Sardinian language

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Sardinian
Sard
sardu
limba / lìngua sarda
Pronunciation[ˈsaɾdu]
Native toItaly
RegionSardinia
EthnicitySardinians
Native speakers
1,000,000[1][2] – 1,350,000[3] (2016)
Standard forms
written Logudorese Sardinian (sardu logudoresu)
written Campidanese Sardinian (sardu campidanesu)
written Nuorese Sardinian (sardu nugoresu)
Official status
Official language in
Italy (Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia)[4][5]
Recognised minority
language in
Italy
Regulated by• Logudorese orthography[6][7]
• Campidanese orthography[8][9]
Limba Sarda Comuna code[10][11]
Language codes
ISO 639-1sc
ISO 639-2srd
ISO 639-3srd – inclusive code Sardinian
Individual codes:
sro – Campidanese Sardinian
src – Logudorese Sardinian
Glottologsard1257
Linguasphere51-AAA-s
Idioma sardo.png
Sardinia Language Map.png
Linguistic map of Sardinia. Sardinian is yellow (Logudorese) and orange (Campidanese).
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Sardinian speaker, recorded in Mexico.

Sardinian or Sard (sardu [ˈsaɾdu] / sadru [ˈsadɾu], limba sarda [ˈlimba ˈzaɾda] or lìngua sarda [ˈliŋɡu.a ˈzaɾda]) is a Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on the Western Mediterranean island of Sardinia.

Many Romance linguists consider it the language that, together with Italian, is closest to Latin among all the genealogical descendants of Latin.[12][13] However, it has also incorporated elements of a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum,[14] as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum. These elements of the language originate in the political history of the island of Sardinia: before the Middle Ages, it was for a time a Byzantine possession; then, after a significant period of self-rule with the judicates, it came during the late Middle Ages into the Iberian sphere of influence; and finally, from the 18th century onward, under the Italian one.

The originality of Sardinian with respect to the other Romance languages had long been known among linguists.[15][16][17] In 1997, Sardinian, along with other languages spoken on the island, was recognized by regional law as an official language of Sardinia,[4] and in 1999, Sardinian and eleven other minoranze linguistiche storiche ("historical linguistic minorities") were similarly recognized by national law (specifically, Law No. 482/1999).[18] Among these, Sardinian is notable as having the largest number of speakers.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

However, the number of native speakers has been continually declining,[21] threatening the vitality of the Sardinian-speaking community. While it was estimated in 2007 that 68.4 percent of the inhabitants of Sardinia had a good oral command of Sardinian,[25] most of them were past retirement age. Only 13 percent of children were reported to have this level of competence in the language,[26][27] with Sardinian being kept as a heritage language.[28][29] UNESCO has classified the language as "definitely endangered".[30]

Overview[edit]

Now the question arises as to whether Sardinian is to be considered a dialect or a language in its own right. Politically speaking,[note 1] it is clearly one of the many dialects[note 1] of Italy, just like the Serbo-Croatian and the Albanian spoken in various villages of Calabria and Sicily. However, from a linguistic point of view, that is a different question. It can be said that Sardinian has no relationship whatsoever with any dialect of mainland Italy; it is an archaic Romance speech with its own distinctive characteristics, showing a very original vocabulary in addition to morphology and syntax rather different from the Italian dialects.[31]

— Max Leopold Wagner, La lingua sarda, 1951 – Ilisso, pp. 90–91

As an insular language par excellence, Sardinian is considered the most conservative Romance language, as well as one of the most highly individual within the family;[32][33] its substratum (Paleo-Sardinian or Nuragic) has also been researched. A 1949 study by the Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, Italian 12%, Spanish 20%, Romanian 23.5%, Occitan 25%, Portuguese 31%, and French 44%.[34]

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) ascribes Sardinian to the separated Island Romance branch of the Romance languages, along with old Corsican (modern Corsican is in fact part of the broad Italo-Romance family).[35]

Although the lexical base is mostly of Latin origin, Sardinian nonetheless retains a number of traces of the linguistic substratum prior to the Roman conquest of the island: several words and especially toponyms stem from Paleo-Sardinian[36] and, to a lesser extent, Phoenician-Punic. These etyma might refer to an early Mediterranean substratum, which reveal close relations with Basque.[37][38][39]

In addition to the aforementioned substratum, linguists such as Max Leopold Wagner and Benvenuto Aronne Terracini trace much of the distinctive Latin character of Sardinia to the languoids once spoken by the Christian and Jewish Berbers in North Africa, known as African Romance.[40] Indeed, Sardinian was perceived as rather similar to African Latin when the latter was still in use, giving credit to the theory that vulgar Latin in both Africa and Sardinia displayed a significant wealth of parallelisms.[41] J. N. Adams is of the opinion that similarities in many words, such as acina (grape), pala (shoulderblade) and spanu(s) ("reddish-brown"), prove that there might have been a fair amount of vocabulary shared between Sardinia and Africa.[42]

To most Italians Sardinian is unintelligible, and looked down upon as "barbarous" with respect to their language;[43] characterized as it is by a sharply outlined physiognomy which is displayed from the earliest sources available, it is in fact considered a distinct linguistic group among the Romance languages.[16][44][45][46][47]

History[edit]

Sardinia's relative isolation from mainland Europe encouraged the development of a Romance language that preserves traces of its indigenous, pre-Roman language(s). The language is posited to have substratal influences from Paleo-Sardinian, which some scholars have linked to Basque[48][49] and Etruscan;[50] comparisons have also been drawn with the Berber languages from North Africa[51] to shed more light on the language(s) spoken in Sardinia prior to its Romanization. Subsequent adstratal influences include Catalan, Spanish, and Italian. The situation of the Sardinian language with regard to the politically dominant ones did not change until fascism[52] and, most evidently, the 1950s.[53][54]

Origins of modern Sardinian[edit]

Prenuragic and Nuragic era

The origins of ancient Sardinian, also known as Paleo-Sardinian, are currently unknown. Research has attempted to discover obscure, indigenous, pre-Romance roots. The root s(a)rd, indicating many place names as well as the island's people, is reportedly either associated with or originating from the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples.[55] Other sources trace instead the root s(a)rd from Σαρδώ, a legendary woman from the Anatolian Kingdom of Lydia,[56][57] or from the Libyan mythological figure of the Sardus Pater Babai ("Sardinian Father" or "Father of the Sardinians").[58][59][60][61][62][63][64]

In 1984, Massimo Pittau claimed to have found the etymology of many Latin words in the Etruscan language, after comparing it with the Nuragic language(s).[50] Etruscan elements, formerly thought to have originated in Latin, would indicate a connection between the ancient Sardinian culture and the Etruscans. According to Pittau, the Etruscan and Nuragic language(s) are descended from Lydian (and therefore Indo-European) as a consequence of contact with Etruscans and other Tyrrhenians from Sardis as described by Herodotus.[50] Although Pittau suggests that the Tirrenii landed in Sardinia and the Etruscans landed in modern Tuscany, his views are not shared by most Etruscologists.

According to Bertoldi and Terracini, Paleo-Sardinian has similarities with the Iberic languages and Siculian; for example, the suffix -ara in proparoxytones indicated the plural. Terracini proposed the same for suffixes in -/àna/, -/ànna/, -/énna/, -/ònna/ + /r/ + a paragogic vowel (such as the toponym Bunnànnaru). Rohlfs, Butler and Craddock add the suffix -/ini/ (such as the toponym Barùmini) as a unique element of Paleo-Sardinian. Suffixes in /a, e, o, u/ + -rr- found a correspondence in north Africa (Terracini), in Iberia (Blasco Ferrer) and in southern Italy and Gascony (Rohlfs), with a closer relationship to Basque (Wagner and Hubschmid). However, these early links to a Basque precursor have been questioned by some Basque linguists.[65] According to Terracini, suffixes in -/ài/, -/éi/, -/òi/, and -/ùi/ are common to Paleo-Sardinian and northern African languages. Pittau emphasized that this concerns terms originally ending in an accented vowel, with an attached paragogic vowel; the suffix resisted Latinization in some place names, which show a Latin body and a Nuragic suffix. According to Bertoldi, some toponyms ending in -/ài/ and -/asài/ indicated an Anatolian influence. The suffix -/aiko/, widely used in Iberia and possibly of Celtic origin, and the ethnic suffix in -/itanos/ and -/etanos/ (for example, the Sardinian Sulcitanos) have also been noted as Paleo-Sardinian elements (Terracini, Ribezzo, Wagner, Hubschmid and Faust).

Some linguists, like Max Leopold Wagner (1931), Blasco Ferrer (2009, 2010) and Arregi (2017[66]) have attempted to revive a theoretical connection with Basque by linking words such as Sardinian idile "marshland" and Basque itil "puddle";[67] Sardinian ospile "fresh grazing for cattle" and Basque hozpil "cool, fresh"; Sardinian arrotzeri "vagabond" and Basque arrotz "stranger"; Sardinian golostiu and Basque gorosti "holly"; Gallurese (Corso-Sardinian) zerru "pig" (with z for [dz]) and Basque zerri (with z for [s]). Genetic data have found the Basques to be close to the Sardinians.[68][69][70]

Location of the Sardinian tribes, as described by the Roman sources.[71]
Length of the Roman rule and emergence of the Romance Languages.[72]

Since the Neolithic period, some degree of variance across the island's regions is also attested. The Arzachena culture, for instance, suggests a link between the northernmost Sardinian region (Gallura) and southern Corsica that finds further confirmation in the Naturalis Historia by Pliny the Elder. There are also some stylistic differences across Northern and Southern Nuragic Sardinia, which may indicate the existence of two other tribal groups (Balares and Ilienses) mentioned by the same Roman author. According to the archeologist Giovanni Ugas,[73] these tribes may have in fact played a role in shaping the current regional linguistic differences of the island.

Classical period

Around the 10th and 9th century BC, Phoenician merchants were known to have made their presence in Sardinia, which acted as a geographical mediator in between the Iberian and the Italian peninsula. In the eighth and seventh centuries, the Phoenicians began to develop permanent settlements, politically arranged as city-states in similar fashion to the Lebanese coastal areas. It did not take long before they started gravitating around the Carthaginian sphere of influence, whose level of prosperity spurred Carthage to send a series of expeditionary forces to the island; although they were initially repelled by the natives, the North African city vigorously pursued a policy of active imperialism and, by the sixth century, managed to establish its political hegemony and military control over South-Western Sardinia. Punic began to be spoken in the area, and many words entered ancient Sardinian as well. Names like giara "plateau" (cf. Hebrew "forest, scrub"), g(r)uspinu "nasturtium" (from the Punic cusmin), curma "fringed rue" (cf. ḥarmal "Syrian rue"), mítza "source" (cf. Hebrew mitsa, metza "place whence something emerges"), síntziri "marsh horsetail" (from the Punic zunzur "common knotgrass"), tzeúrra "sprout" (from the Punic zeraʿ "seed"), tzichirìa "dill" (from the Punic sikkíria; cf. Hebrew šēkār "ale") and tzípiri "rosemary" (from the Punic zibbir) are commonly used, especially in the modern Sardinian varieties of the Campidanese plain, while proceeding northwards the influence is more limited to place names, such as the town of Magomadas, Macumadas in Nuoro or Magumadas in Gesico and Nureci, all of which deriving from the Punic maqom hadash "new city".[74][75]

The Roman domination began in 238 BC and brought Latin to Sardinia, but was often contested by the local Sardinian tribes and proved unable to completely supplant the pre-Latin Sardinian languages, including Punic, which continued to be spoken in the 4th century AD as attested by votive inscriptions.[76] Some obscure Nuragic roots remained unchanged, and in many cases Latin accepted the local roots (like nur, presumably from Norax, which makes its appearance in nuraghe, Nurra, Nurri and many other toponyms). Barbagia, the mountainous central region of the island, derives its name from the Latin Barbaria (a term meaning "Land of the Barbarians", similar in origin to the now antiquated word "Barbary"), because its people refused cultural and linguistic assimilation for a long time: 50% of toponyms of central Sardinia, particularly in the territory of Olzai, are actually not related to any known language.[77] According to Terracini, amongst the regions in Europe that went on to draw their language from Latin, Sardinia has overall preserved the highest proportion of pre-Latin toponyms.[78] Besides the place names, on the island there are still a few names of plants, animals and geological formations directly traceable to the ancient Nuragic era.[79] Cicero called the Sardinian rebels latrones mastrucati ("thieves with rough wool cloaks") to emphasize Roman superiority.[80]

During the Roman domination Latin gradually became however the speech of the majority of the island's inhabitants.[81] As a result of this protracted and prolonged[82] process of Romanization, the modern Sardinian language is today classified as Romance or neo-Latin, with some phonetic features resembling Old Latin. Some linguists assert that modern Sardinian, being part of the Island Romance group,[35] was the first language to split off from Latin,[83] all others evolving from Latin as Continental Romance. In fact, contact with Rome might have ceased from as early as the first century BC.[84] In terms of vocabulary, Sardinian retains an array of peculiar Latin-based forms that are either unfamiliar to, or have altogether disappeared in, the rest of the Romance-speaking world.[85][86]

At that time, the only literature being produced in Sardinia was mostly in Latin: the native (Paleo-Sardinian) and non-native (Punic) pre-Roman languages were then already extinct (the last Punic inscription in Bithia, southern Sardinia, is from the second or third century AD[87]). Some engraved poems in ancient Greek and Latin (the two most prestigious languages in the Roman Empire[88]) are to be seen in Viper Cave, Cagliari, (Gruta 'e sa Pibera in Sardinian, Grotta della Vipera in Italian, Cripta Serpentum in Latin), a burial monument built by Lucius Cassius Philippus (a Roman who had been exiled to Sardinia) in remembrance of his dead spouse Atilia Pomptilla. We also have some religious works by Saint Lucifer and Eusebius, both from Caralis (Cagliari).

Although Sardinia was culturally influenced and politically ruled by the Byzantine Empire for almost five centuries, Greek did not enter the language except for some ritual or formal expressions in Sardinian using Greek structure and, sometimes, the Greek alphabet.[89][90] Evidence for this is found in the condaghes, the first written documents in Sardinian. From the long Byzantine era there are only a few entries but they already provide a glimpse of the sociolinguistical situation on the island in which, in addition to the community's everyday Neo-Latin language, Greek was also spoken by the ruling classes.[91] Some toponyms, such as Jerzu (thought to derive from the Greek khérsos, "untilled"), together with the personal names Mikhaleis, Konstantine and Basilis, demonstrate Greek influence.[91]

The condaghe of Saint Peter of Silki (1065–1180), written in Sardinian.

As the Muslims conquered southern Italy and Sicily, communications broke down between Constantinople and Sardinia, whose districts became progressively more autonomous from the Byzantine oecumene (Greek: οἰκουμένη). Sardinia was then brought back into the Latin cultural sphere.

Judicates period[edit]

The first page of the Arborean Carta de Logu

Sardinian was the first Romance language of all to gain official status, being used by the four Judicates,[92][93][94][95][note 2] former Byzantine districts that became independent political entities after the Arab expansion in the Mediterranean had cut off any ties left between the island and Byzantium. The exceptionality of the Sardinian situation, which in this sense constitutes a unique case throughout the Latin-speaking Europe, consists in the fact that any official text was written solely in Sardinian from the very beginning and completely excluded Latin, unlike what was happening - and would continue to happen - in France, Italy and Iberia at the same time; Latin, although co-official, was in fact only used in documents concerning relations with the European continent.[96] Awareness of the dignity of Sardinian for official purposes was such that, in the words of Livio Petrucci, a Neo-Latin language had come to be used "at a time when nothing similar can be observed in the Italian peninsula" not only "in the legal field" but also "in any other field of writing".[97]

Extract from the Logudorese Privilege (1080)
« In nomine Domini amen. Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: e ego donolislu pro ca lis so ego amicu caru e itsos a mimi; ci nullu imperatore ci lu aet potestare istu locu de non (n)apat comiatu de leuarelis toloneu in placitu: de non occidere pisanu ingratis: e ccausa ipsoro ci lis aem leuare ingratis, de facerlis iustitia inperatore ci nce aet exere intu locu [...] »

Old Sardinian had a greater number of archaisms and Latinisms than the present language does, with few Germanic words, mostly coming from Latin itself, and even fewer Arabisms, which had been imported by scribes from Iberia.[98]

Although the surviving texts come from such disparate areas as the north and the south of the island, Sardinian then presented itself in a rather homogeneous form:[99] even though the orthographic differences between Logudorese and Campidanese were beginning to appear, Wagner found in this period "the original unity of the Sardinian language".[100] In agreement with Wagner is Paolo Merci, who found a "broad uniformity" around this period, as were Antonio Sanna and Ignazio Delogu too, for whom it was the islanders' community life that prevented Sardinian from localism.[99] According to Carlo Tagliavini, these earlier documents show the existence of a Sardinian Koine which pointed to a model based on Logudorese.[101][102]

According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, it was in the wake of the fall of the Judicates of Judicate of Cagliari and Gallura, in the second half of the 13th century, that Sardinian began to fragment into its modern dialects, undergoing some Tuscanization under the rule of the Republic of Pisa;[103] it did not take long before the Genoese too started carving their own sphere of influence in northern Sardinia, both through the mixed Sardinian-Genovese nobility of Sassari and the members of the Doria family.[104] A certain range of dialectal variation is then noted.[54][2]

A special position was occupied by the Judicate of Arborea, the last Sardinian kingdom to fall to foreign powers, in which a transitional dialect was spoken, that of Middle Sardinian. The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in 1355–1376 by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" (judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian) Eleanor, was written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and would remain in force until 1827.[105][106] The Arborean judges' effort to unify the Sardinian dialects were due to their desire to be legitimate rulers of the entire island under a single state (republica sardisca "Sardinian Republic");[107] such political goal, after all, was already manifest in 1164, when the Arborean Judge Barison ordered his great seal to be made with the writings Baresonus Dei Gratia Rei Sardiniee ("Barison, by the grace of God, King of Sardinia") and Est vis Sardorum pariter regnum Populorum ("The people's rule is equal to the Sardinians' own force").[108]

Dante Alighieri wrote in his 1302–05 essay De vulgari eloquentia that Sardinians were strictly speaking not Italians (Latii), even though they appeared superficially similar to them, and they did not speak anything close to a Neo-Latin language of their own (lingua vulgaris), but resorted to aping straightforward Latin instead.[109][110][111][112][113][114] Dante's view on the Sardinians, however, is proof of how their language had been following its own course in a way which was already unintelligible to non-islanders, and rather became, in Wagner's words, an impenetrable "sphinx" to their judgment.[98] Frequently mentioned is the popular 12th-century verse from Raimbaut de Vaqueiras' poem Domna, tant vos ai preiada; Sardinian epitomizes outlandish speech therein, along with non-Romance languages such as German and Berber, with the troubadour having his wife say «No t'entend plui d'un Todesco / Sardesco o Barbarì» ("I do not understand you any more than [I could] a German / Sardinian or Berber");[115][116][113][117][118][119] the Tuscan poet Fazio degli Uberti refers to the Sardinians in his poem Dittamondo as «una gente che niuno non-la intende / né essi sanno quel ch'altri pispiglia» ("a people that no one is able to understand / nor do they come to a knowledge of what other peoples say about them").[120][114][113]

The Muslim geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II, wrote in his work Kitab Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi'khtirāq al-āfāq ("The book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands" or, simply, "The book of Roger") that «Sardinians are ethnically Rūm Afāriqah, like the Berbers; they shun contacts with all the other Rūm nations and are people of purpose and valiant that never leave the arms».[121][122][123][124][125] According to Wagner, the close relationship in the development of vulgar Latin between North Africa and Sardinia might not have only derived from ancient ethnic affinities between the two populations, but also from their common political past within the Exarchate of Africa.[126]

Two pages of an illuminated manuscript
Sardinian-language statutes of Sassari from the 13th–14th centuries

What literature is left to us from this period primarily consists of legal and administrative documents, besides the aforementioned Cartas and condaghes. The first document containing Sardinian elements is a 1063 donation to the abbey of Montecassino signed by Barisone I of Torres.[127] Another such document (the so-called Carta Volgare) comes from the Judicate of Cagliari and was issued by Torchitorio I de Lacon-Gunale in around 1070, written in Sardinian whilst still employing the Greek alphabet.[128] Other documents are the Carta Volgare (1070–1080) in Campidanese, the 1080 Logudorese Privilege,[note 3] the 1089 Donation of Torchitorio (in the Marseille archives),[note 4] the 1190–1206 Marsellaise Chart (in Campidanese)[note 5] and an 1173 communication between the Bishop Bernardo of Civita and Benedetto, who oversaw the Opera del Duomo in Pisa.[note 6] The Statutes of Sassari (1316) and Castelgenovese (c. 1334) are written in Logudorese.[note 7]

The first chronicle in lingua sive ydiomate sardo,[129] called Condagues de Sardina, was published anonymously in the 13th century, relating the events of the Judicate of Torres.

