Supercapitalism (concept in Italian Fascism)
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Supercapitalism was a concept that developed in Italian Fascism. Italy's Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, claimed that at the stage of supercapitalism, "a capitalist enterprise, when difficulties arise, throws itself like a dead weight into the state's arms. It is then that state intervention begins and becomes more necessary. It is then that those who once ignored the state now seek it out anxiously." To Mussolini, the capitalism of his time had degenerated from original capitalism, which he called dynamic or heroic capitalism (1830–1870) to static capitalism (1870–1914) and then finally to decadent capitalism or supercapitalism, which began in 1914. In 1933, Benito Mussolini declared Italian Fascism's opposition to supercapitalism.
Mussolini thought of the Marxist socialist system in terms of State Supercapitalism. According to Mussolini there were four types of state intervention, the first one was the one of the liberal states, this is the most used in supercapitalism, in most cases being a disorganized and sporadic intervention. The second one was the one used by communists in its State Supercapitalism. And the third one was the one used in the US which he considered as a combination of the first two State Intervention systems.
Mussolini argued that although Italian Fascism did not support dynamic and heroic capitalism, he appreciated it for its contribution to industrialism and technical developments but claimed that he did not support or appreciate supercapitalism, which he claimed was incompatible with Italy's agricultural sector. Mussolini strongly criticized this stage of supercapitalism, saying:
At this stage, supercapitalism finds its inspiration and its justification in a utopia: the utopia of unlimited consumption. Supercapitalism's ideal is the standardization of the human race from the cradle to the grave. Supercapitalism wants all babies to be born exactly the same length so that the cradles can be standardized and all children persuaded to like the same toys. It wants all men to don the very same uniform, to read the same book, to have the same tastes in films, and to desire the same so-called labor-saving devices. This is not the result of caprice. It inheres in the logic of events, for only thus can supercapitalism make its plans.
- Mussolini, Benito. Four speeches on the corporate state: with an appendix including the labour charter, the text of laws on syndical and corporate organisations and explanatory notes. Laboremus, 1935. Pp. 16.
- Mussolini, Benito; Schnapp, Jeffery Thompson (ed.); Sears, Olivia E. (ed.); Stampino, Maria G. (ed.). "Address to the National Corporative Council (14 November 1933) and Senate Speech on the Bill Establishing the Corporations (abridged; 13 January 1934)". A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, 2000. p. 158.
- Falasca-Zamponi. Pp. 136.
- Mussolini, Benito. Four speeches on the corporate state: with an appendix including the labour charter, the text of laws on syndicalist and corporate organizations and explanatory notes. Laboremus, 1935.
- Falasca-Zamponi. 2000. Pp. 136.
- Mussolini, Benito; Schnapp, Jeffery Thompson (ed.); Sears, Olivia E. (ed.); Stampino, Maria G. (ed.). "Address to the National Corporative Council (14 November 1933) and Senate Speech on the Bill Establishing the Corporations (abridged; 13 January 1934)". A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Pp. 158.