bonaire, Burgas, Cancún, Curaçao, Dalaman, Dubai–International, Faro, Fortaleza, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gran Canaria, Heraklion, Holguín, Hurghada, Mahon, Málaga, Palma de Mallorca, Miami, Montego Bay, Natal, Orlando/Sanford, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Sal, Sharm el-Sheikh, Tenerife–South, Varadero, Zanzibar
Seasonal charter: Aqaba, Corfu, Denpasar/Bali, Djerba, Enfidha, Girona, Ibiza, İzmir, Jerez de la Frontera, Karpathos, Kefalonia, Kittilä, Kos, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Mytilene, Ohrid, Ponta Delgada, Pula, Samos, Sitia, Terceira, Toronto-Pearson, Zakynthos
|C, D, E, G|
operated by Jetairfly
|Charter: Brussels, Miami, Orlando/Sanford|
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled 2013|| % Change
|Passengers Handled 2012||Top Carriers|
|1||UK, London (Heathrow), United Kingdom||1,443,670||1.0||0||British Airways, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|2||Spain, Barcelona, Spain||1,186,682||-5.1||0||KLM, Transavia.com, Vueling|
|3||France, Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France||1,126,680||0.2||0||Air France, KLM|
|4||Italy, Rome (Fiumicino), Italy||956,580||2.9||0||Alitalia, easyJet, KLM, Vueling|
|5||Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark||805,925||-2.0||0||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|6||UK, London (Gatwick), United Kingdom||750,856||10.7||0||British Airways, easyJet|
|7||Spain, Madrid, Spain||748,426||-27.4||0||Air Europa, KLM, Iberia Express|
|8||Turkey, Antalya, Turkey||745,753||6.3||0||Arkefly, Corendon Airlines, Corendon Dutch Airlines, Freebird Airlines, Onur Air, Pegasus Airlines, SunExpress, Transavia.com|
|9||Germany, Frankfurt, Germany||717,143||1.6||0||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa|
|10||Switzerland, Zürich, Switzerland||697,658||3.0||0||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Swiss International Air Lines|
|11||Germany, Munich, Germany||693,233||0.5||0||KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa Regional|
|12||UK, Manchester, United Kingdom||691,660||2.6||0||easyJet, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|13||Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal||672,122||14.5||0||easyJet, KLM, TAP Portugal, Transavia.com|
|14||Sweden, Stockholm (Arlanda), Sweden||660,124||4.8||0||KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|15||Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland||627,260||1.7||0||easyJet Switzerland, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|16||Turkey, Istanbul (Atatürk), Turkey||612,997||0.2||0||Corendon, Freebird Airlines, KLM, Turkish Airlines|
|17||Norway, Oslo (Gardermoen), Norway||604,396||-1.3||0||KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines|
|18||UK, Edinburgh, United Kingdom||561,256||-0.9||0||easyJet, KLM|
|19||Italy, Milan (Linate), Italy||546,140||12.6||0||Alitalia, Alitalia CityLiner, KLM|
|20||Austria, Vienna, Austria||519,432||3.1||0||Austrian Airlines, KLM, KLM Cityhopper|
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled 2013|| % Change
|Passengers Handled 2012||Top Carriers|
|1||USA, Detroit, United States||648,798||2.8||0||Delta|
|2||USA, New York (JFK), United States||628,499||7.3||0||Delta, KLM|
|3||UAE, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||610,431||10.6||0||Arkefly, Emirates, KLM, Transavia.com|
|4||USA, Atlanta, United States||595,469||13.2||0||Delta, KLM|
|5||USA, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, United States||462,945||5.5||0||Delta|
|6||Thailand, Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi), Thailand||459,850||4.3||0||China Airlines, EVA Air, KLM|
|7||Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya||397,131||-4.2||0||Kenya Airways, KLM|
|8||Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||396,084||1.4||0||KLM, Malaysia Airlines|
|9||Curacao, Curaçao, Curaçao||390,266||0.6||0||Arkefly, KLM|
|10||Canada, Toronto, Canada||378,495||-3.1||0||Air Transat, Arkefly, KLM|
|11||Hong_Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong||368,444||-7.0||0||Cathay Pacific, KLM|
|12||Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel||343,545||6.9||0||Arkia Israel Airlines, El Al, Israir, KLM, Transavia.com|
|13||USA, Houston, United States||317,751||4.4||0||KLM, United Airlines|
|14||Singapore, Singapore, Singapore||314,581||-5.1||0||KLM, Singapore Airlines|
|15||China, Shanghai (Pudong), China||301,778||-5.9||0||KLM|
|16||China, Beijing (Capital), China||301,008||15.6||0||China Southern Airlines, KLM|
|17||Japan, Tokyo (Narita), Japan||280,561||6.8||0||KLM|
|18||USA, Seattle, United States||276,331||16.6||0||Delta|
|19||USA, Washington (Dulles), United States||274,249||2.0||0||KLM, United Airlines|
|20||USA, Boston, United States||269,967||7.7||0||Delta|
The TransPort Building on the Schiphol Airport property houses the head offices of Martinair and Transavia.com. Construction of the building, which has 10,800 m2 (116,000 sq ft) of rentable space, began on 17 March 2009. Schiphol Group and the architect firm Paul de Ruiter designed the building, while De Vries and Verburg, a firm of Stolwijk, constructed the building.