Iberian period – Catalan and Spanish influence[edit]

The 1297 feoffment of Sardinia by Pope Boniface VIII led to the creation of the Aragonese Kingdom of Sardinia and a long period of war between the Aragonese and Sardinians, ending with an Aragonese victory at Sanluri in 1409 and the renunciation of any succession right signed by William II of Narbonne in 1420.[130] During this period the clergy adopted Catalan as their primary language, relegating Sardinian to a secondary but nonetheless relevant status with regards to the official acts and the Realm's law (the Carta de Logu was extended to most of the island in 1421 by the Parliament[131]). Agreeing with Fara's De rebus Sardois,[132] the Sardinian attorney Sigismondo Arquer, author of Sardiniae brevis historia et descriptio in Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis (whose report would also be quoted in Conrad Gessner's "On the different languages used by the various nations across the globe" with minor variations[133]), stated that Sardinian prevailed in most of the Kingdom, with particular regard for the rural interior, and Catalan and Spanish were spoken in the cities, where the ruling class eventually became plurilingual in both the native and the Iberian languages;[134] Alghero is still a Catalan-speaking enclave on Sardinia to this day.[135] This sociolinguistic situation was reported by various authors, including the ambassador Martin Carillo (supposed author of the ironic judgment on the Sardinians' tribal and sectarian divisions: «pocos, locos, y mal unidos» "few, thickheaded, and badly united"),[136] the anonymous Llibre dels feyts d'armes de Catalunya, a passage of which reads: «parlen la llengua catalana molt polidament, axì com fos a Catalunya» ("they speak Catalan very well, as though I was in Catalonia"); Anselm Adorno, a wealthy Genoese residing in Bruges who noted that, many foreigners notwithstanding, the native population spoke their own language (linguam propriam sardiniscam loquentes);[137] and, finally, the rector of the Jesuit college of Sassari, Baldassarre Pinyes, who wrote in Rome: «per ciò che concerne la lingua sarda, sappia vostra paternità che essa non è parlata in questa città, né in Alghero, né a Cagliari: la parlano solo nelle ville» ("as far as the Sardinian language is concerned, Your Paternity, know that it is not spoken in this city, nor in Alghero, nor in Cagliari: they only speak it in the towns").

The long-lasting war and the so-called Black Death had a devastating effect on the island, depopulating large parts of it. People from the neighbouring island of Corsica began to settle in the northern Sardinian coast, leading to the birth of the Tuscan-sounding Sassarese and Gallurese lects.[138][139]

Extract from sa Vitta et sa Morte, et Passione de sanctu Gavinu, Prothu et Januariu (A. Cano, ~1400)[140]

O

Deus eternu, sempre omnipotente,
In s'aiudu meu ti piacat attender,
Et dami gratia de poder acabare
Su sanctu martiriu, in rima vulgare,
5. De sos sanctos martires tantu gloriosos
Et cavaleris de Cristus victoriosos,
Sanctu Gavinu, Prothu e Januariu,
Contra su demoniu, nostru adversariu,
Fortes defensores et bonos advocados,
10. Qui in su Paradisu sunt glorificados
De sa corona de sanctu martiriu.
Cussos sempre siant in nostru adiutoriu.
Amen.

Despite Catalan being widely spoken and written on the island at this time (leaving a lasting influence in Sardinian), there are some written records of Sardinian, which was estimated to be the ordinary language of the Sardinians by the Jesuits in 1561.[141] One is the 15th-century Sa Vitta et sa Morte, et Passione de sanctu Gavinu, Brothu et Ianuariu, written by Antòni Canu (1400–1476) and published in 1557.[140]

The 16th century is instead marked by a new Sardinian literary revival: Rimas Spirituales, by Hieronimu Araolla,[142] was aimed at "glorifying and enriching Sardinian, our language" (magnificare et arrichire sa limba nostra sarda) as Spanish, French and Italian poets had already done for their own languages (la Deffense et illustration de la langue françoyse and Il Dialogo delle lingue).[143][note 8] Antonio Lo Frasso, a poet born in Alghero[144] (a city he remembered fondly)[note 9] who spent his life in Barcelona, wrote lyric poetry in Sardinian:[145]  ... «Non podende sufrire su tormentu / de su fogu ardente innamorosu. / Videndemi foras de sentimentu / et sensa una hora de riposu, / pensende istare liberu e contentu / m'agato pius aflitu e congoixosu, / in essermi de te senora apartadu, / mudende ateru quelu, ateru istadu ...».

Through the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 and, later in 1624, the reorganization of the monarchy led by the Count-Duke of Olivares, Sardinia would progressively join a broad Spanish cultural sphere and leave the exclusive Aragonese one. Spanish was perceived as an elitist language, gaining solid ground among the ruling Sardinian class; Spanish had thus a profound influence on Sardinian, especially in those words, styles and cultural models owing to the prestigious international role of the Habsburg Monarchy as well as the Court.[note 10][142] Most Sardinian authors would write in both Spanish and Sardinian until the 19th century and were well-versed in the former, like Vicente Bacallar y Sanna that was one of the founders of the Real Academia Española;[146] according to Bruno Anatra's estimates, around 87% of the books printed in Cagliari were in Spanish.[136] A notable exception was Pedro Delitala (1550–1590), who decided to write in Italian instead.[144][147] Nonetheless, the Sardinian language retained much of its importance, earning respect from the Spaniards in light of it being the ethnic code the people from most of the Kingdom kept using, especially in the interior.[148][note 11] New genres of popular poetry were established around this period, like the gosos or gocius (sacred hymns), the anninnia (lullabies), the attitu (funeral laments), the batorinas (quatrains), the berbos and paraulas (curses), and the improvised poetry of the mutu and mutetu.

Sardinian was also one of the few official languages, along with Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese, whose knowledge was required to be an officer in the Spanish tercios.[149]

A 1620 proclamation is in the Bosa archives.[note 12]

Ioan Matheu Garipa, a priest from Orgosolo who translated the Italian Leggendario delle Sante Vergini e Martiri di Gesù Cristo into Sardinian (Legendariu de Santas Virgines, et Martires de Iesu Christu) in 1627, was the first author to call Sardinian the closest living relative of classical Latin[150] and, like Araolla before him,[143] valued Sardinian as the language of a specific ethno-national community.[151]

Three gravestones in the ancient cemetery of Ploaghe (Logudoro), wherein a total of thirty-nine gravestones have writings in Sardinian and three in Italian.

Savoyard period – Italian influence[edit]

The War of the Spanish Succession gave Sardinia to Austria, whose sovereignty was confirmed by the 1713–14 treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. In 1717 a Spanish fleet reoccupied Cagliari, and the following year Sardinia was ceded to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy in exchange for Sicily. This transfer would not initially entail any social nor linguistic changes, though: Sardinia would still retain for a long time its Iberian character, so much so that only in 1767 were the Aragonese and Spanish dynastic symbols replaced by the Savoyard cross.[152] This stance was rooted in three political reasons: in the first place, the Savoyards felt like they did not want to rouse international suspicion and followed to the letter the rules dictated by the Treaty of London, signed on the second of August 1718, whereby they committed themselves to respect the fundamental laws of the newly acquired Kingdom; in the second, they did not want to antagonize the hispanophile locals, especially the elites; in the third, they lingered on hoping they could manage to dispose of the island while still keeping the title of Kings by regaining Sicily.[153] In fact, since imposing Italian would mean to break one of the fundamental laws of the Kingdom the new rulers swore to observe upon taking on the mantle of King, Victor Amadeus II emphasised the need for the operation to be carried out through incremental steps small enough to go relatively unnoticed (insensibilmente) as early as 1721.[154] Such prudence was again noted, when the same King claimed that he was nevertheless not intentioned to ban either Sardinian or Spanish on two separate occasions, in 1726 and 1728.[155] The fact that the new masters of Sardinia felt at loss as to how they could better deal with a cultural and linguistic environment they perceived as alien to the Mainland,[156] where Italian had long been the official language, can be deduced from the study Memoria dei mezzi che si propongono per introdurre l'uso della lingua italiana in questo Regno ("Account of the proposed ways to introduce the Italian language to this Kingdom") commissioned in 1726 by the Piedmontese administration, to which the Jesuit Antonio Falletti from Barolo responded suggesting the ignotam linguam per notam expōnĕre ("to introduce an unknown language [Italian] through a known one [Spanish]") method as the best course of action for Italianization.[157] In the same year, Victor Amadeus II had already said he could no longer tolerate the lack of ability to speak Italian on the part of the islanders, in view of the inconveniences that such inability was putting through for the functionaries sent from the Mainland.[158] Restrictions to mixed marriages between Sardinian women and the Piedmontese officers dispatched to the island, which had hitherto been prohibited by law,[159] were at one point lifted and even encouraged so as to better introduce the language to the local population.[160][161]

In contrast to the cultural dynamics long established in the Mainland between Italian and the various Romance dialects thereof, in Sardinia the relationship between the Italian language – recently introduced by Savoy – and the native one had been perceived from the start by the locals, educated and uneducated alike, as a relationship (albeit unequal in terms of political power and prestige) between two very different languages, and not between a language and one of its dialects.[162] The plurisecular Iberian period had also contributed in making the Sardinians feel relatively detached from the Italian language and its cultural sphere; local sensibilities towards the language were further exacerbated by the fact that the Spanish ruling class had long considered Sardinian a distinct language, with respect to their own ones and Italian as well.[163] The perception of the alterity of Sardinian was also widely shared among the Italians who happened to visit the island and recounted their experiences with the local population,[164] whom they often likened to the Spanish and the ancient peoples of the Orient.[165][166][167]

However, the Savoyard government eventually decided to directly impose Italian altogether on Sardinia on 25 July 1760,[168][169][170][171][172][173] because of the Savoyards' geopolitical need to draw the island away from Spain's gravitational pull and culturally integrate Sardinia into the Italian peninsula's orbit,[174] and especially Piedmont.[175][176][177][note 13][178] In 1764, the order was extended to all sectors of public life.[179][180][181] Spanish was thus replaced as the official language (even though it continued to be used in the parish registers and official deeds until 1828[182]) and Sardinian was again marginalized, making way for the Italianization of the island.[183][184][180][2] For the first time, in fact, even the wealthy and most powerful families of rural Sardinia, the printzipales, started to perceive Sardinian as a handicap.[179]

At the end of the 18th century, following the trail of the French revolution, a group of the Sardinian middle class planned to break away from the mainland ruling class and institute an independent Sardinian Republic under French protection; all over the island, a number of political pamphlets printed in Sardinian were illegally distributed, calling for a mass revolt against the Piedmontese rule and the barons' abuse. The most famous literary product born out of such political unrest was the poem Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios, noted as a testament of the French-inspired democratic and patriotic values, as well as Sardinia's situation under feudalism.[185][186]

The first systematic study on the Sardinian language was written in 1782 by the philologist Matteo Madau, with the title of Il ripulimento della lingua sarda lavorato sopra la sua antologia colle due matrici lingue, la greca e la latina.[187] The patriotic intention that motivated Madau was to trace the ideal path through which Sardinian could grow to be the island's proper national language;[188][189][190][191] nevertheless, the Savoyard climate of repression on Sardinian culture would induce Matteo Madau to veil its radical proposals with some literary devices, and the author was eventually unable to ever translate them into reality.[192] The first volume of comparative Sardinian dialectology was produced in 1786 by the Catalan Jesuit Andres Febres, known in Italy and Sardinia by the pseudonym of Bonifacio d'Olmi, who returned from Lima where he had first published a book of Mapuche grammar in 1764.[193] After he moved to Cagliari, he became fascinated with the Sardinian language as well and conducted some research on three specific dialects; the aim of his work, entitled Prima grammatica de' tre dialetti sardi,[194] was to «write down the rules of the Sardinian language» and spur the Sardinians to «cherish the language of their Homeland, as well as Italian». The government in Turin, which had been monitoring Febres' activity, decided that his work would not be allowed to be published: Victor Amadeus III had supposedly not appreciated the fact that the book had a bilingual dedication to him in Italian and Sardinian, a mistake that his successors, while still echoing back to a general concept of "Sardinian ancestral homeland", would from then on avoid, and making exclusive use of Italian to produce their works.[192]

In the climate of monarchic restoration that followed Angioy's rebellion, other Sardinian intellectuals, all characterized by an attitude of general devotion to their island as well as proven loyalty to the House of Savoy, posed in fact the question of the Sardinian language, while being careful enough to use only Italian as a language to get their point across. During the 19th century in particular, the Sardinian intellectuality and ruling class found itself divided over the adherence to the Sardinian national values and the allegiance to the new Italian nationality,[195] toward which they eventually leaned in the wake of the abortive Sardinian revolution.[196] The identity crisis of the Sardinian ruling class, and their strive for acceptance into the new citizenship of the Italian identity, would manifest itself with the publication of the so-called Falsi d'Arborea[197] by the unionist and reactionary historian Pietro Martini in 1863.

A few years after the major anti-Piedmontese revolt, in 1811, the priest Vincenzo Raimondo Porru published a timid essay of Sardinian grammar, which, however, referred expressively to the Southern dialect (hence the title of Saggio di grammatica del dialetto sardo meridionale[198]) and, out of prudence towards the king, was made with the declared intention of easing the acquisition of Italian among his fellow Sardinians, instead of protecting their language.[199] The more ambitious work of the professor and senator Giovanni Spano, the Ortographia sarda nationale ("Sardinian National Orthography"),[200] although it was officially meant for the same purpose as Porru's,[note 14] attempted in reality to establish a unified Sardinian orthography based on Logudorese, just like Florentine had become the basis for Italian.[201][202]

The Kingdom of Sardinia in 1856.

The jurist Carlo Baudi di Vesme claimed that the suppression of Sardinian and the imposition of Italian was desirable to make the islanders "civilized Italians".[note 15] The primary and tertiary education was thus offered exclusively through Italian, importing teachers from the Mainland to make up for the lack of Italian-speaking Sardinians,[203] and Piedmontese cartographers replaced many Sardinian place names with Italian ones.[180] The Italian education, being imparted in a language the Sardinians were not familiar with,[note 16] spread Italian for the first time in history to Sardinian villages, marking the troubled transition to the new dominant language; the school environment, which employed Italian as the sole means of communication, grew to become a microcosm around the then-monolingual Sardinian villages.[note 17] In 1811, the canon Salvatore Carboni published in Bologna the polemic book Sos discursos sacros in limba sarda ("Holy Discourses in Sardinian language"), wherein the author lamented the fact that Sardinia, «hoe provinzia italiana non podet tenner sas lezzes e sos attos pubblicos in sa propia limba» ("Being an Italian province nowadays, [Sardinia] cannot have laws and public acts made in its own language"), and while claiming that «sa limba sarda, totu chi non uffiziale, durat in su Populu Sardu cantu durat sa Sardigna» ("the Sardinian language, however unofficial, will last as long as Sardinia among the Sardinians"), he also asked himself «Proite mai nos hamus a dispreziare cun d'unu totale abbandonu sa limba sarda, antiga et nobile cantu s'italiana, sa franzesa et s'ispagnola?» ("Why should we show neglect and contempt for Sardinian, which is a language as ancient and noble as Italian, French and Spanish?").[204][205] Eventually, Sardinian came to be perceived as sa limba de su famine / sa lingua de su famini, literally translating into English as "the language of hunger" (i.e. the language of the poor), and Sardinian parents strongly supported the teaching of the new tongue to their children, since they saw it as the portal to escaping from a poverty-stricken, rural, isolated and underprivileged life.

In 1827, the historical legal code serving as the consuetud de la nació sardesca in the days of the Iberian rule, the Carta de Logu, was abolished and replaced by the more advanced Savoyard code of Charles Felix "Leggi civili e criminali del Regno di Sardegna", written in Italian.[206][207] The Perfect Fusion with the Mainland States, enacted under the auspices of a «transplant, without any reserves and obstacles, [of] the culture and civilization of the Italian Mainland to Sardinia»,[208] would result in the loss of the island's residual autonomy[209][206] and marked the moment when «the language of the "Sardinian nation" lost its value as an instrument with which to ethnically identify a particular people and its culture, to be codified and cherished, and became instead one of the many regional dialects subordinated to the national language».[210] Despite the long-term assimilation policy, the anthem of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia would still be S'hymnu sardu nationale ("the Sardinian National Anthem"), also known as Cunservet Deus su Re ("God save the King"), before it was de facto replaced by the Italian Marcia Reale as well, in 1861.[211] However, even when the island became part of the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II in 1861, Sardinia's distinct culture from the now unified Mainland made it an overall neglected province within the newly proclaimed unitary nation state.[212]

A Sardinian family reading L'Unione Sarda ("The Sardinian Union"), a daily newspaper in the Italian language founded in 1889.

During the mobilization for World War I, the Italian Army compelled all Sardinians to enlist as Italian subjects and established the Sassari Infantry Brigade on 1 March 1915 at Tempio Pausania and Sinnai. Unlike the other infantry brigades of Italy, Sassari's conscripts were only Sardinians (including many officers). It is currently the only unit in Italy with an anthem in a language other than Italian: Dimonios ("Devils"), written in 1994 by Luciano Sechi. Its title derives from Rote Teufel (German for "red devils"). However, compulsory military service played a role in language shift.

Eventually, under Fascism, Sardinia was made to align with the Italian national system,[213] by means of cultural assimilation via the combined role of the school and the party system and repression of the local cultural expressions, including Sardinia's mask festivals[214] and improvised poetry competitions,[215][216][217][218][219][220] and a large number of Sardinian surnames were changed to sound more Italian. Following an argument between the Sardinian poet Antioco Casula (also known as Montanaru) and the fascist journalist Gino Anchisi, who stated that «once the region is moribund or dead, so will the dialect (sic)», the latter managed to have Sardinian banned from the printing press, as well.[221][222] It is by Montanaru that, for the first time in the 20th century, the significance of the Sardinian language was tied to the practices of cultural resistance of an indigenous ethnic group,[223][note 18] whose linguistic repertoire had to be introduced in school to regain a dignity perceived to have been lost.[224] Another famed poet from the island, Salvatore (Bore) Poddighe, fell into a severe depression and took his own life a few years after his masterwork (Sa Mundana Cummedia[225]) had been seized by Cagliari's police commissioner.[226] When the use of Sardinian in school was banned in 1934 as part of a nation-wide educational plan against the alloglot "dialects", the then Sardinian-speaking children were confronted with another means of communication that was supposed to be their own from then onwards.[227] On a whole, this period saw the most aggressive cultural assimilation effort by the central government,[228][2] which led to an even further sociolinguistic degradation of Sardinian.[229] However, the Sardinian Anthem of the once Piedmontese Kingdom was a chance to use a regional language without penalty: as a royal tradition, it could not be forbidden.

The Sardinian-born philosopher Antonio Gramsci commented on the Sardinian linguistic question while writing a letter to his sister Teresina; Gramsci was aware of the long-term ramifications of language shift, and suggested that Teresa let her son acquire Sardinian with no restriction, because doing otherwise would result in "putting his imagination in a straitjacket" as well as him ending up eventually "learning two jargons, and no language at all".[230][231]

Present situation[edit]

A bilingual sign in Villasor's town hall.

After World War II, awareness around the Sardinian language and the danger of its slipping away did not seem to concern the Sardinian elites and entered the political spaces much later than in other European peripheries marked by the long-standing presence of ethno-linguistic minorities;[232] Sardinian was in fact dismissed by the already Italianized middle class,[229] as both the Sardinian language and culture were still being held responsible for the island's underdevelopment.[209] The Sardinian ruling class, drawn to the Italian modernisation stance on Sardinia's path to "development", believed in fact that the latter had been held back by the islanders' "traditional practices", and that social and cultural progress could only be brought about through their rejection.[233][234] Consequently, the Sardinians have been encouraged to Italianize and thus part with what they believed to be negatively marking their affiliation with a stigmatized identity.[235]

At the time of drafting of the statute in 1948, the legislator eventually decided to specify the "Sardinian specialty" as a single criterion for political autonomy just on the grounds of a couple of socio-economic issues devoid of considerations of a distinct cultural, historical and geographical identity,[236][237][238][239] which were on the contrary looked down upon as a potential prelude to more autonomist or separatist claims;[240] this attitude would be exemplified by a report of the Italian Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry into Banditry, which warned against the looming threat posed by "isolationist tendencies injurious to the development of Sardinian society and recently manifesting themselves in the proposal to regard Sardinian as the language of an ethnic minority".[241] Eventually, the special statute of 1948 did not recognize any special geographical conditions about the region nor made any mention of a distinct cultural and linguistic element,[242] preferring instead to concentrate on state-funded plans (baptised with the Italian name of piani di rinascita) for the heavy industrial development of the island, as well as the military installations.[243] Therefore, far from being a Statute grounded on the acknowledgment of a particular cultural identity like, for example, in South Tyrol, what emerged in Sardinia was an «autonomism solely based on economic considerations, because there was not either the will or the ability to devise a strong and culturally motivated autonomy, a "Sardinian specificity" that was not defined on the terms of social backwardness and economic deprivation».[244] In the meantime, the emphasis on Italian-only assimilation policies continued,[2] with historical sites and ordinary objects renamed in Italian (e.g. the various kinds of "traditional" pecorino cheese, zippole instead of tzipulas, carta da musica instead of carasau, formaggelle instead of pardulas / casadinas, etc.).[245] The Ministry of Public Education once requested that the teachers willing to teach Sardinian be put under surveillance.[246][247][248] The rejection of the indigenous language, along with a rigid model of Italian-language education,[249] corporal punishment and shaming,[note 19][250] has led to poor schooling for the Sardinians.[251][252][253] Early school leaving and school failure rates in Sardinia prompted a debate on the actual efficacy of strictly monolingual education in the Nineties, with new proposals for a comparative approach.[254]

Claims for an autonomous solution to the Sardinian economic, social and cultural problems, which the 1948 Statute proved unable to resolve,[209][255] came to the fore once again in the Sixties, with campaigns, often expressed in the form of political demands by Sardinian nationalists,[256][257] to give Sardinian equal status with Italian as a means to promote cultural identity.[258] To such endeavor was oriented the activism of intellectuals like Antonio Simon Mossa, who had drawn from his past experiences across the world that Sardinians too were facing the danger of cultural assimilation,[259] and whose fervor reverberated across the Sardinian society and pushed even some non-nationalist groups to take an interest in matters relating to minorities.[260] Although a law was passed as early as 1955 for the establishment of five professorships of Sardinian linguistics,[261] one of the first demands for bilingualism was formulated in a resolution adopted by the University of Cagliari in 1971, calling upon the national and regional authorities to recognize the Sardinians as an ethnic and linguistic minority and Sardinian as the islanders' co-official language.[262][263][note 20] At a time when the Italian "modernisation plans" in Sardinia were in full swing, the Italian government was apprehensive about this deliberation by the University of Cagliari as providing the timber for further ethnic unrest in the state's peripheries.[264] Sergio Salvi's description of the Sardinians as a "forbidden nation" in Italy further contributed to the linguistic question gaining more notoriety at the national level.[265] A first legal draft concerning Sardinian as a language to be legally put on an equal position with Italian was developed by the Sardinian Action Party in 1975.[266][267] Critical acclaim in Sardinian cultural circles followed the patriotic poem No sias isciau[note 21] ("Don't be a slave") by Raimondo (Remundu) Piras some months before his death in 1977, urging bilingual education to reverse the ongoing trend of cultural De-Sardization.[218]

Indeed, during the late 70s reports were released that Sardinian was on course of being abandoned in favour of Italian in the towns and among the younger generation.[268] By then, a significant shift to Italian had been noted in rural Sardinia not only in the Campidanese plain, but even in some inner areas that had been previously considered Sardinian-speaking bastions,[269] manifesting a parallel shift of the values upon which the ethnic and cultural identity of the Sardinians was traditionally grounded.[270][note 22] From then onwards, the use of Sardinian would continue to recede because of the strongly negative view the Sardinian community developed toward it, assuming a self-belittling attitude which has been described as the emergence of a "minority complex" fairly typical of linguistic minorities.[271] However, by the Eighties the language had become a point of ethnic pride:[272] it also became a tool through which long held grievances towards the central government's failure at delivering better economic and social conditions could be channeled.[273] A contradicting tendency has been noted by observing that, while Sardinian is held in a much more positive light than before, its actual use has notably decreased and keeps doing so.[274]

A law by popular initiative for Sardinian-Italian bilingualism garnered considerable success as it kept gathering thousands of signatures, but was promptly blocked by the Italian Communist Party and thus never implemented.[275][276] The same Italian Communist Party would later propose, however, another bill of its own initiative "for the protection of the language and culture of the Sardinian people" in 1980.[277] In the end, following tensions and claims of the Sardinian nationalist movement for concrete cultural and political autonomy, including the recognition of the Sardinians as an ethnic and linguistic minority, three separate bills were eventually presented to the Regional Council in the Eighties.[53] In 1981, the Regional Council debated and voted for the introduction of bilingualism in Sardinia for the first time.[267][278] As pressure by a resolution of the Council of Europe continued to bear on Italian policy-makers for the protection of minorities, a Commission was appointed in 1982 to investigate the issue;[279] the following year, a bill was presented to the Italian Parliament, but without success. One of the first laws approved by the Sardinian legislator with respect to the protection and promotion of the Sardinian language and culture was soon rejected by the Constitutional Court in 1994, which deemed it "exorbitant in a multitude of ways with regard to the supplementary and implementing powers enjoyed by the Region in matters of education";[280][281] it was not until 1997 that Sardinian was finally recognized by the regional law (n. 26 of 15 October 1997 "Promotion and enhancement of the culture and language of Sardinia") without there being any recourse from the Italian central government;[4] this law too, however, would prove to be more focused on the traditions and history of the Sardinian people than the language in itself.[261]

A survey conducted by MAKNO in 1984 showed that three-fourths of the Sardinians had a positive attitude towards bilingual education (22% of the interviewees, especially in the Province of Nuoro and Oristano, wanted Sardinian to be compulsory in Sardinian schools, while 54.7% would prefer to see teaching in Sardinian as optional) and official bilingualism like in the Aosta Valley and South Tyrol (62.7% of the population were in favour, 25.9% said no and 11.4% were unsure).[282] Such consensus remains relatively stable to this day;[283] another survey, conducted in 2008, reported that more than half of the interviewees, 57.3%, were in favour of the introduction of Sardinian into schools alongside Italian.[284] More research carried out in 2010 confirmed warm reception among the students' parents to introducing Sardinian at school, even though skepticism circulated around having it taught as the vehicular language of education.[285]

Sign with graphic of crossed-out cigarette
Bilingual No-smoking sign in Sardinian and Italian

In the 1990s, there had been a resurgence of Sardinian-language music, ranging from the more traditional genres (cantu a tenore, cantu a chiterra, gosos etc.) to rock (Kenze Neke, Askra, Tzoku, Tazenda etc.) and even hip hop and rap (Dr. Drer e CRC Posse, Quilo, Sa Razza, Malam, Su Akru, Menhir, Stranos Elementos, Malos Cantores, Randagiu Sardu, Futta etc.), and with artists who used the language as a means to promote the island and address its long-standing issues and the new challenges.[286][287][288][289][290] A few films (like Su Re, Bellas Mariposas, Treulababbu, Sonetaula etc.) have also been dubbed in Sardinian,[291] and some others were provided with subtitles in the language.[292] The first scientific work in Sardinian (Sa chistione mundiali de s'Energhia), delving into the question of modern energy supplies, was written by Paolo Giuseppe Mura, Physics Professor at the University of Cagliari, in 1995.[293]

Eventually, sustained activism made possible the ratification by Italy of the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 1998,[279] which would be followed in 1999 by the formal recognition of twelve minority languages (Sardinian, Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovenian, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin and Occitan) through the framework law no. 482,[294] in keeping with the spirit of Art. 6 of the Italian Constitution ("The Republic safeguards linguistic minorities by means of appropriate measures"[295]). While the first section of said law states that Italian is the official language of the Republic, a number of provisions are included to normalize the use of such languages and let them become part of the national fabric.[296] However, Italy (along with France and Malta[297]) has never ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[298] Nevertheless, the law proved to be a positive step towards the legalization of Sardinian as it put at least an end to the ban on the language which had been in effect since the Italian Unification.[299]

Still, some national school books (education does not fall under the remits of the region and is managed by the state at the central level) have not stopped to squeeze the language into the Italian acceptation of dialetto ("Italian dialect") in spite of its actual recognition by the state.[300] Sardinian is yet to be taught at school, with the exception of a few experimental occasions; furthermore, its use has not ceased to be disincentivized as antiquated or even indicative of a lack of education,[301][302] leading many locals to associate it with negative feelings of shame, backwardness, and provincialism.[303][304] Similar issues of identity have been observed in regard to the community's attitude toward what they positively perceive to be part of "modernity", generally associated with the Italian cultural sphere, as opposed to the Sardinian one, whose aspects have long been stigmatized as "primitive" and "barbarous" by the political and social institutions that ruled the island.[305]

Bilingual sign pointing to a church
Bilingual Italian–Sardinian road sign in Siniscola

A number of other factors like a considerable immigration flow from mainland Italy, the interior rural exodus to urban areas, where Sardinian is spoken by a much lower percentage of the population,[note 23] and the use of Italian as a prerequisite for jobs and social advancement actually hinder any policy set up to promote the language.[29][306][307] Therefore, following the model proposed by a UNESCO panel of experts in 2003, Sardinian is classified by UNESCO as a "definitely endangered" language ("children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home"),[308] on the way to become "severely endangered" ("the language is used mostly by the grandparental generation and up").

Language use is far from stable;[53] following the Expanded GIDS (Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale) model, Sardinian would position between 7 ("Shifting: the child-bearing generation knows the language well enough to use it among themselves but none are transmitting it to their children"[309]) and 8a ("Moribund: the only remaining active speakers of the language are members of the grandparent generation"[309]). While an estimated 68 percent of the islanders had in fact a good oral command of Sardinian, language ability among the children has plummeted to less than 13 percent;[29][26][27][310] some linguists, like Mauro Maxia, cite the low number of Sardinian-speaking children as indicative of language decline, calling Sardinia "a case of linguistic suicide".[28] The depth of the Sardophone networks' increasing assimilation into Italian is illustrated by the latest ISTAT data published in 2017, which confirm Italian as the language that has largely taken root as the means of socialization within Sardinian families (52.1%), relegating the practice of code-switching to 31.5% and the actual use of languages other than Italian to only 15.6%; outside the social circle of family and friends, the numbers define Italian as by far the most prevalent language (87.2%), as opposed to the usage of Sardinian and other languages which has dropped to 2.8%.[311] Today, most people who use Sardinian as part of day-to-day life reside mainly in the sparsely populated areas in the countryside, like the mountainous region of Barbagia.[312][313]

A bill proposed by the cabinet of the former Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti would have further lowered the protection level of Sardinian,[314] distinguishing between the so-called "national minorities", speaking languages protected by international agreements (German, Slovenian, French) and the "linguistic minorities" whose language is not spoken in any state other than Italy (all the other ethno-linguistic groups, including Sardinian). This bill, which was eventually implemented[315] but later deemed unconstitutional by the Court,[316] triggered a reaction on the island.[317][318][319][320] Students expressed an interest in taking all (or part) of their exit examinations in Sardinian.[321][322][323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330][331] In response to a 2013 Italian initiative to remove bilingual signs on the island, a group of Sardinians began a virtual campaign on Google Maps to replace Italian place names with the original Sardinian names. After about one month, Google changed the place names back to Italian.[332][333][334]

Church of the Pater Noster (Jerusalem, Israel), Lord's Prayer plaque in Sardinian

After a signature campaign,[335] it has been made possible to change the language setting on Facebook from any language to Sardinian.[336][337][338][339] It is also possible to switch to Sardinian even in Telegram[340][341] and a number of other programs, like F-Droid, Diaspora, OsmAnd, Notepad++, Swiftkey, Stellarium,[342] Skype,[343] VLC media player for Android and iOS, Linux Mint Debian Edition 2 "Betsy", etc. The DuckDuckGo search engine is available in Sardinian as well. In 2016, the first automatic translation software from Italian to Sardinian was developed.[344]

In 2015, all the political parties in the Sardinian regional council reached an agreement concerning a series of amendments to the old 1997 law to be able to introduce the optional teaching of the language in Sardinia's schools.[345][346][347] The Unified Text on the Discipline of the Regional linguistic policy[5] was eventually approved on 27 June 2018, with the aim of setting in motion a path towards bilingual administration, contributions to bilingual mass media, publishing, IT schools and websites; it also allowed for the foundation of a Sardinian board (Consulta de su Sardu) with thirty experts that would propose a linguistic standard based on the main historical varieties, and would also have advisory duties towards the Regional body.[348][349] However, said law has yet to be followed up by the respective implementing decrees, the lack of which prevents it from being legally applicable.[350][351][352] Some Sardinian language activists and activist groups have also contested the law itself, considering it a political attack on Sardinian made to try to negate its uniformity and to relegate it to folklore, and also noted how its text contains a few parts that could bring the Italian government to challenge it.[353][354][355]

In 2021 the Prosecutor of Oristano opened a Sardinian linguistic desk, both to support citizens and to provide advice and translations to magistrates and the police. It has been the first time in Italy in which such a service has been offered to a minority language.[356][357]

Although there is still not an option to teach Sardinian on the island itself, let alone in Italy, some language courses are instead sometimes available in Germany (Universities of Stuttgart, Munich, Tübingen, Mannheim[358] etc.), Spain (University of Girona),[359] Iceland[360] and Czech Republic (Brno university).[361][362] Shigeaki Sugeta also taught Sardinian to his students of Romance languages at the Waseda University in Tokyo (Japan),[363][364][365] and would even release a Sardinian-Japanese dictionary out of it.[366][367]

The Sardinian-speaking community among the other minority language groups officially recognized by Italy.[368][369]

At present, the Sardinian-speaking community is the least protected one in Italy, despite being the largest minority language group officially recognized by the state.[54][23] In fact the language, which is receding in all domains of use, is still not given access to any field of public life,[29][370] such as education (Italian–Sardinian bilingualism is still frowned upon,[28][323][371][372] while the local public universities play little, if any, role whatsoever in supporting the language[373][374][375]), politics (with the exception of some nationalist groups[376]), justice, administrative authorities and public services, media,[377][378][379][380][381] and cultural,[382] ecclesiastical,[383][384] economic and social activities, as well as facilities.[385]

According to a 2017 report on the digital language diversity in Europe, Sardinian appears to be particularly vital on social media as part of many people's everyday life for private use, but such vitality does not still translate into a strong and wide availability of Internet media for the language.[386] In 2017, a 60-hour Sardinian language course was introduced for the first time in Sardinia and Italy at the University of Cagliari, although such a course had been already available in other universities abroad.[387]

In 2015, the Council of Europe commented on the status of national minorities in Italy, noting the à la carte approach of the Italian state towards them with the exception of the German, French and Slovenian languages, where Italy has applied full bilingualism due to international agreements. Despite the formal recognition from the Italian state, Italy does not in fact collect any information on the ethnic and linguistic composition of the population, apart from South Tyrol.[388] There is also virtually no print and broadcasting media exposure in politically or numerically weaker minorites like Sardinian. Moreover, the resources allocated to cultural projects like bilingual education, which lacks a consistent approach and offers no guarantee of continuity throughout the years,[389] are largely insufficient to meet "even the most basic expectations".[390][391][392][393][394]

Bilingual road signs in Pula.

A solution to the Sardinian question being unlikely to be found anytime soon,[53] the language has become highly endangered:[373] even though the endogamy rate among group members seems to be very high,[29] less than 15 per cent of the Sardinian children use the language to communicate with each other.[395] it appears that the late recognition of Sardinian as a minority language on the part of the state, as well as the gradual but pervasive Italianization promoted by the latter's education system, the administration system and the media, followed by the intergenerational language replacement, made it so that the vitality of Sardinian has been heavily compromised.[267] The 1995 Euromosaic project, which conducted a research study on the current situation of the ethno-linguitic minorities across Europe under the auspices of the European Commission, concludes their report on Sardinian as follows:

This would appear to be yet another minority language group under threat. The agencies of production and reproduction are not serving the role they did a generation ago. The education system plays no role whatsoever in supporting the language and its production and reproduction. The language has no prestige and is used in work only as a natural as opposed to a systematic process. It seems to be a language relegated to a highly localised function of interaction between friends and relatives. Its institutional base is extremely weak and declining. Yet there is concern among its speakers who have an emotive link to the language and its relationship to Sardinian identity.