The World Trade Center Schiphol Airport houses the head office of SkyTeam, the Netherlands office of China Southern Airlines, and the Netherlands offices of Iran Air. The head office of Schiphol Group, the airport's operator, is located on the airport property. The Convair Building, with its development beginning after a parcel was earmarked for its development in 1999, houses KLM offices, including KLM Recruitment Services and the head office of KLM Cityhopper. The original control tower of Schiphol Airport, which the airport authorities had moved slightly from its original location, now houses a restaurant. The area Schiphol-Rijk includes the head offices of Arkefly and Amsterdam Airlines.
At one time KLM had its head office on the grounds of Schiphol Airport. Its current head office in Amstelveen had a scheduled completion at the end of 1970. Previously Martinair had its head office in the Schiphol Center (Dutch: Schiphol Centrum) at Schiphol Airport. Formerly, the head office of Transavia.com was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport. NLM Cityhopper and later KLM Cityhopper previously had their head offices in Schiphol Airport building 70.
Nippon Cargo Airlines has its Europe regional headquarters at Schiphol. The National Aerospace Museum Aviodome–Schiphol was previously located at Schiphol. In 2003 the museum moved to Lelystad Airport and was renamed the "Aviodrome."
The Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the national Dutch train operator, has a major passenger railway station directly underneath the passenger terminal complex that offers transportation into Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague, Rotterdam and many other cities. There are intercity connections to Amsterdam Centraal, Utrecht Centraal, both The Hague Centraal and The Hague HS, Rotterdam Centraal, Eindhoven, Leeuwarden, Groningen, Enschede, Arnhem, Nijmegen and Heerlen. Schiphol is also a stop for the Thalys international high-speed train, connecting the airport directly to Antwerp, Brussels, Lille and Paris, as well as to Bourg St Maurice (winter) and Marseille (summer).
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is also easily accessible by bus, as many services call or terminate at the bus station located outside in front of the terminal building.
|Alphen aan den Rijn||370|
|Amstelveen||186, 199, 300, night bus N30|
|Amsterdam, Leidseplein||197, night bus N97||Leidseplein is the closest destination to Amsterdam's city centre that is served by bus from Schiphol.|
|Amsterdam, Osdorp||69, 192|
|Amsterdam, Slotervaart||69, 195|
|Amsterdam, Amsterdam–Zuid and Buitenveldert||310|
|Haarlem||300, night bus N30|
|Hoofddorp||300, 310, night bus N30|
|Keukenhof Gardens||58 (seasonal)|
|Ouderkerk aan de Amstel||300, night bus N30|
|Vijfhuizen||300, night bus N30|
Schiphol Airport can easily be reached by car via the A4 and A9 motorways. Schiphol offers several car parking facilities, which include short term parking, valet parking and other parking offers.
Incidents and accidents
- On 14 November 1946, a Douglas C-47 operated by KLM from London approached Schiphol during bad weather conditions. The first two attempts to land failed. During the third attempt, the pilot realized that the airplane was not lined up properly with the runway. The aircraft made a sharp left turn at low speed, causing the left wing to hit the ground. The airplane crashed and caught fire, killing all 26 people on board, including the plane's crew of five.
- On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo airplane heading to Tel Aviv suffered physical engine separation of both right-wing engines (#3 and #4) just after taking off from Schiphol and crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmer neighbourhood of Amsterdam while attempting to return to the airport. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a "non-revenue passenger". Several others were injured.
- On 4 April 1994, Flight KL433 to Cardiff, a Saab 340 operated by KLM Cityhopper, returned to Schiphol after setting the number two engine to flight idle because the crew mistakenly believed that the engine suffered from low oil pressure because of a faulty warning light. On final approach at a height of 90 ft (27 m), the captain decided to go-around and gave full throttle on only the number one engine leaving the other in flight idle. The airplane rolled to the right, pitched up, stalled and hit the ground at 80 degrees bank. Of the twenty-four people on board, three were killed including the captain. Nine others were seriously injured.
- On 25 February 2009, Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, a Boeing 737-800 from Istanbul crashed on approach, just 1 km (0.6 mi) short of the airport's Polderbaan runway. The plane carried 128 passengers and 7 crew on board. 9 people were killed and a further 86 were injured, including six with serious injuries. Four of the dead were employees of Boeing, involved in an advanced radar deal with Turkey. An initial report from the Dutch Safety Board revealed that the left radio altimeter had failed to provide the correct height above the ground and suddenly reported −8 ft (−2.4 m). As a result of this the autothrottle system closed the thrust levers to idle, as it is programmed to reduce thrust when below 27 ft (8.2 m) radio altitude. This eventually resulted in a dropping airspeed which was not acted upon until it was too late to recover, and the aircraft stalled and crashed in a field.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.|
- Official website
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- Current weather for EHAM at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for AMS at Aviation Safety Network