— Sardinian language use survey, Euromosaic report[29]

As Matteo Valdes explains, «the island's population sees, day after day, the decline of their original languages. They are complicit in this decline, passing on to their children the language of prestige and power, but at the same time they feel that the loss of local languages is also a loss of themselves, of their history, of their own specific identity or distinctiveness».[396] With cultural assimilation having already occurred,[397][398] most of the younger generation of islanders, although they do understand some basic Sardinian, is now in fact Italian monolingual and monocultural, being able to speak not Sardinian anymore, but a Sardinian-influenced variety of Italian[399][53][400][401] which in its lowest diastratic forms[402] is, oftentimes derisively,[403] nicknamed italiànu porcheddìnu (literally "swinish Italian") by native Sardinian speakers. By contrast, it has been noted how the latter engage only in code-switching and usually take care in refraining from code-mixing between the two different languages.[404] Many young speakers, who have increasingly been raised in Italian rather than Sardinian, have now just a limited active or even solely passive command of their ethnic language.[405] Negative attitudes among native speakers have been observed towards second-language learners for speaking "poor Sardinian", an attitude considered to be ethnically grounded on the interaction of in-group and out-group dynamics.[406]

In conclusion, the Sardinian language, while still viable overall,[407] continues to be adversely affected by pervasive and all-encompassing Italianization, and thus continues its agony, albeit at a slower pace than before thanks to the commitment of those who, in various contexts, promote its revaluation in a process that has been defined by some scholars as "linguistic re-Sardization".[408] Still, arrangements for bilingualism exist only on paper[409] and factors such as the intergenerational transmission, which remain essential in the reproduction of the ethnolinguistic group, are severely compromised because of Italianization.[410] As the long-term future of the language looks far from secure in the present circumstances,[411] it is possible that it shall be referred to as constituting the substratum of the one prevailing now, Italian, rather than as a living language spoken by the islanders.[412][413][414]

Phonology[edit]

All dialects of Sardinian have phonetic features that are relatively conservative compared to other Romance languages. The degree of conservatism varies, with the dialect spoken in the Province of Nuoro displaying some of the most conservative features. Medieval evidence indicates that the language spoken in Sardinia and Corsica at the time was similar to modern Nuorese Sardinian; while Corsica underwent a process of Tuscanization that rendered the Corsican dialects akin to Tuscan, the Sardinian dialects are thought to have slowly evolved through some Catalan, Spanish and later Italian influences.

The examples listed below are from the Logudorese dialect:

  • Latin vowels lost their length contrasts together with length-associated tenseness distinctions, but have all preserved their original height; high- and low-mid vowels have collapsed, conditioned by metaphony (on which below); most other Romance varieties have augmented tenseness distinctions by sacrificing the original height. As a result and in contrast to most other varieties, Sardinian merges all Late Latin short-long vowel pairs without exception.
  • For example, the Latin high short (lax) /i/ [ɪ] and /u/ [ʊ], which merged into the high /i/ and /u/ in Sardinian, instead generally merged into the mid /e/ and /o/, respectively, in Tuscan Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, where Latin length contrasts were exchanged for quality contrasts: for example, Latin siccum > sicu "dry", Italian secco, Spanish and Portuguese seco. This could indicate an early (and thus archaic) elimination of vowel length contrasts in the Latin of Sardinia - some archaic varieties in Southern Lucania share similar or identical systems, while African Latin, believed to have been genetically closest to the Latin of Sardinia, presents compelling indications of vowel length loss as early as the 3rd century AD.[415][416]
Outcomes of Latin vowels[417]
Latin Nuorese and Campidanese outcomes Latin
/i/: piram ['piːra] 'pear’ ['biːnu] 'wine' /ī/: vīnum
/u/: nucem ['nukːɛ, 'nuːʒi] 'nut' ['lukːɛ, 'luːʒi] 'light' /ū/: lūcem
/e/: decem ['dɛkːɛ, 'dɛːʒi] 'ten' Log. ['s̺ɛːrɔ] 'evening',

Camp. [ari'z̺ɛːru] 'yesterday'

/ē/: (heri) sērō
/o/: focum ['fokːu, 'foːɣu] 'fire' ['s̺ɔːlɛ, 's̺ɔːli] 'sun' /ō/: sōlem
/a/: mare ['maːrɛ, 'maːri] 'sea' ['kaːlɛ, 'kaːli] 'of what kind' /ā/: quālem
  • Preservation of the plosive sounds /k/ and /ɡ/ before front vowels /e/ and /i/; for example, centum > chentu "hundred"; decem > dèche "ten" and gener > ghèneru "son-in-law" (Italian cento, dieci, genero with /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/). This is another strikingly archaic feature that was shared by African Romance.[418]
    • /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ have since been introduced to Logudorese via borrowing from other dialects and external languages, but generally not Nuorese, where these are reflected as /t͡s/ and /d͡z/.
  • Absence of diphthongizations found in many other Romance languages; for example, potest > podest "(s)he can" (Italian può, Spanish puede, Romanian poate); bonus > bónu "good" (Italian buono, Spanish bueno). This is shared by several Central-Southern Italian varieties, with many displaying various types of metaphony reminiscent of Sardinian.

Sardinian contains the following phonetic innovations:

  • Change of the Latin -ll- into a retroflex [ɖɖ], shared with Sicilian, Southern Corsican as well as historically in Gascon;[419] for example, corallus > coraddu "coral" and villa > bidda "village, town".
  • Latin lj changed into /ld͡z/, /ll/, /d͡z/, /t͡s/, /d͡ʒ/ or /ʒ/ rather than the palatal /ʎ/ of Italian: *voliam > bolla ~ bolza ~ boza "wish, longing" (Italian voglia); fīlium > fillu ~ fizu ~ fitzu~ figiu ~ fixu "son" (Italian figlio).
  • Various outcomes of initial pl-, fl- and cl-, commonly as [pr], [fr], [kr], variously seen also in Portuguese and Galician; for example, plateam > pratza "public square" (Portuguese praça, Galician praza; but Italian piazza), flŭxum > frúsciu "flabby" (Portuguese and Galician frouxo) and the early Church Latin borrowing ecclēsiam > crèsia "church" (Portuguese igreja, Galician igrexa; but Italian chiesa).
    • But also [pj], [fj], [t͡ʃ] in both Logudorese ciae (alongside crae) and Old Galician-Portuguese chave < clāvem "key"; contrast Italian chiave, with [kj].
    • A small area on the Nuorese territory conserves Latin /Cl/: flùmene alongside fiùmene, frùmine < flūmen for all three possible outcomes.
  • Metathesis as in abbratzare > abbaltzare "to hug, to embrace". In word-initial position, it can produce marked syllable onsets such as [s̺r], [mr], [t͡ʃr], [d͡ʒr], e.g. ianuarius > jrennazu (Capidanese) "January".[420]
  • Vowel prothesis before an initial r in Campidanese, similar to Basque and Gascon: rēx > (g)urrèi/re "king" (Basque errege); rota > arroda "wheel" (Gascon arròda, Basque errota); rīvus > Sardinian and Gascon arríu "river".[420]
  • Vowel prothesis in Logudorese before an initial s followed by consonant, as in the Western Romance languages: scrīptum > iscrítu "written" (Spanish escrito, French écrit), stēlla > isteddu "star" (Spanish estrella, French étoile)
  • Except for the Nuorese dialect, intervocalic Latin single voiceless plosives /p/, /t/, /k/ became voiced approximant consonants. Single voiced plosives /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ were lost: caritātem (acc.) > caridàde [kaɾiˈðaːðe], [kaɾiˈdaːde] (Italian carità), locus > lóːgu [ˈloːɣu], [ˈloːɡu] (Italian luogo). This also applies across word boundaries: porcu "pig", but su porcu [su ˈβorku] "the pig"; tempus "time", but su tempus [su ˈðempuzu] "the time"; domu "house", but sa 'omu "the house".

Vowels[edit]

Vowels are /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/ and /u/, without length differentiation, with allophonic lengthening in open stressed syllables when followed by a voiced consonant:

  • Vowel phonemes
    Front Central Back
    Close i u
    Close-mid (e) (o)
    Open-mid ɛ ɔ
    Open a
  • Metaphonic contrasts in Sardinian
    Latin Log. Camp. Translation
    bene 'bɛːnɛ 'bɛːni 'well'
    venī 'beːni 'come!'
    pecus 'pekːuz̺u 'peːɣuz̺u 'head of cattle'
    pecōs 'pɛkːɔz̺ɔ 'pɛːɣuz̺u 'heads of cattle'

A strict metaphony occurs when a high vowel /i/, /u/, or a palatal consonant, occur in a post-stressed syllable. It results in the raising of /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ to [e] and [o], not only in the primary-stressed syllable, but throughout the word: Log. lepere [ˈlɛpːɛrɛ] 'hare' > lepereddu [lepːeˈreɖːu] 'hare (diminutive)', minore [miˈnɔːrɛ] 'small' > minoreddu [minoˈreɖːu] 'tiny'.[421] The same process continues to operate in the dialects of south-eastern Salento, which can be taken as evidence that this was the original type of metaphony in Romance, with diphthongisation a secondary development.

  • This results in regular morphophonemic alternations such as Nuo. sa d[o]mu "house", sas d[ɔ]mos "houses".

All Campidanese varieties are characterized by the raising of word-final /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ to /i/ and /u/, which spread from Cagliari towards the middle of the island from the 11th century and is commonly attributed to Byzantine influence. This finds a parallel in the Sicilian vowel system, where all the close-mid vowels have been raised and merged with high vowels.

  • This obscured the condition for metaphony and resulted in surface minimal pairs such as su sp[e]ru 'hope', deu sp[ɛ]ru 'I hope'.
  • On several generative analyses, Campidanese is said to retain the 5-vowel system of Logudorese underlyingly with synchronic vowel raising, while traditional structuralist analyses assumed phonologisation to have developed a 7-vowel system like that of Italian.[422]

There are also nasal vowels [ĩ], [ɛ̃], [ẽ], [ã], [ɔ̃], [õ], [ũ] in some Campidanese varieties, which arise when an intervocalic n is deleted with nasalization of both the surrounding vowels: beni [bɛ̃ĩ] "well".

All varieties show paragogic vowels: the vowel of the final syllable ending in a consonant is copied after it to form a new open syllable, which undergoes the usual lenition (voicing) processes: Log. istranzos [is.ˈtran.ʣɔ.zɔ] / Camp. strangius [ˈstran.ʤu.zu] ‘strangers’.[420] This is only present before pause, and may be variable with some speakers.

  • After resonants, this vowel is sometimes etymological and sometimes not, leading to variation in spelling: Nuo. nùmen(e) "name" < nōmen; fàcher(e) "to do" < facere. Note that the vowel is non-phonemic (paragogic) in both cases: it disappears when not utterance-final, and the /r/ of the infinitive undergoes regular sandhi: fàcher(e) cùrrer(e) [fakɛs̺ˈkurːɛɾɛ] ‘to make run’.
  • A similar epenthetic vowel has been lexicalized in most varieties in monosyllables: Camp. tui "you" < .

Logudorese and Nuorese display vowel insertion before initial /sC/ clusters, less typical of Campidanese (examples above); the latter displays it before word-initial /r/: Camp. arrùbiu, Log. rùbiu < rubeum "reddish".

Consonants[edit]

Sardinian has the following consonants:[423][424]

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n (ɳ) ɲ (ŋ)
Plosive pb td ɖ kɡ
Affricate t͡sd͡z t͡ʃd͡ʒ
Fricative (β) fv θ (ð) s (z) ʃʒ (ɣ)
Tap (ɾ)
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant (w) j

Plosives[edit]

The Sardinian system of plosives cannot be exhaustively characterized by either qualitative (voicing) or quantitative (duration) contrasts, but both contrasts must be specified independently on some level of grammar. All plosives participate in a system-wide and complex process of lenition that characterizes all varieties of Sardinian and operates across word boundaries.[425]

There are three series of plosives or corresponding approximants:

  • Voiceless or fortis stops derive from their Latin counterparts in composition after another stop, from utterance-initial voicelss stops and from Latin geminates (typically voiceless).
    • As in most Romance languages, /p, t, k/ are unaspirated, with /t/ a dental [t̪~d̪].
    • When intervocalic, voiceless stops undergo lenition by voicing. When applicable, they escape voicing by becoming long or half-long in the opposite process of fortition; when this happens, their spelling is inconsistent, with some preferring etymological (double) spelling and others phonemic (single).
    • In Nuorese, which maintains etymologically single voiceless stops, these merge with etymologically double ones as voiceless fortis. Individual words and morphemes may display independent voicing (-tàde < Lat. -tātem) and even deletion (-àu < Lat. -ātum).
  • Etymologically double and postconsonantal voiced stops do not contrast with single ones in any variety, even in Nuorese, and are typically realised as voiced geminates.
  • Voiced or lenis "stops" derive from single Latin stops (voiced or voiceless), and are commonly realised as approximants [β ð ɣ] between vowels, as in Spanish (/d/ less commonly). Latin single voiced intervocalic stops are generally reflected as zero in Logudorese and Campidanese; this can also apply across word boundaries, resulting in consonants disappearing when in combination.
  • Latin b merges with v (and usually with p) as /b/ in almost all varieties: vīperam > bíbera "viper". See Betacism.
  • In Cagliari and neighboring dialects, the weak allophone of /d/ surfaces as [ɾ] in all positions due to rhotacism: digitus > didu~diru "finger".
  • /ɖ/, written -dd- or -dh-,[426] is the geminate voiced retroflex stop [ɖɖ]. It derives from the Latin geminate /ll/, presumably via the non-attested stage of /ɭɭ/[419] phonemically reinterpreted a plosive. The phoneme also regularly occurs as part of the cluster /nd/, realised as [ɳɖ] and normally written -nd-: andande [aɳ'ɖaɳɖɛ] 'going'.

Fricatives[edit]

  • /s/ is a retracted, normally apico-alveolar [s̺], intervocalically voiced to [z̺] on most of the territory, but remains voiceless in several communities of Barbagia.[417] It participates in notable sandhi.
  • /ss/ is its geminate/fortis counterpart, also arising from assimilation; for example, ipsa > issa. It never undergoes voicing/lenition.
  • /θ/, written -th-, represents the voiceless interdental fricative as in the English thing and as a phoneme is characteristic of Nuorese. In many cases it corresponds to the /t͡s/ of other varieties, but also has diverse origins: e.g. /ˈθiu/ ‘uncle’ < Grk. θεῖος, Lat. [kj] as in /ˈfaθo/ "I do" < faciō, and Lat. [tj] as in /ˈpuθu/ "a well" < puteum.
  • [ð] is absent as a phoneme, but is an allophone of /d/.
  • /ʃ/, written -sc(i/e)- or -sç-, is pronounced as single [ʃ] at the beginning of a word, and strengthened to [ʃʃ] otherwise.
  • /ʒ/, written -x- and never phonetically long, is its voiced counterpart. However, its most common source is lenition of /d͡ʒ/.
  • /f/ is labiodental, is normally weakened to [v] intervocalically, otherwise strengthened to [ff].
    • In central Sardinia, particularly in Nuorese, the sound /f/ disappears, passing through the /h/ stage: fīcum > ['hiku] > ['iku] 'the fig', still ['hiʔu] in Ovodda. Parallelled in Gascon and Old Spanish, this can be ascribed to the Paleobasque substrate,[427] however, the exact same development was already underway in dialects closely related to Latin, e.g. Faliscan, and Greek speakers are reported to substitute the initial Latin /f/ for aspiration.[428]
  • [v] primarily exists as the lenis allophone of /f/ and is often reflected as such: Camp. fentana 'window' < Cat. ventana. Nevertheless, in some varieties it has become a phoneme that itself exhibits a fortis allophone: Camp., Log. avvesare 'to accustom'.[429] A few dialects (eg. Bitti and Lula) have been reported to distinguish Latin /b/ and /w/ as /b/ and /v/, but the vast majority merge them as /b/.

Affricates[edit]

  • /t͡s/ is dentalized laminal [t̪͡s̪] or [t̪t̪͡s̪] written -tz-. It corresponds to Italian -z- or -ci-, the latter especially in loanwords. In contrast to /s/ it is very advanced, tending towards the interdental [θ] in central varieties, and then spelled th. Particularly in Nuorese, it represents the /t͡ʃ/ of loanwords.
  • /d͡z/ is the corresponding voiced [d̪͡z̪] or [d̪d̪͡z̪], written -z-. It mainly stems from the Latin yod /j/ after consonants in Logudorese (fizu "son" < fīlium, ghennarzu "January" < iānuārium), but also corresponds to Italian -gi- or -ggi- in loanwords.
  • /t͡ʃ/ is written -c(i/e)- or -ç-.
  • /d͡ʒ/ is written -g(e/i)- or -j-. In Campidanese, it stems from the Latin yod /j/ after consonants (figiu "son" < fīlium, gennàlgiu "January" < iānuārium) as well as from the palatalization of Latin /g/. In many varieties, this sound undergoes lenition to ʒ when intervocalic.

Nasals[edit]

  • /m/ is variously but commonly realised as fortis (geminate) inside the stressed syllable, and for this reason (as well due to etymology) is often spelled double.
  • /n/ and /nn/ is the only other consonant showing phonemic length contrast besides the rhotic.[420]
    • Intervocalic /n/ commonly undergoes lenition in Campidanese, giving a glottal stop, pharyngeal fricative or disappearing, with vowel nasalization: Sarrabus [ˈannu ˈʔõũ] "new year".[430]
  • /ɲɲ/, written -gn-[431] or -nny-/-nni-[432] (the palatal nasal for some speakers or dialects, although for most the pronunciation is [nːj]).[citation needed]

Liquids and rhotics[edit]

  • Sardinian has a single-rhotic system. /r/ contrasts with /rr/ intervocalically (the only such contrast besides /n/), with the former surfacing as a tap [ɾ] and the latter as a trill [r]. In other positions the trill is an allophone of the tap.
  • Especially in Campidanese, intervocalic /l/ is subject to lenition both word-internally and across word boundaries, giving rise to [β w ʁ ʔ ɡʷ ʟ Ø].[420] Some of these realisations are written with b or u: sobi, soui 'sun.
  • /l/ is strengthened to geminate retroflex [ɭɭ] in order to escape lenition in those varieties where it is affected. It thus may freely alternate with the lenition outcomes, although strengthening is nowadays more common.[433]
  • /w/, written u, appears in Campidanese in the clusters /kw/ and /gw/, as in lingua 'tongue', and elsewhere in borrowings. It can also be found as the closing element in diphthongs, when these arise phonetically: pau, pàulu 'pole, stake' < pālus.

Processes[edit]

Neutralizations[edit]

Most varieties are characterised by the historic neutralization of Latin /l/ and /r/ into the archiphoneme /R/ within the morpheme: marralzu~marrarzu 'rock'. The Campidanese dialect does not generally allow this /R/ to end syllables except if followed by another /R/; as a result, underlying /R.C/ sequences are synchronically and systematically repaired, either through assimilation or metathesis:[433][434]

  • One strategy moves the rhotic to the leftmost available position within a phrase, sometimes jumping several syllables: /su 'aRku/ > ['sɾakːu] 'the bow', but /'aRku/ > ['arku] if none is available. The intervocalic consonant that's left is regularly fortis (geminate).
  • When /R/ is harmonically followed by the voiceless coronal /t/, assimilation occurs: altum > /aRtu/ > ['atːu] 'tall'.
  • When followed by the voiced coronal /d/, another type of metathesis is frequent: surdum > ['suðɾu] 'deaf'.
  • Recent Italian borrowings tend to maintain the coda /R/ as a function of register: It. forse > ['fɔrsizi] ~ ['fɔrt͡sizi] > ['fɾɔt͡ːsizi].
  • In some varieties located at the north of the island, any etymological liquid in coda surfaces as a voiced lateral fricative [ɮ] or a palatal glide.[434]
  • [r] and [n] alternate in Campidanese Sardinian, but not Nuorese.[434]

Sandhi[edit]

Only /s/, /n/, /r/, /t/ are permitted word-finally. The first three of these alternate in notable external sandhi processes. For Nuorese, /s/ and /r/ neutralise (merge) when in sandhi in the following way:[430][434]

  • [s̺] before word-initial voiceless obstruents except /f/ and /t͡s/: tres panes [trɛs̺ˈpanɛz̺ɛ] 'three pieces of bread', battor panes [bat:ɔs̺ˈpanɛz̺ɛ] 'four pieces of bread';
  • [r] before other word-initial obstruents including /t͡s/, also /j/, /m/ and /r/;
  • total assimilation before word-initial /l/, /n/;
  • variable total assimilation in allegro speech before word-initial /f/.
  • Parallel outcomes occur word-internally with the prefixes dis-, is-.

The word-final /t/ is assimilated to the following consonant within a phrase, or can be said to disappear, inducing strengthening: Log. cheret bennere ['kɛrɛ b'bɛnnɛrɛ] '(s)he wants to come'.

Morphosyntactic gemination[edit]

Unlike Tuscan Italian, Neapolitan and Sicilian, Sardinian doesn't have a productive process of syntactic gemination since most Latin final consonants have been maintained. Nevertheless, there are a few lexical items that formerly ended in consonants, and thus prevented initial-consonant weakening (lenition); as a result, consonants occurring after these words undergo strengthening, typically by gemination. These include the conjunction e "and" < La. et, the preposition a "to, at" < La. ad as well as the interrogative particle a < La. aut, at or an.[420]

Grammar[edit]

Some distinctive features typical of Sardinian include:

Nouns[edit]

Verbs[edit]

The Sardinian verbs are divided into -are, -ere, and -ire forms in north-central dialects (including the Limba Sarda Comuna), whereas the southern ones combine the latter two into a single -i(ri) form. Verbs are inflected for non-finite tenses (infinitive, participles), moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative), and tenses (present, imperfect). Although Sardinian is considered being the most ancient among Romance languages, the Sardinian verb morphology is more simplified than that of Classical Latin. Nevertheless, many conjugated forms are phonologically conservative to Latin.

The table below shows comparison between Sardinian and Latin conjugations. Note the past and present participles came from accusative supine (from passive perfect participle) and accusative active present participle, respectively; and the second person plural imperative of -ire verbs originate from subjunctive present forms. The Latin supine of timēre is prefixed with "*" due to being not attested.

Conjugation of regular verbs according to Limba Sarda Comuna[11]
-are -ere -ire
Infinitive cantare cantāre tìmere timēre finire fīnīre
Participle Present cantende cantāntem timende timēntem finende fīniēntem
Past cantadu cantātum tìmidu *timitum finidu fīnītum
Indicative Present canto
cantas
cantat
cantamus
cantades
cantant
cantō
cantās
cantat
cantāmus
cantātis
cantant
timo
times
timet
timimus
timides
timent
timeō
timēs
timet
timēmus
timētis
timent
fino
finis
finit
finimus
finides
finent
fīniō
fīnīs
fīnit
fīnīmus
fīnītis
fīniunt
Imperfect cantaia
cantaias
cantaiat
cantaìamus
cantaiais
cantaiant
cantābam
cantābās
cantābat
cantābāmus
cantābātis
cantābant
timia
timias
timiat
timìamus
timiais
timiant
timēbam
timēbās
timēbat
timēbāmus
timēbātis
timēbant
finia
finias
finiat
finìamus
finiais
finiant
fīniēbam
fīniēbās
fīniēbat
fīniēbāmus
fīniēbātis
finīēbant
Subjunctive Present cante
cantes
cantet
cantemus
canteis
cantent
cantem
cantēs
cantet
cantēmus
cantētis
cantent
tima
timas
timat
timamus
timais
timant
timeam
timeās
timeat
timeāmus
timeātis
timeant
fina
finas
finat
finamus
finais
finant
fīniam
fīniās
fīniat
fīniāmus
fīniātis
fīniant
Imperfect cantare
cantares
cantaret
cantaremus
cantareis
cantarent
cantāre
cantārēs
cantāret
cantārēmus
cantārētis
cantārent
timere
timeres
timeret
timeremus
timereis
timerent
timēre
timērēs
timēret
timērēmus
timērētis
timērent
finire
finires
finiret
finiremus
finireis
finirent
fīnīre
fīnīrēs
fīnīret
fīnīrēmus
fīnīrētis
fīnīrent
Imperative canta
cantade
cantā
cantāte
time
timide
timē
timēte
fini
finais
fīnī
fīnīte

Syntax[edit]

Distinctive syntax features include:

  • A common occurrence of a left-dislocated construction: cussa cantone apo cantadu ("That song I have sung": that is, "I've sung that song").
    • In yes/no questions, fronting of a constituent (especially a predicative element) is required, though it is not specifically a question-formation process: Cumprendiu m'as? ("Understood me you have", that is, "Have you understood me?"), Mandicatu at? ("Eaten he/she has", that is "Has he/she eaten?"), Fattu l'at ("Done he/she has", that is "He/She's done it"), etc.
  • Interrogative phrases might be constructed like echo questions, with the interrogative marker remaining in underlying position: Sunt lòmpios cando? ("They arrived when?", that is, "when did they arrive?"), Juanne at pigadu olìas cun chie? ("John has picked olives with whom?"), etc.
  • Impersonal sentence constructions are commonly used to replace the passive voice, which is limited to the formal register: A Juanni ddu ant mortu rather than Juanni est istadu mortu.
  • The use of non de + noun: non de abba, abbardente est ("not of water brandy it+is": that is, "It is not water, but brandy."); non de frades, parent inimigos ("Not of brothers, they seem enemies": that is, "Far from being brothers, they are like enemies").
  • The use of ca (from quia) or chi as subordinate conjunctions: Ja nau ti l'apo ca est issa sa mere ("Already told I have you that is she the boss", that is "I've already told you that it's her the boss").
  • Existential uses of àer / ài ("to have") and èsser / èssi ("to be"): B'at prus de chentu persones inoghe! ("There is over a hundred people in here!"), Nci funt is pratus in mesa ("There are the plates on the table").
  • Ite ("What") + adjective + chi: Ite bellu chi ses! ("You are so beautiful!").
  • Nominal syntagmas without having a head: Cussu ditzionariu de gregu est prus mannu de su de Efis ("That Greek dictionary is bigger than Efisio's"), Cudda machina est prus manna de sa de Juanne ("That car is bigger than John's").
  • Extraposition of the lexical head: Imprestami su tou de ditzionariu ("Please lend me your dictionary").
  • Ancu + subjunctive as a way to express a (malevolent) wish on someone: Ancu ti falet unu lampu! ("May you be struck by lightning!").
  • Prepositional accusative: Apo bidu a Maria ("I've seen Mary").
  • Insertion of the affirmative particle ja / giai: Ja m'apo corcau ("I did go to bed").
    • Use of the same particle to express antiphrastic formulas: Jai ses totu istudiatu, tue! ("You're so well educated!", that is, "You are so ignorant and full of yourself!").
  • Reflexive use of intransitive verbs: Tziu Pascale si nch'est mortu[note 24] eris sero ("Uncle Pascal passed away yesterday"), Mi nch'apo dormiu pro una parica de oras ("I've slept for a couple of hours").
  • Use of àer in reflexive sentences: Si at fertu a s'anca traballende ("He/She injured himself/herself while working").
  • Combination of the perfective and progressive verb aspect: Est istadu traballende totu sa die" ("He/She has been working all day").
  • Continuous and progressive aspect of the verb, which is meant to indicate an effective situation rather than typical or habitual: Non ti so cumprendende ("I don't understand you").
  • Relative lack of adverbs: with the exception of some localized words like the Nuorese mescamente ("especially"), as well as some recent loanwords from Italian, all the Sardinian dialects have a number of ways with which to express the meaning conferred to the adverbs by the other Romance languages (e.g. Luchía currit prus a lestru / acoitendi de María, "Lucy runs faster than Mary").
  • The expression of the deontic modality through a periphrastic form, characterized by the verb "to want" in auxiliary position, a feature also common to Southern Corsican, Sicilian, Moroccan Arabic and Moroccan Berber, in addition to some non-standard varieties of English.[435] (e.g. Su dinare bolet / cheret torradu "money has to be paid back").
  • The condaghes seem to demonstrate that unlike other Romance languages, Old Sardinian may have had verb-initial word order, with optional topicalization into the beginning of the sentence.[436] While verb-initial word order is also attested in other old Romance languages, such as Old Venetian, Old French, Old Neapolitan, Old Spanish, Old Sicilian and others, it has been argued that Old Sardinian was alone in licensing verb-initial word order (V1) as the generalized word order, while the others had V1 only as a marked alternative.[437]

Vocabulary[edit]

English Late Latin Sardinian Corsican Italian Spanish Catalan French Portuguese Romanian
key clāve(m) crae/-i chjave/chjavi chiave llave clau clé chave cheie
night nocte(m) note/-i notte/notti notte noche nit nuit noite noapte
to sing cantāre cantare/-ai cantà cantare cantar cantar chanter cantar cânta
goat capra(m) cabra/craba capra capra cabra cabra chèvre cabra capră
language lingua(m) limba/lìngua lingua/linga lingua lengua llengua langue língua limbă
square (plaza) platea(m) pratza piazza piazza plaza plaça place praça piață
bridge ponte(m) ponte/-i ponte/ponti ponte puente pont pont ponte pod (punte)
church ecclēsia(m) crèsia/eccresia ghjesgia chiesa iglesia església église igreja biserică
hospital hospitāle(m) ispidale/spidali spedale/uspidali ospedale hospital hospital hôpital hospital spital
cheese cāseu(m) fōrmāticu(m) casu casgiu cacio, formaggio queso formatge fromage queijo brânză, caș

Varieties[edit]

The word for "peace" in all the varieties of Sardinian.

Historically, the Sardinians have always been quite a small population scattered across isolated cantons, sharing demographic patterns similar to the neighbouring Corsica; as a result, Sardinian developed a broad spectrum of dialects over the time. Starting from Francesco Cetti's description in the 18th century,[438][439][440][441] Sardinian has been presented as a pluricentric language, being traditionally subdivided into two standardized varieties spoken by roughly half of the entire community: the dialects spoken in North-Central Sardinia, centered on the orthography known as Logudorese (su sardu logudoresu), and the dialects spoken in South-Central Sardinia, centered on another orthography called Campidanese (su sardu campidanesu).[442] All the Sardinian dialects differ primarily in phonetics, which does not considerably hamper intelligibility;[443][444][445][446] the view of there being a dialectal boundary rigidly separating the two varieties of High Sardinian has been in fact subjected to more recent research, which shows a fluid linguistic continuum from the northern to the southern ends of the island.[447][448][449][450] The dualist perception of the Sardinian dialects, rather than pointing to an actual isogloss, is in fact the result of a psychological adherence to the way Sardinia was administratively subvidided into a Caput Logudori (Cabu de Susu) and a Caput Calaris (Cabu de Jossu) by the Spanish.[451]

On the other hand, the Logudorese and Campidanese dialects[clarification needed] have been estimated in another research to have 88% of matches in 110-item wordlist, similarly to the 85–88% number of matches between Provençal Occitan and some Catalan dialects[452] which by some standards is usually (even though arbitrarily) considered characteristic for two different, albeit very closely related, languages.[453] ISO 639 counts four Sardinian languages (Campidanese, Gallurese, Logudorese and Sassarese), each with its own language code.

The dialects centered on the Logudorese model are generally considered more conservative, with the Nuorese subdialect (su sardu nugoresu) being the most conservative of all. They have all retained the classical Latin pronunciation of the stop velars (kena versus cena, "supper"),[454] the front middle vowels (compare Campidanese iotacism, probably from Byzantine Greek)[455] and assimilation of close-mid vowels (cane versus cani, "dog" and gattos versus gattus, "cats"). Labio-velars become plain labials (limba versus lingua, "language" and abba versus acua, "water").[456] I is prosthesized before consonant clusters beginning in s (iscala versus Campidanese scala, "stairway" and iscola versus scola, "school"). An east-west strip of villages in central Sardinia speaks a transitional group of dialects (su sardu de mesania). Examples include is limbas (the languages) and is abbas (the waters). The dialects centered on the Campidanese model, spreading from Cagliari (once the metropolis of the Roman province), show relatively more influences from Carthage, Rome, Constantinople and Late Latin. Examples include is fruminis (the rivers) and is domus (the houses).

Corso-Sardinian (orange and yellow) with respect to Sardinian proper (green).

Sardinian is the indigenous and historical language of most Sardinian communities. However, Sardinian is not spoken as the native and primary language in a significant number of other ones, amounting to 20% of the Sardinian population;[54][445] Sassari, the second-largest city on Sardinia and the main center of the northern half of the island, is amongst the latter. The aforementioned Gallurese and Sassarese, despite being often colloquially considered part of Sardinian, are two Corso-Sardinian transitional languages; they are spoken in the northernmost part of Sardinia,[457][458] although some Sardinian is also understood by the majority of people living therein (73.6% in Gallura and 67.8% in the Sassarese-speaking subregion). Francesco Cetti, responsible for the dialectal partition of the language in his early dissertation, went on to deem these Northern varieties "foreign" (i.e. not indigenous to Sardinia) and therefore "not national" (i.e. non-Sardinian) in that they would be "an Italian dialect, much more Tuscan in fact than the vast majority of Italy's dialects themselves".[459] There are also two language islands, the Catalan Algherese-speaking community from the inner city of Alghero (northwest Sardinia) and the Ligurian-speaking towns of Carloforte, in San Pietro Island, and Calasetta in Sant'Antioco island (south-west Sardinia).[457][460]

Sample of text[edit]

English Logudorese Sardinian Campidanese Sardinian LSC (Sardinian Written Standard) Latin Italian

Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name.
thy kingdom come,
thy will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we forgive our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.

Babbu nostru chi ses in chelu,
Santificadu siat su nomine tou.
Benzat a nois su rennu tou,
Siat fatta sa boluntade tua,
comente in chelu gai in terra.
Dona nos oe su pane nostru de donzi die,
Et perdona nos sos peccados nostros,
Comente nois perdonamus a sos depidores nostros.
Et no nos lesses ruer in tentatzione,
Et libera nos dae male.

Babbu nostu chi ses in celu,
Santificau siat su nomini tuu.
Bengiat a nosus su regnu tuu,
Siat fatta sa boluntadi tua,
comenti in celu aici in terra.
Donasi oi su pani nostu de dogna dii,
Et perdonasi is peccaus nostus,
Comenti nosus perdonaus a is depidoris nostus.
Et no si lessis arrui in tentatzioni,
Et liberasi de mali.

Babbu nostru chi ses in chelu,
Santificadu siat su nòmine tuo.
Bèngiat a nois su rennu tuo,
Siat fata sa voluntade tua,
comente in chelu gasi in terra.
Dona་nos oe su pane nostru de ònnia die,
E perdona་nos is pecados nostros,
Comente nois perdonamus a is depidores nostros.
E no nos lasses arrùere in tentatzione,
E lìbera་nos de male.

Pater noster qui es in cælis,
sanctificetur nomen tuum.
adveniat regnum tuum,
fiat voluntas tua,
sicut in cælo et in terra.
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie,
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris.
et ne nos inducas in tentationem
sed libera nos a malo.

Padre Nostro, che sei nei cieli,
Sia santificato il tuo nome.
Venga il tuo regno,
Sia fatta la tua volontà,
Come in cielo, così in terra.
Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano,
E rimetti a noi i nostri debiti
Come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori.
E non-ci indurre in tentazione,
Ma liberaci dal male.

Standardization[edit]

Until 2001 there was not a single orthographic standard available that was representative of all the dialects of Sardinian, neither for writing it nor to speak it (the latter does not exist even today). After the Middle Ages, in the documents where a certain uniformity in writing can be observed, the only graphic standardization, due to the experiments of writers and poets, was that of the so-called "Illustrious Sardinian", developed by taking inspiration from Sardinian medieval protocol documents, the works of Hieronimu Araolla, Ioan Mattheu Garipa and Matteo Madau and those of a rich series of poets.[461][462] However, attempts to formalize and spread this orthography had been hindered by the Iberian and later Savoyard authorities.[463]

These issues brought Sardinian to the current situation, in which a part of the population is convinced, without objective linguistic reasons but for political ones,[440][443][447][448][449][450][441] that the language is divided into two or more distinct dialectal groups ("Logudoresu" and "Campidanesu" or "Logudoresu","Campidanesu" and "Nugoresu", with some that also try to include, in this categorization, languages related to Sardinian but different to it, such as Gallurese or Sassarese), for which a series of traditional ortographies have been developed, albeit with many changes over time. In addition to those commonly defined as "Logudorese" and "Campidanese", as already mentioned, the Nuorese orthography, the Arborense one and those of the individual towns were also developed, sometimes regulated with some general common rules, such as those required by the Ozieri Award.[464] Often, however, Sardinian is written by speakers trying to transcribe its pronunciation and following habits related to Italian.[465]

However, some attempts have been made to introduce a single orthographic form for administrative purposes over the recent decades; said form would not refer to morphology and syntax, which is already fairly homogeneous,[466] but would rather concern itself primarily with spelling.

To allow for an effective implementation of the provisions on the language, as per the regional law no. 26/1997 and the national law no. 482/1999, the Sardinian Autonomous Region arranged for a commission of experts to elaborate a standard capable of overcoming the hurdle posed by the dialectal differences and thereby providing a unified writing system. A first proposal (the LSU: Limba Sarda Unificada, published on 28 February 2001) was tabled which identified a model language of reference (based on the analysis of local varieties of Sardinian and on the selection of the most representative and compatible models) so as to guarantee the necessary characteristics of certainty, coherence, univocity, and supra-local diffusion. The people appointed for the task were Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Roberto Bolognesi, Diego Salvatore Corraine, Ignazio Delogu, Antonietta Dettori, Giulio Paulis, Massimo Pittau, Tonino Rubattu, Leonardo Sole, Heinz Jürgen Wolf, and Matteo Porru acting as the Committee's secretary. This study, although scientifically valid, has never been adopted at an institutional level: critics argued that it was an "imposed" and "artificial" language based on the mediation between the central-northern varieties.

Nevertheless, the LSU would act as a springboard for a subsequent drafting proposal, this time drawn by a new Committee composed of Giulio Angioni, Roberto Bolognesi, Manlio Brigaglia, Michel Contini, Diego Corraine, Giovanni Lupinu, Anna Oppo, Giulio Paulis, Maria Teresa Pinna Catte and Mario Puddu. The new project continued to be worked on, going by the name of LSC (Limba Sarda Comuna). The new experimental standard proposal, published in 2006, was characterised by taking the mesania (transitional) varieties as a reference basis,[467] and welcoming elements of the spoken language so as to be perceived as a more "natural" mediation; it also ensured that the common orthography would be provided with the characteristics of over-dialectality and supra-municipality, while leaving the possibility of representing the phonetic peculiarities of the local variants.[468] Despite this, there were some criticism for this norm as well, both by those who proposed amendments to improve it,[469][470] and by those who preferred to insist with the idea of dividing Sardinian into macro-variants to regulate with separate orthographies.[471]

The Sardinian Regional Government, with the resolution of the Regional Council n. 16/14 of 18 April 2006 "Limba Sarda Comuna. Adoption of the reference standards of an experimental nature for the written language output of the Regional Administration", has experimentally adopted the LSC as the official orthography for the acts and documents issued by the Region of Sardinia (even if, as per Article 8 of the national Law no. 482/99, only the text written in Italian has legal value), giving citizens the right to write to the Public Administration in their own variety and establishing the regional language desk Ufitziu de sa Limba Sarda. The resolution does not aim to impose the guide and further notes that it is "open to integrations" and that "all solutions are of equal linguistic value".

In the following years, the Region has followed the LSC standard in the translation of many documents and resolutions and in many other areas. In addition, the LSC standard has been used as a voluntary choice by many other institutions, schools and media, often in a complementary manner with orthographic norms closer to the local pronunciation. Regarding these uses, a percentage estimate was made, considering only the projects financed or co-financed by the Region for the diffusion of the Sardinian language in the municipal and supra-municipal language offices, for the teaching in schools and the media from 2007 to 2013.[472]

The monitoring, by the Sardinian Language and Culture Service of the Department of Public Education, was published on the website of the Sardinian Autonomous Region in April 2014. Regarding the school projects financed in 2013, for example, it appears from that research that there was a clear preference, in schools, for the use of the LSC orthographic standard together with a local spelling (51%), compared to the exclusive use of the LSC (11%) or the exclusive use of a local spelling (33%).[472]

On the other hand, regarding the editorial projects in Sardinian language in the regional media, financed by the Region in 2012, we find a greater presence of the LSC (which could derive from a reward of 2 points in the formation of the rankings to take funding, a reward that was not present in the notice for schools). According to those data, it appears that 35% of textual production in media projects was in LSC, 35% in LSC and in local spellings and 25% in local spellings only.[472]

The local language offices, co-financed by the Regional Government, in 2012 used LSC in 50% of their writing, LSC together with local spelling for 9% and local spellings for 41%.[472]

A recent research on the use of the LSC orthography in schools, carried out in the municipality of Orosei, showed that the students of the local middle school had no problem using that standard despite the fact that the Sardinian they spoke was partly different. No pupil rejected it or considered it "artificial", a thing that proved its validity as a didactic tool. The results were first presented in 2016 and published in an article in 2021.[473][474]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b It is to be noted that Wagner's academic research took place in 1951; however, it took another forty years for Sardinian to be politically recognized, at least formally, as one of Italy's twelve minority languages by Law no.482/99.
  2. ^ As Ludovico Antonio Muratori noted, «Potissimum vero ad usurpandum in scriptis Italicum idioma gentem nostram fuisse adductam puto finitimarum exemplo, Provincialium, Corsorum atque Sardorum» ("In reality, I believe that our people [Italians] have been induced to employ the Italian language for writing by following the example of our neighbours, the Provençals, the Corsicans and the Sardinians") and «Sardorum quoque et Corsorum exemplum memoravi Vulgari sua Lingua utentium, utpote qui Italis preivisse in hoc eodem studio videntur» ("Moreover, I made reference to the example of the Sardinians and the Corsicans, who used their own vulgar language, as being those who preceded the Italians in such regard"). Antonio, Ludovico Antonio (1739). Antiquitates Italicae Moedii Evi, Mediolani, t. 2, col.1049
  3. ^ In nomine Domini amen. Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: e ego donolislu pro ca lis so ego amicu caru e itsos a mimi; ci nullu imperatore ci lu aet potestare istu locu de non (n)apat comiatu de leuarelis toloneu in placitu: de non occidere pisanu ingratis: e ccausa ipsoro ci lis aem leuare ingratis, de facerlis iustitia inperatore ci nce aet exere intu locu ...
  4. ^ «E inper(a)tor(e) ki l ati kastikari ista delegantzia e fagere kantu narat ista carta siat benedittu ...»
  5. ^ «In nomine de Pater et Filiu et Sanctu Ispiritu. Ego iudigi Salusi de Lacunu cun muiere mea donna (Ad)elasia, uoluntate de Donnu Deu potestando parte de KKaralis, assolbu llu Arresmundu, priori de sanctu Saturru, a fagiri si carta in co bolit. Et ego Arresmundu, l(eba)nd(u) ass(o)ltura daba (su) donnu miu iudegi Salusi de Lacunu, ki mi illu castigit Donnu Deu balaus (a)nnus rt bonus et a issi et a (muiere) sua, fazzu mi carta pro kertu ki fegi cun isus de Maara pro su saltu ubi si ( ... )ari zizimi ( ... ) Maara, ki est de sanctu Saturru. Intrei in kertu cun isus de Maara ca mi machelaa(nt) in issu saltu miu (et canpa)niarunt si megu, c'auea cun istimonius bonus ki furunt armadus a iurari, pro cantu kertàà cun, ca fuit totu de sanctu Sat(ur)ru su saltu. Et derunt mi in issu canpaniu daa petra de mama et filia derectu a ssu runcu terra de Gosantini de Baniu et derectu a bruncu d'argillas e derectu a piskina d'arenas e leuat cabizali derectu a sa bia de carru de su mudeglu et clonpit a su cabizali de uentu dextru de ssa doméstia de donnigellu Cumitayet leuet tuduy su cabizali et essit a ssas zinnigas de moori de silba, lassandu a manca serriu et clonpit deretu a ssu pizariu de sellas, ubi posirus sa dìì su tremini et leuat sa bia maiori de genna (de sa) terra al(ba et) lebat su moori ( ... ) a sa terra de sanctu Saturru, lassandu lla issa a manca et lebat su moori lassandu a (manca) sas cortis d'oriinas de ( ... ) si. Et apirus cummentu in su campaniu, ki fegir(us), d'arari issus sas terras ipsoru ki sunt in su saltu miu et (ll)u castiari s(u) saltu et issus hominis mius de Sinnay arari sas terras mias et issas terras issoru ki sunt in saltu de ssus et issus castiari su saltu(u i)ssoru. Custu fegirus plagendu mi a mimi et a issus homi(nis) mius de Sinnay et de totu billa de Maara. Istimonius ki furunt a ssegari su saltu de pari (et) a poniri sus treminis, donnu Cumita de Lacun, ki fut curatori de Canpitanu, Cumita d'Orrù ( ... ) du, A. Sufreri et Iohanni de Serra, filiu de su curatori, Petru Soriga et Gosantini Toccu Mullina, M( ... ) gi Calcaniu de Pirri, C. de Solanas, C. Pullu de Dergei, Iorgi Cabra de Kerarius, Iorgi Sartoris, Laurenz( ... ) ius, G. Toccu de Kerarius et P. Marzu de Quartu iossu et prebiteru Albuki de Kibullas et P. de Zippari et M. Gregu, M. de Sogus de Palma et G. Corsu de sancta Ilia et A. Carena, G. Artea de Palma et Oliueri de Kkarda ( ... ) pisanu et issu gonpanioni. Et sunt istimonius de logu Arzzoccu de Maroniu et Gonnari de Laco(n) mancosu et Trogotori Dezzori de Dolia. Et est facta custa carta abendu si lla iudegi a manu sua sa curatoria de Canpitanu pro logu salbadori (et) ki ll'(aet) deuertere, apat anathema (daba) Pater et Filiu et Sanctu Ispiritu, daba XII Appostolos et IIII Euangelistas, XVI Prophetas, XXIV Seniores, CCC(XVIII) Sanctus Patris et sorti apat cun Iuda in ifernum inferiori. Siat et F. I. A. T.»
  6. ^ «Ego Benedictus operaius de Santa Maria de Pisas Ki la fatho custa carta cum voluntate di Domino e de Santa Maria e de Santa Simplichi e de indice Barusone de Gallul e de sa muliere donna Elene de Laccu Reina appit kertu piscupu Bernardu de Kivita, cum Iovanne operariu e mecum e cum Previtero Monte Magno Kercate nocus pro Santa Maria de vignolas ... et pro sa doma de VillaAlba e de Gisalle cum omnia pertinentia is soro .... essende facta custa campania cun sii Piscupu a boluntate de pare torraremus su Piscupu sa domo de Gisalle pro omnia sua e de sos clericos suos, e issa domo de Villa Alba, pro precu Kindoli mandarun sos consolos, e nois demus illi duas ankillas, ki farmi cojuvatas, suna cun servo suo in loco de rnola, e sattera in templo cun servii de malu sennu: a suna naran Maria Trivillo, a sattera jorgia Furchille, suna fuit de sa domo de Villa Alba, e sattera fuit de Santu Petru de Surake ... Testes Judike Barusone, Episcopu Jovanni de Galtellì, e Prite Petru I upu e Gosantine Troppis e prite Marchu e prite Natale e prite Gosantino Gulpio e prite Gomita Gatta e prite Comita Prias e Gerardu de Conettu ... e atteros rneta testes. Anno dom.milles.centes.septuag.tertio»
  7. ^ «Vois messer N. electu potestate assu regimentu dessa terra de Sassari daue su altu Cumone de Janna azes jurare a sancta dei evangelia, qui fina assu termen a bois ordinatu bene et lejalmente azes facher su offitiu potestaria in sa dicta terra de Sassari.»
  8. ^ Incipit to "Lettera al Maestro" in "La Sardegna e la Corsica", Ines Loi Corvetto, Torino, UTET Libreria, 1993: Semper happisi desiggiu, Illustrissimu Segnore, de magnificare, & arrichire sa limba nostra Sarda; dessa matessi manera qui sa naturale insoro tottu sas naciones dessu mundu hant magnificadu & arrichidu; comente est de vider per isos curiosos de cuddas.
  9. ^  ... L'Alguer castillo fuerte bien murado / con frutales por tierra muy divinos / y por la mar coral fino eltremado / es ciudad de mas de mil vezinos...
  10. ^ Jacinto Arnal de Bolea (1636), El Forastero, Antonio Galcerin editor, Cagliari – "....ofreciéndonos a la vista la insigne ciudad de Càller, corte que me dixeron era de aquel reino. ....La hermosura de las damas, el buen gusto de su alino, lo prendido y bien saconado de lo curioso-dandole vida con mil donaires-, la grandeza en los titulos, el lucimientos en los cavalleros, el concurso grande de la nobleza y el agasajo para un forastero no os los podrà zifrar mi conocimiento. Basta para su alavanza el deciros que alcuna vez, con olvido en mi peregrinaciò y con descuido en mis disdichas, discurria por los templos no estrano y por las calles no atajado, me hallava con evidencias grandes que era aquel sitio el alma de Madrid, que con tanta urbanidad y cortesìa se exercitavan en sus nobles correspondencias"
  11. ^ Juan Francisco Carmona Cagliari, 1610–1670, Alabança de San George obispu suelense: Citizen (in Spanish): "You, shepherd! What frightens you? Have you never seen some people gathering?"; Shepherd (in Sardinian): "Are you asking me if I'm married?"; Citizen (in Spanish): "You're not getting a grasp of what I say, do you? Oh, what an idiot shepherd!"; Shepherd (in Sardinian): "I'm actually thirsty and tired"; Citizen (in Spanish): "I'd better speak in Sardinian so that we understand each other better. (in Sardinian) Tell me, shepherd, where are you from?"; Shepherd: "I'm from Suelli, my lord, I've been ordered to bring my lord a present"; Citizen: "Ah, now you understand what I said, don't you!"". ("Ciudadano: Que tiens pastor, de que te espantas? que nunca has visto pueblo congregado?; Pastor: E ite mi nais, si seu coiadu?; Ciudadano: Que no me entiendes? o, que pastor bozal aqui me vino; Pastor: A fidi tengu sidi e istau fadiau; Ciudadano: Mejor sera que en sardo tambien able pues algo dello se y nos oigamos. Nada mi su pastori de undi seis?; Pastor: De Suedi mi Sennori e m'anti cumandadu portari unu presenti a monsignori; Ciudadano: Jmoi jà mi jntendeis su que apu nadu").
  12. ^ Jn Dei nomine Amen, noverint comente sende personalmente constituidos in presensia mia notariu et de sos testimongios infrascrittos sa viuda Caterina Casada et Coco mugere fuit de su Nigola Casada jàganu, Franziscu Casada et Joanne Casada Frades, filios de su dittu Nigola et Caterina Casada de sa presente cittade faguinde custas cosas gratis e de certa sciensia insoro, non-per forza fraudu, malìssia nen ingannu nen pro nexuna attera sinistra macchinassione cun tottu su megius modu chi de derettu poden et deven, attesu et cunsideradu chi su dittu Nigola Casada esseret siguida dae algunos corpos chi li dein de notte, pro sa quale morte fettin querella et reclamo contra sa persona de Pedru Najtana, pro paura de sa justissia, si ausentait, in sa quale aussensia est dae unu annu pattinde multos dannos, dispesas, traballos e disusios.
  13. ^ King Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, Royal Note, 23 July 1760: "Since we must use for such teachings (lower schools), among the most cultured languages, the one that is the less distant from the native dialect and the most appropriate to public administration at the same time, we have decided to use Italian in the aforementioned schools, as it is in fact no more different from the Sardinian language than the Spanish one, and indeed the most educated Sardinians have already a grasp of it; it is also the most viable option to facilitate and increase trade; the Piedmontese in the Kingdom won't have to learn another language to be employed in the public sector, and the Sardinians could also find work on the continent." Original: "Dovendosi per tali insegnamenti (scuole inferiori) adoperare fra le lingue più colte quella che è meno lontana dal materno dialetto ed a un tempo la più corrispondente alle pubbliche convenienze, si è determinato di usare nelle scuole predette l'italiana, siccome quella appunto che non essendo più diversa dalla sarda di quello fosse la castigliana, poiché anzi la maggior parte dei sardi più colti già la possiede; resta altresì la più opportuna per maggiormente agevolare il commercio ed aumentare gli scambievoli comodi; ed i Piemontesi che verranno nel Regno, non avranno a studiare una nuova lingua per meglio abituarsi al servizio pubblico e dei sardi, i quali in tal modo potranno essere impiegati anche nel continente.
  14. ^ In Spano's dedication to Charles Albert's wife, out of devotion to the new rulers, there are several passages in which the author sings the praises of the Savoyards and their cultural policies pursued in Sardinia, such as "It was destiny that the sweet Italian tongue, although born on the pleasant banks of the Arno, would one day also become rich heritage of the Tirso's inhabitants" (p. 5) and, formulating a vow of loyalty to the new dynasty of regents that followed the Spanish ones, "Sardinia owes so much to the most August HOUSE OF SAVOY, which, once the Hispanic domination had ceased, so wisely promoted the development of science, and also commanded during the middle of the last century, that Tuscan be made the language of the Dicasteries and public education" (p. 6). The Preface, entitled Al giovanetto alunno, states the intention, already common to Porru, to publish a work dedicated to the teaching of Italian, through the differences and similarities provided by another language more familiar to the Sardinian subjects.
  15. ^ "It would be a great innovation, with regard to both the civilizing process of Sardinia and the public education, to ban the Sardinian dialects in every social and ecclesiastical activity, mandating the use of the Italian language... At the moment, Sardinian is used to make announcements, and to sing the songs of the Saints (Goccius), some of them without any decency... It is also necessary to eradicate the Sardinian dialect [sic] and introduce the Italian language in its place even for other reasons, which are not less important; that is, to civilize that nation [Sardinia], so that they are able to comprehend the Government's instructions and commands,... and remove one of the biggest differences between Sardinia and the Mainland states, as well." Original text (in Italian): "Una innovazione in materia di incivilimento della Sardegna e d’istruzione pubblica, che sotto vari aspetti sarebbe importantissima, si è quella di proibire severamente in ogni atto pubblico civile non meno che nelle funzioni ecclesiastiche, tranne le prediche, l’uso dei dialetti sardi, prescrivendo l’esclusivo impiego della lingua italiana. Attualmente in sardo si gettano i così detti pregoni o bandi; in sardo si cantano gl'inni dei Santi (Goccius), alcuni dei quali privi di dignità [...] È necessario inoltre scemare l’uso del dialetto sardo [sic] ed introdurre quello della lingua italiana anche per altri non men forti motivi; ossia per incivilire alquanto quella nazione, sì affinché vi siano più universalmente comprese le istruzioni e gli ordini del Governo,... sì finalmente per togliere una delle maggiori divisioni, che sono fra la Sardegna e i Regi stati di terraferma." Carlo Baudi di Vesme (1848). Considerazioni politiche ed economiche sulla Sardegna. Dalla Stamperia Reale. pp. 49–51.
  16. ^ Andrea Manca dell'Arca, an agronomist from Sassari (a city which, like most of Northern Sardinia, had been historically more exposed via Corsica to the Italian culture than the rest of the island) had so illustrated how Italian was still perceived by the locals: "Italian is as familiar to me as Latin, French or other foreign languages which one only partially learns through grammar study and the books, without fully getting the hang of them"[...] (Original text: [...]È tanto nativa per me la lingua italiana, come la latina, francese o altre forestiere che solo s’imparano in parte colla grammatica, uso e frequente lezione de’ libri, ma non-si possiede appieno[...]). Ricordi di Santu Lussurgiu di Francesco Maria Porcu in Santu Lussurgiu dalle Origini alla "Grande Guerra" – Grafiche editoriali Solinas – Nuoro, 2005
  17. ^ The introduction of Italian as a foreign language to the Sardinian villages is exemplified in a passage from the contemporary Francesco (Frantziscu) Masala's Sa limba est s'istoria de su mundu; Condaghe de Biddafraigada ("The language is the world's history; Biddafraigada's Condaghe"), Condaghes, p. 4: "A sos tempos de sa pitzinnìa, in bidda, totus chistionaiamus in limba sarda. In domos nostras no si faeddaiat atera limba. E deo, in sa limba nadìa, comintzei a connoscher totu sas cosas de su mundu. A sos ses annos, intrei in prima elementare e su mastru de iscola proibeit, a mie e a sos fedales mios, de faeddare in s'unica limba chi connoschiamus: depiamus chistionare in limba italiana, «la lingua della Patria», nos nareit, seriu seriu, su mastru de iscola. Gai, totus sos pitzinnos de 'idda, intraian in iscola abbistos e allirgos e nde bessian tontos e cari-tristos." ("When I was a little kid growing up in the village, we all used to speak in the Sardinian language. We did not speak any other language in our homes. And I began to know all the things of the world in the native language. At the age of six, I went to first grade and the school teacher forbade me as well as my peers to speak in the only language we knew: from that moment on, we only had to speak in Italian, «the language of the Fatherland», he told us seriously. Thus, the children of our village would come to school bright and happy, and walk out of school empty-headed and with a gloomy look on our faces.")
  18. ^ Casula's reply to Anchisi, arguing in favour of Sardinian as the only means through which the island's cultural reawakening could be pursued, was never published in the newspaper L'Unione Sarda, whose editorial staff properly censored it in accordance with the regime's directives. The newspaper then justified itself in the following way, in a personal letter addressed to Casula on 12 September: «Your article could not be published because part of it clearly exalts the region too much. This is absolutely forbidden by the current provisions of the Head of Government's press office, which specifically state: 'In no way and for no reason does the region exist'. We are very sorry. However, we would ask you to redo the article by simply talking about your poetry in dialect [sic] without touching on this dangerous subject!» Francesco Casula. "Sa chistione de sa limba in Montanaru e oe" (PDF). p. 66.
  19. ^ Roberto Bolognesi stated that in his school years in Sardinia, he «witnessed both physical and psychological abuse against monolingual Sardinian-speaking children. The psychological violence consisted usually in calling the children "donkeys" and in inviting the whole class to join the mockery.» (Roberto Bolognesi (1998). The Phonology of Campidanian Sardinian. A Unitary Account of a Self-organizing Structure. Holland Academic Graphics. p. 7. ISBN 9789055690435.)
  20. ^ Istanza del Prof. A. Sanna sulla pronuncia della Facoltà di Lettere in relazione alla difesa del patrimonio etnico-linguistico sardo. Il prof.Antonio Sanna fa a questo proposito una dichiarazione: «Gli indifferenti problemi della scuola, sempre affrontati in Sardegna in torma empirica, appaiono oggi assai particolari e non risolvibili in un generico quadro nazionale; il tatto stesso che la scuola sia diventata scuola di massa comporta il rifiuto di una didattica inadeguata, in quanto basata sull'apprendimento concettuale attraverso una lingua, per molti aspetti estranea al tessuto culturale sardo. Poiché esiste un popolo sardo con una propria lingua dai caratteri diversi e distinti dall'italiano, ne discende che la lingua ufficiale dello Stato, risulta in effetti una lingua straniera, per di più insegnata con metodi didatticamente errati, che non tengono in alcun conto la lingua materna dei Sardi: e ciò con grave pregiudizio per un'efficace trasmissione della cultura sarda, considerata come sub-cultura. Va dunque respinto il tentativo di considerare come unica soluzione valida per questi problemi una forzata e artificiale forma di acculturazione dall'esterno, la quale ha dimostrato (e continua a dimostrare tutti) suoi gravi limiti, in quanto incapace di risolvere i problemi dell'isola. È perciò necessario promuovere dall'interno i valori autentici della cultura isolana, primo fra tutti quello dell'autonomia, e "provocare un salto di qualità senza un'acculturazione di tipo colonialistico, e il superamento cosciente del dislivello di cultura" (Lilliu). La Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università di Cagliari, coerentemente con queste premesse con l'istituzione di una Scuola Superiore di Studi Sardi, è pertanto invitata ad assumere l'iniziativa di proporre alle autorità politiche della Regione Autonoma e dello Stato il riconoscimento della condizione di minoranza etnico-linguistica per la Sardegna e della lingua sarda come lingua <<nazionale>> della minoranza. È di conseguenza opportuno che si predispongano tutti i provvedimenti a livello scolastico per la difesa e conservazione dei valori tradizionali della lingua e della cultura sarda e, in questo contesto, di tutti i dialetti e le tradizioni culturali presenti in Sardegna (ci si intende riferire al Gallurese, al Sassarese, all'Algherese e al Ligure-Carlofortino). In ogni caso tali provvedimenti dovranno comprendere necessariamente, ai livelli minimi dell'istruzione, la partenza dell'insegnamento del sardo e dei vari dialetti parlati in Sardegna, l'insegnamento nella scuola dell'obbligo riservato ai Sardi o coloro che dimostrino un'adeguata conoscenza del sardo, o tutti quegli altri provvedimenti atti a garantire la conservazione dei valori tradizionali della cultura sarda. È bene osservare come, nel quadro della diffusa tendenza a livello internazionale per la difesa delle lingue delle minoranze minacciate, provvedimenti simili a quelli proposti sono presi in Svizzera per la minoranza ladina fin dal 1938 (48000 persone), in Inghilterra per il Galles, in Italia per le minoranze valdostana, slovena e ultimamente ladina (15000 persone), oltre che per quella tedesca; a proposito di queste ultime e specificamente in relazione al nuovo ordinamento scolastico alto-atesino. Il presidente del Consiglio on. Colombo, nel raccomandare ala Camera le modifiche da apportare allo Statuto della Regione Trentino-Alto Adige (il cosiddetto "pacchetto"), <<modifiche che non-escono dal concetto di autonomia indicato dalla Costituzione>>, ha ritenuto di dover sottolineare l'opportunità "che i giovani siano istruiti nella propria lingua materna da insegnanti appartenenti allo stesso gruppo linguistico"; egli inoltre aggiungeva che "solo eliminando ogni motivo di rivendicazione si crea il necessario presupposto per consentire alla scuola di svolgere la sua funzione fondamentale in un clima propizio per la migliore formazione degli allievi". Queste chiare parole del presidente del Consiglio ci consentono di credere che non-si voglia compiere una discriminazione nei confronti della minoranza sarda, ma anche per essa valga il principio enunciato dall'opportunità dell'insegnamento della lingua materna ad opera di insegnanti appartenenti allo stesso gruppo linguistico, onde consentire alla scuola di svolgere anche in Sardegna la sua funzione fondamentale in un clima propizio alla migliore formazione per gli allievi. Si chiarisce che tutto ciò non è sciovinismo né rinuncia a una cultura irrinunciabile, ma una civile e motivata iniziativa per realizzare in Sardegna una vera scuola, una vera rinascita, "in un rapporto di competizione culturale con lo stato (...) che arricchisce la Nazione" (Lilliu)». Il Consiglio unanime approva le istanze proposte dal prof. Sanna e invita le competenti autorità politiche a promuovere tutte le iniziative necessarie, sul piano sia scolastico che politico-economico, a sviluppare coerentemente tali principi, nel contempo acquisendo dati atti a mettere in luce il suesposto stato. Cagliari, 19 Febbraio 1971. Priamo Farris (2016). Problemas e aficàntzias de sa pianificatzioni linguistica in Sardigna. Limba, Istòria, Sotziedadi / Problemi e prospettive della pianificazione linguistica in Sardegna. Lingua, Storia, Società. Youcanprint.
  21. ^ "O sardu, si ses sardu e si ses bonu, / Semper sa limba tua apas presente: / No sias che isciau ubbidiente / Faeddende sa limba 'e su padronu. / Sa nassione chi peldet su donu / De sa limba iscumparit lentamente, / Massimu si che l'essit dae mente / In iscritura che in arrejonu. / Sa limba 'e babbos e de jajos nostros / No l'usades pius nemmancu in domo / Prite pobera e ruza la creides. / Si a iscola no che la jughides / Po la difunder menzus, dae como / Sezis dissardizende a fizos bostros." ("Oh Sardinian! If you are Sardinian and a good Sardinian as well, you should always keep your language etched in your mind: do not be like a submissive slave, speaking your master's language. The nation that loses the gift of its own language is fated to slowly fade out of existence, especially when it does not come to its mind anymore to write and speak. Not even at home is the language of our ancestors used anymore, for you consider it wretched and uncout. If you do not bring it to be taught in school so as to better spread its use, from now on you are going to be stripping the Sardinian identity out of your children.") In "Piras, Raimondo. No sias isciau".
  22. ^ Gavino Pau, in an article published on La Nuova Sardegna (18 aprile 1978, Una lingua defunta da studiare a scuola), claimed that "per tutti l'italiano era un'altra lingua nella quale traducevamo i nostri pensieri che, irrefrenabili, sgorgavano in sardo" and went on to conclude that for the Sardinian language "abbiamo vissuto, per essa abbiamo sofferto, per essa viviamo e vivremo. Il giorno che essa morrà, moriremo anche noi come sardi." (cit. in Melis Onnis, Giovanni (2014). Fueddariu sardu campidanesu-italianu, Domus de Janas, Presentazione)
  23. ^ Similar dynamics led the Irish language to be primarily spoken only in certain areas, known as Gaeltacht (Edwards J., Language, society and identity, Oxford, 1985)
  24. ^ As opposed to the transitive use of morrer / morri a..., which means "to kill" instead. E.g.: Pascale at mortu a tziu Bachis ("Pascal has killed uncle Bachisio").

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ti Alkire; Carol Rosen (2010). Romance languages : a Historical Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e Lubello, Sergio (2016). Manuale Di Linguistica Italiana, De Gruyter, Manuals of Romance linguistics, p. 499
  3. ^ AA. VV. Calendario Atlante De Agostini 2017, Novara, Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 2016, p. 230
  4. ^ a b c "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26". Regione autonoma della Sardegna – Regione Autònoma de Sardigna.
  5. ^ a b "Legge Regionale 3 Luglio 2018, n. 22". Regione autonoma della Sardegna – Regione Autònoma de Sardigna.
  6. ^ Massimo Pittau (2005). Grammatica del sardo illustre. Sassari: Carlo Delfino Editore.
  7. ^ Francesco Corda (1994). Grammatica moderna del sardo logudorese : con una proposta ortografica, elementi di metrica e un glossario. Cagliari: Edizioni della Torre.
  8. ^ Antonio Lepori (1979). Prontuario di grammatica sarda : variante campidanese. Cagliari: Litografia C.U.E.C.
  9. ^ "Arrègulas po ortografia, fonètica, morfologia e fueddàriu de sa norma campidanesa de sa lìngua sarda" (PDF). Quartu S. Elena: Alfa Editrice. 2009.
  10. ^ Bartolomeo Porcheddu (2012). Grammàtica de sa limba sarda comuna. Ossi: LogoSardigna.
  11. ^ a b "Limba Sarda Comuna. Normas linguìsticas de referèntzia a caràtere isperimentale pro sa limba sarda iscrita de s'Amministratzione regionale" (PDF). Regione Autonoma della Sardegna.
  12. ^ L'Aventure des langues en Occident, Henriette Walter, Le Livre de poche, Paris, 1994, p. 174
  13. ^ "Romance languages". Encyclopedia Britannica. ...if the Romance languages are compared with Latin, it is seen that by most measures Sardinian and Italian are least differentiated..
  14. ^ Mele, Antonio. Termini prelatini della lingua sarda tuttora vivi nell'uso. Edizioni Ilienses, Olzai
  15. ^ «Il più caratteristico degli idiomi neolatini, di gran lunga più caratteristico del ladino o del franco-provenzale.» ("The most characteristic of the Neo-Latin languages, by far more characteristic than Ladin or Franco-Provençal.") Matteo Bartoli (1903). "Un po' di sardo" in Archeografo triestino, vol. I, serie III. Trieste.
  16. ^ a b «Da G. I. Ascoli in poi, tutti i linguisti sono concordi nell'assegnare al sardo un posto particolare fra gl'idiomi neolatini per i varî caratteri che lo distinguono non-solo dai dialetti italiani, ma anche dalle altre lingue della famiglia romanza, e che appaiono tanto nella fonetica, quanto nella morfologia e nel lessico.» ("From G. I. Ascoli onwards, all linguists agree in giving Sardinian a special place among the neo-Latin languages because of the various characteristics that distinguish it not only from the Italian dialects, but also from the other languages of the Romance family, and that appear as much in its phonetics as in its morphology and lexicon.") Almagia, Roberto; Cortesi, Fabrizio; Salfi, Mario; Sera, Gioacchino; Taramelli, Antonio; Momigliano, Arnaldo; Ciasca, Raffaele; Bottiglioni, Gino; Garzia, Raffa; Gabriel, Gavino; Brunelli, Enrico; Vardabasso, Silvio (1936). Sardegna in Enciclopedia Italiana, Treccani, "Parlari".
  17. ^ «Il Sardo ha una sua speciale fisionomia ed individualità che lo rende, in certo qual modo, il più caratteristico degli idiomi neolatini; e questa speciale individualità del Sardo, come lingua di tipo arcaico e con una fisionomia inconfondibile, traspare già fin dai più antichi testi.» Carlo Tagliavini (1982). Le origini delle lingue neolatine. Bologna: Patron. p. 388.
  18. ^ "Legge 482". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  19. ^ «With some 1,6 million speakers, Sardinia is the largest minority language in Italy. Sardinians form an ethnic minority since they show a strong awareness of being an indigenous group with a language and a culture of their own. Although Sardinian appears to be recessive in use, it is still spoken and understood by a majority of the population on the island.» Kurt Braunmüller, Gisella Ferraresi (2003). Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: University of Hamburg. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 238.
  20. ^ «Nel 1948 la Sardegna diventa, anche per le sue peculiarità linguistiche, Regione Autonoma a statuto speciale. Tuttavia a livello politico, ufficiale, non cambia molto per la minoranza linguistica sarda, che, con circa 1,2 milioni di parlanti, è la più numerosa tra tutte le comunità alloglotte esistenti sul territorio italiano.» Wolftraud De Concini (2003). Gli altri d'Italia : minoranze linguistiche allo specchio. Pergine Valsugana: Comune. p. 196.
  21. ^ a b «Sebbene in continua diminuzione, i sardi costituiscono tuttora la più grossa minoranza linguistica dello stato italiano con ca. 1.000.000 di parlanti stimati (erano 1.269.000 secondo le stime basate sul censimento del 2001)». Sergio Lubello (2016). Manuale Di Linguistica Italiana, Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter. p. 499.
  22. ^ "Lingue di Minoranza e Scuola, Sardo". Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  23. ^ a b "Inchiesta ISTAT 2000, pp. 105–107" (PDF).
  24. ^ "What Languages are Spoken in Italy?". WorldAtlas.
  25. ^ "Oppo, Anna. Le lingue dei sardi, p. 7" (PDF).
  26. ^ a b La Nuova Sardegna, 04/11/10, Per salvare i segni dell'identità – di Paolo Coretti
  27. ^ a b Corongiu, Giuseppe (2010). La politica linguistica per la lingua sarda, in Maccani, Lucia; Viola, Marco. Il valore delle minoranze. La leva ordinamentale per la promozione delle comunità di lingua minoritaria. Trento: Provincia Autonoma di Trento. p. 122.
  28. ^ a b c "La situazione sociolinguistica della Sardegna settentrionale di Mauro Maxia". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  29. ^ a b c d e f "Sardinian language use survey, 1995". Euromosaic. To access the data, click on List by languages, Sardinian, then scroll to "Sardinian language use survey".
  30. ^ "Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger", UNESCO
  31. ^ «Sorge ora la questione se il sardo si deve considerare come un dialetto o come una lingua. È evidente che esso è, politicamente, uno dei tanti dialetti dell'Italia, come lo è anche, p. es., il serbo-croato o l'albanese parlato in vari paesi della Calabria e della Sicilia. Ma dal punto di vista linguistico la questione assume un altro aspetto. Non si può dire che il sardo abbia una stretta parentela con alcun dialetto dell'italiano continentale; è un parlare romanzo arcaico e con proprie spiccate caratteristiche, che si rivelano in un vocabolario molto originale e in una morfologia e sintassi assai differenti da quelle dei dialetti italiani.» Max Leopold Wagner (1951). La lingua sarda. Ilisso. pp. 90–91.
  32. ^ «Sardinian is an insular language par excellence: it is at once the most archaic and the most individual among the Romance group.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1982). Language and Philology in Romance. The Hague, Paris, New York: Mouton Publishers. p. 171.
  33. ^ Corsale, Andrea; Sistu, Giovanni (2019). Sardegna: geografie di un'isola. Milano: Franco Angeli. p. 187.
  34. ^ Pei, Mario (1949). "A New Methodology for Romance Classification". WORD. 5 (2): 135–146. doi:10.1080/00437956.1949.11659494.
  35. ^ a b Koryakov Y.B. Atlas of Romance languages. Moscow, 2001
  36. ^ «Prima di tutto, la neonata lingua sarda ingloba un consistente numero di termini e di cadenze provenienti da una lingua originaria preromana, che potremmo chiamare "nuragica".» Salvatore Tola (2006). La Letteratura in Lingua sarda. Testi, autori, vicende. Cagliari: CUEC. p. 9.
  37. ^ Atti del VI [i.e. Sesto] Congresso internazionale di studi sardi. 1962. p. 5.
  38. ^ Giovanni Lilliu (1988). La civiltà dei Sardi. Dal Paleolitico all'età dei nuraghi. Nuova ERI. p. 269.
  39. ^ Yakov Malkiel (1947). Romance Philology. 1. p. 199.
  40. ^ Wagner, M. (1952). Il Nome Sardo del Mese di Giugno (Lámpadas) e i Rapporti del Latino d'Africa con quello della Sardegna. Italica, 29(3), 151-157. doi:10.2307/477388
  41. ^ Paolo Pompilio (1455–91): «ubi pagani integra pene latinitate loquuntur et, ubi uoces latinae franguntur, tum in sonum tractusque transeunt sardinensis sermonis, qui, ut ipse noui, etiam ex latino est» ("where villagers speak an almost intact Latin and, when Latin words are corrupted, then they pass to the sound and habits of the Sardinian language, which, as I myself know, also comes from Latin")». Quoted in Loporcaro, Michele (2015). Vowel Length from Latin to Romance, Oxford University Press, p. 48
  42. ^ Adams, J.N. (2007). The Regional Diversification of Latin 200 BC – AD 600. Cambridge University Press. p. 576. ISBN 978-1139468817.
  43. ^ «Sardinian is unintelligible to most Italians and gives an acoustic impression more similar to Spanish than Italian. It is clearly and energetically articulated but has always been regarded as barbarous by the soft-speaking Italians.» "Sardinian language". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  44. ^ Tullio De Mauro (1979). L'Italia delle Italie. Firenze: Nuova Guaraldi Editrice. p. 89.
  45. ^ "minoranze linguistiche in "Enciclopedia dell'Italiano"". www.treccani.it.
  46. ^ «Sardinian is a highly original conglomerate of dialects with respect to the Neo-Latin varieties and thoroughly distinct from the Italo-Romance typology, and its separateness as a group of its own among the Romance languages is indisputable.» "(Toso, Fiorenzo). Lingue sotto il tetto d'Italia. Le minoranze alloglotte da Bolzano a Carloforte – 8. Il sardo".
  47. ^ Martin Maiden, John Charles Smith, Adam Ledgeway (2013). The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages. II. Cambridge University Press. p. 301.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer (2010). Paleosardo: Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica. De Gruyter Mouton.
  49. ^ Juan Martín Elexpuru Agirre (2017). Euskararen aztarnak Sardinian?. Pamiela Argitaletxea.
  50. ^ a b c "Massimo Pittau – La lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  51. ^ This is the case, for example, of the pre-Roman prefixes ta, tha, ti, thi, tu which make their appearance in names relating to small animals (e.g. tilicherta "lizard", tilipirche "grasshopper", etc.) but even to other words beyond that semantic field (e.g. thàlau "bran", tugru "neck"). Max Leopold Wagner (1951). La lingua sarda. p. 251.
  52. ^ «Dopo pisani e genovesi si erano susseguiti aragonesi di lingua catalana, spagnoli di lingua castigliana, austriaci, piemontesi ed, infine, italiani [...] Nonostante questi impatti linguistici, la "limba sarda" si mantiene relativamente intatta attraverso i secoli. [...] Fino al fascismo: che vietò l'uso del sardo non solo in chiesa, ma anche in tutte le manifestazioni folkloristiche.» Wolftraud De Concini (2003). Gli altri d'Italia : minoranze linguistiche allo specchio. Pergine Valsugana : Comune. pp. 195–196.
  53. ^ a b c d e Rindler-Schjerve, Rosita (1993). "Sardinian : Italian". In Posner, Rebecca; Green, John N. (eds.). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 271–294. ISBN 9783110117240.
  54. ^ a b c d "Minoranze linguistiche, Sardo. Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione". Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  55. ^ Ugas, Giovanni (2017). Shardana e Sardegna : i popoli del mare, gli alleati del Nordafrica e la fine dei grandi regni (15.-12. secolo a.C.), Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, pp. 398–408
  56. ^ Platonis dialogi, scholia in Timaeum (edit. C. F. Hermann, Lipsia 1877), 25 B, p. 368
  57. ^ M. Pittau, La Lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi, Sassari 1981, p. 57
  58. ^ Sallust, Historiae, II, fr.4
  59. ^ Pausanias, Ελλάδοσ περιήγησισ, X, 17
  60. ^ Silius Italicus, Punica, XII, 360
  61. ^ Gaius Julius Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, IV, 1
  62. ^ Isidore of Seville, XIV, Etymologiae, Thapsumque iacentem, 39
  63. ^ "Personaggi - Sardo". www.aristeo.org.
  64. ^ Serra, Marcello (1978). Enciclopedia della Sardegna : con un saggio introduttivo intitolato Alla scoperta dell'isola, Pisa, Giardini editori e stampatori, p. 29: "Origine e carattere dei Sardi"
  65. ^ Trask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2
  66. ^ ""Quel filo che lega i sardi con i baschi"". La Nuova Sardegna. 22 December 2017.
  67. ^ Wagner M.L. (1931). Über die vorrömischen Bestandteile des Sardischen. p. 227.
  68. ^ Arnaiz-Villena A, Rodriguez de Córdoba S, Vela F, Pascual JC, Cerveró J, Bootello A. – HLA antigens in a sample of the Spanish population: common features among Spaniards, Basques, and Sardinians. – Hum Genet. 1981;58(3):344-8.
  69. ^ "Il genetista conferma le origini comuni tra i sardi e i baschi". La Nuova Sardegna. 22 December 2017.
  70. ^ Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Marcus, Joseph H.; Sidore, Carlo; Biddanda, Arjun; Al-Asadi, Hussein; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Pitzalis, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Pistis, Giorgio; Steri, Maristella; Angius, Andrea; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Novembre, John (14 October 2018). "Genomic history of the Sardinian population". Nature Genetics. 50 (10): 1426–1434. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0215-8. PMC 6168346. PMID 30224645 – via www.nature.com.
  71. ^ Attilio Mastino (2005). Storia della Sardegna antica. Edizioni Il Maestrale. p. 307. ISBN 88-86109-98-9.
  72. ^ Bereznay, András (2011). Erdély történetének atlasza [Atlas of the History of Transylvania] (in Hungarian). Méry Ratio. p. 63. ISBN 978-80-89286-45-4.
  73. ^ Giovanni Ugas – L'alba dei Nuraghi (2005) p. 241
  74. ^ Giulio Paulis, «Sopravvivenze della lingua punica in Sardegna», in L'Africa romana, Atti del VII Convegno di Studio (Sassari 1989), Sassari, Gallizzi, 1990, pp. 599–639
  75. ^ Giulio Paulis, «L'influsso linguistico fenicio-punico in Sardegna. Nuove acquisizioni e prospettive di ricerca», in Circolazioni culturali nel Mediterraneo antico. Atti della VI giornata camito-semtica e indoeuropea, I Convegno Internazionale di linguistica dell'area mediterranea, Sassari 24–27 aprile 1991, edited by Paolo Filigheddu, Cagliari, Corda, 1994, pp. 213–219
  76. ^ Ignazio Putzu, "La posizione linguistica del sardo nel contesto mediterraneo", in Neues aus der Bremer Linguistikwerkstatt: aktuelle Themen und Projekte, ed. Cornelia Stroh (Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 2012), 183.
  77. ^ Wolf H. J., 1998, Toponomastica barbaricina, p. 20 Papiros publisher, Nuoro
  78. ^ Archivio glottologico italiano. 53–54. 1968. p. 209.
  79. ^ Cf. Max Leopold Wagner (1960–64). D.E.S. – Dizionario etimologico sardo. Heidelberg.
  80. ^ "Cicero: Pro Scauro". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  81. ^ Casula, Francesco Cesare (1994). La Storia di Sardegna. Sassari, it: Carlo Delfino Editore. ISBN 978-88-7138-084-1. p. 110
  82. ^ «Sardinia was under the control of Carthage from around 500BC. It was conquered by Rome in 238/7 BC, but was isolated and apparently despised by the Romans, and Romanisation was not rapid.» James Noel Adams (9 January 2003). Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780521817714.
  83. ^ Zhang, Huiying (2015). "From Latin to the Romance languages: A normal evolution to what extent?" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies. 3 (4): 105–111. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  84. ^ «Although it is an established historical fact that Roman dominion over Sardinia lasted until the fifth century, it has been argued, on purely linguistic grounds, that linguistic contact with Rome ceased much earlier than this, possibly as early as the first century BC.» Martin Harris, Nigel Vincent (2000). The Romance languages. London and New York: Routledge. p. 315.
  85. ^ Michele Loporcaro (2009). Profilo linguistico dei dialetti italiani. Editori Laterza. p. 170.
  86. ^ For a list of widely used words in Sardinian that were already considered quite archaic by the time of Marcus Terentius Varro, see Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 89–90.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  87. ^ Barreca F.(1988), La civiltà fenicio-punica in Sardegna, Carlo Delfino Editore, Sassari
  88. ^ Cum utroque sermone nostro sis paratus. Svetonio, De vita Caesarum, Divus Claudius, 42
  89. ^ M. Wescher e M. Blancard, Charte sarde de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille écrite en caractères grecs, in "Bibliothèque de l' École des chartes", 35 (1874), pp. 255–265
  90. ^ "Un'inedita carta sardo-greca del XII secolo nell'Archivio Capitolare di Pisa, di Alessandro Soddu – Paola Crasta – Giovanni Strinna" (PDF).
  91. ^ a b Giulio Paulis, Lingua e cultura nella Sardegna Bizantina, Sassari, 1983
  92. ^ "La lingua sarda acquisì dignità di lingua nazionale già dall'ultimo scorcio del secolo XI quando, grazie a favorevoli circostanze storico-politiche e sociali, sfuggì alla limitazione dell'uso orale per giungere alla forma scritta, trasformandosi in volgare sardo." Cecilia Tasca (a cura di), 2003. Manoscritti e lingua sarda, La memoria storica, p. 15
  93. ^ «Moreover, the Sardinians are the first Romance-speaking people of all who made the language of the common folk the official language of the State, the Government...» Puddu, Mario (2002). Istoria de sa limba sarda, Ed. Domus de Janas, Selargius, p. 14
  94. ^ Gian Giacomo Ortu, La Sardegna dei Giudici p. 264, Il Maestrale 2005
  95. ^ Maurizio Virdis, Le prime manifestazioni della scrittura nel cagliaritano, in Judicalia, Atti del Seminario di Studi Cagliari 14 dicembre 2003, a cura di B. Fois, Cagliari, Cuec, 2004, pp. 45–54.
  96. ^ «Un caso unico - e a parte - nel dominio romanzo è costituito dalla Sardegna, in cui i documenti giuridici incominciano ad essere redatti interamente in volgare già alla fine dell'XI secolo e si fanno più frequenti nei secoli successivi. (...) L'eccezionalità della situazione sarda nel panorama romanzo consiste - come si diceva - nel fatto che tali testi sono stati scritti sin dall'inizio interamente in volgare. Diversamente da quanto succede a questa altezza cronologica (e anche dopo) in Francia, in Provenza, in Italia e nella Penisola iberica, il documento sardo esclude del tutto la compresenza di volgare e latino. (...) il sardo era usato prevalentemente in documenti a circolazione interna, il latino in documenti che concernevano il rapporto con il continente.» Lorenzo Renzi, Alvise Andreose (2009). Manuale di linguistica e filologia romanza. Il Mulino. pp. 256–257.
  97. ^ Livio Petrucci. Il problema delle Origini e i più antichi testi italiani, in Storia della lingua italiana. 3. Torino: Einaudi. p. 58.
  98. ^ a b Salvatore Tola (2006). La Letteratura in Lingua sarda. Testi, autori, vicende. Cagliari: CUEC. p. 11.
  99. ^ a b Salvatore Tola (2006). La Letteratura in Lingua sarda. Testi, autori, vicende. Cagliari: CUEC. p. 17.
  100. ^ «Ma, prescindendo dalle divergenze stilistiche e da altri particolari minori, si può dire che la lingua dei documenti antichi è assai omogenea e che, ad ogni modo, l’originaria unità della lingua sarda vi si intravede facilmente.» Max Leopold Wagner (1951–1997). La lingua sarda. Nuoro: Ilisso. p. 84.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  101. ^ Carlo Tagliavini (1964). Le origini delle lingue neolatine. Bologna: Patron. p. 450.
  102. ^ Sergio Salvi (1975). Le lingue tagliate: storia delle minoranze linguistiche in Italia. Rizzoli. pp. 176–177.
  103. ^ Cf. Eduardo Blasco Ferrer (1984). Storia linguistica della Sardegna. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-132911-6.
  104. ^ Francesco Bruni. Storia della lingua italiana, Dall'Umbria alle Isole. 2. Torino: Utet. p. 582. ISBN 88-11-20472-0.
  105. ^ "La Carta de Logu". www.sandalyon.eu.
  106. ^ "Carta de Logu (original text)". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  107. ^ Barisone II of Arborea, G. Seche, L'incoronazione di Barisone "Re di Sardegna" in due fonti contemporanee: gli Annales genovesi e gli Annales pisani, Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, n°4, 2010
  108. ^ Casula, Francesco Cesare (2017). La scrittura in Sardegna dal nuragico ad oggi, Carlo Delfino Editore, p. 91
  109. ^ «Sardos etiam, qui non-Latii sunt sed Latiis associandi videntur, eiciamus, quoniam soli sine proprio vulgari esse videntur, gramaticam tanquam simie homines imitantes: nam domus nova et dominus meus locuntur». Dantis Alagherii De Vulgari Eloquentia, (Lib. I, XI, 7), The Latin Library
  110. ^ «As for the Sardinians, who are not Italian but may be associated with Italians for our purposes, out they must go, because they alone seem to lack a vernacular of their own, instead imitating gramatica as apes do humans: for they say 'domus nova' [my house] and 'dominus meus'[my master].» "Dante Online - Le Opere". www.danteonline.it.
  111. ^ «Dante, for instance, said that Sardinians were like monkeys imitating men.» "Sardinian language". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  112. ^ «Eliminiamo anche i Sardi (che non sono Italiani, ma sembrano accomunabili agli Italiani) perché essi soli appaiono privi di un volgare loro proprio e imitano la "gramatica" come le scimmie imitano gli uomini: dicono infatti "domus nova" e "dominus meus"». De Vulgari Eloquentia. Paraphrase and notes by Sergio Cecchin. Opere minori di Dante Alighieri, vol. II, UTET, Torino 1986
  113. ^ a b c Salvi, Sergio. Le lingue tagliate: storia delle minoranze linguistiche in Italia, Rizzoli, 1975, p. 195
  114. ^ a b Marinella Lőrinczi. "La casa del signore. La lingua sarda nel De vulgari eloquentia" (PDF).
  115. ^ "Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (392.7)". www.rialto.unina.it.
  116. ^ Max Leopold Wagner. La lingua sarda (PDF). Ilisso. p. 78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  117. ^ Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1982). Language and Philology in Romance. Mouton Publishers. p. 178.
  118. ^ Alberto Varvaro (2004). Identità linguistiche e letterarie nell'Europa romanza. Roma: Salerno Editrice. p. 231. ISBN 8884024463.
  119. ^ "Le sarde, une langue normale". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  120. ^ Dittamondo III XII 56 ss.
  121. ^ «Wa ahl Ğazīrat Sardāniya fī aṣl Rūm Afāriqa mutabarbirūn mutawaḥḥišūn min ağnās ar-Rūm wa hum ahl nağida wa hazm lā yufariqūn as-silāḥ». "Contu, Giuseppe. Sardinia in Arabic sources".. Annali della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Straniere dell'Università di Sassari, Vol. 3 (2003 pubbl. 2005), pp. 287-297. ISSN 1828-5384
  122. ^ Mastino, Attilio (2005). Storia della Sardegna antica, Edizioni Il Maestrale, p. 83
  123. ^ Translation provided by Michele Amari: «I sardi sono di schiatta Rum Afariqah (latina d'Africa), berberizzanti. Rifuggono (dal consorzio) di ogni altra nazione di Rum: sono gente di proposito e valorosa, che non lascia mai l'arme.» Note to the passage by Mohamed Mustafa Bazama: «Questo passo, nel testo arabo, è un poco differente, traduco qui testualmente: "gli abitanti della Sardegna, in origine sono dei Rum Afariqah, berberizzanti, indomabili. Sono una (razza a sé) delle razze dei Rum. [...] Sono pronti al richiamo d'aiuto, combattenti, decisivi e mai si separano dalle loro armi (intende guerrieri nati).» Mohamed Mustafa Bazama (1988). Arabi e sardi nel Medioevo. Cagliari: Editrice democratica sarda. pp. 17, 162.
  124. ^ Another translation into Italian from the original passage in Arabic: «I sardi, popolo di razza latina africana piuttosto barbaro, che vive appartato dal consorzio delle altre genti latine, sono intrepidi e risoluti; essi non abbandonano mai le armi.» Al Idrisi, traduzione e note di Umberto Rizzitano (2008). Il Libro di Ruggero. Il diletto di chi è appassionato per le peregrinazioni attraverso il mondo. Palermo: Flaccovio Editore.
  125. ^ Mastino, Attilio (2005). Storia della Sardegna antica, Edizioni Il Maestrale, p.83
  126. ^ «Non vi è dubbio che vi erano rapporti più stretti tra la latinità dell'Africa settentrionale e quella della Sardegna. Senza parlare della affinità della razza e degli elementi libici che possano ancora esistere in sardo, non bisogna dimenticare che la Sardegna rimase, durante vari secoli, alle dipendenze dell'esarcato africano». Wagner, M. (1952). Il Nome Sardo del Mese di Giugno (Lámpadas) e i Rapporti del Latino d'Africa con quello della Sardegna. Italica, 29(3), p.152. doi:10.2307/477388
  127. ^ Archivio Cassinense Perg. Caps. XI, n. 11 " e "TOLA P., Codice Diplomatico della Sardegna, I, Sassari, 1984, p. 153
  128. ^ Ferrer, Eduardo Blasco (1984). Storia Linguistica Della Sardegna, p. 65, De Gruyter
  129. ^ Antonietta Orunesu, Valentino Pusceddu (a cura di). Cronaca medioevale sarda: i sovrani di Torres, 1993, Astra, Quartu S.Elena, p. 11
  130. ^ Francesco Cesare Casula, La storia di Sardegna, 1994
  131. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 33.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  132. ^ «[Sardinians] speak a peculiar language, Sardinian, and use it to write both in poetry and prose, especially in Logudoro where it has been kept purer, and more elegant and rich. And, since many Spaniards, both Aragonese and Catalan, and Italians immigrated to Sardinia, and keep doing so to trade, Spanish, Catalan and Italian are also spoken; so, a single people is able to hold a conversation in all these languages. However, those from Cagliari and Alghero usually speak their masters' language, Catalan, whilst the other people retain the genuine language of the Sardinians.» Original text: «[Sardi] Loquuntur lingua propria sardoa, tum ritmice, tum soluta oratione, praesertim in Capite Logudorii, ubi purior copiosior, et splendidior est. Et quia Hispani plures Aragonenses et Cathalani et Itali migrarunt in eam, et commerciorum caussa quotidie adventant, loquuntur etiam lingua hispanica et cathalana et italica; hisque omnibus linguis concionatur in uno eodemque populo. Caralitani tamen et Algharenses utuntur suorum maiorum lingua cathalana; alii vero genuinam retinent Sardorum linguam.» Fara, Francesco Giovanni (1580). De Rebus Sardois, De natura et moribus Sardorum, 1835-1580, Turin, p. 51
  133. ^ Gessner, Conrad (1555). De differentiis linguarum tum veterum tum quae hodie apud diversas nationes in toto orbe terraru in usu sunt, Sardorum lingua: pp. 66–67
  134. ^ Sigismondo Arquer (edited by Maria Teresa Laneri, 2008). Sardiniae brevis historia et descriptio, CUEC, p. 30, De Sardorum Lingua. «Certainly, the Sardinians had once their own language, however since many peoples immigrated to the island and it fell under the rule of many foreign powers (namely Latins, Pisans, Genoese, Spanish and Africans), the language of the Sardinians became extremely corrupted; nonetheless, a number of words which have no equivalent in any other language have been preserved. [...] Because of this, the Sardinians speak in a very different way depending on where they live, since they have been under many diverse dominations; however, they manage to understand each other perfectly. On the island are two main languages, the first in the cities and the latter out of their reach. People from the cities commonly speak Spanish, Tarragonese or Catalan, which they learnt from the Spaniards, who also occupy much of the official positions; the others, on the other hand, retain the genuine language of the Sardinians.» Original text: «Habuerunt quidem Sardi linguam propriam, sed quum diversi populi immigraverint in eam atque ab exteris principibus eius imperium usurpatum fuerit, nempe Latinis, Pisanis, Genuensibus, Hispanis et Afris, corrupta fuit multum lingua eorum, relictis tamen plurimis vocabulis, quae in nullo inveniuntur idiomate. [...] Hinc est quod Sardi in diversis locis tam diverse loquuntur, iuxta quod tam varium habuerunt imperium, etiamsi ipsi mutuo sese recte intelligant. Sunt autem duae praecipuae in ea insula linguae, una qua utuntur in civitatibus, et altera qua extra civitates. Oppidani loquuntur fere lingua Hispanica, Tarraconensi seu Catalana, quam didicerunt ab Hispanis, qui plerumque magistratum in eisdem gerunt civitatibus: alii vero genuinam retinent Sardorum Linguam.» Sigismondo, Arquer (1549). Sardiniae brevis historia et descriptio, De Sardorum Lingua
  135. ^ Why is Catalan spoken in L'Alguer? – Corpus Oral de l'Alguerès
  136. ^ a b Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Giorgia Ingrassia (2009). Storia della lingua sarda: dal paleosardo alla musica rap, evoluzione storico-culturale, letteraria, linguistica. Scelta di brani esemplari commentati e tradotti. Cagliari: Cuec. p. 92.
  137. ^ Michelle Hobart (2017). A Companion to Sardinian History, 500–1500. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 111–112.
  138. ^ Carlo Maxia, Studi Sardo-Corsi, Dialettologia e storia della lingua fra le due isole
  139. ^ Ciurrata di la linga gadduresa, Atti del II Convegno Internazionale di Studi
  140. ^ a b "Antonio Cano (Edited by Dino Manca, 2002). Sa Vitta et sa Morte, et Passione de sanctu Gavinu, Prothu et Januariu, CUEC" (PDF).
  141. ^ Turtas, Raimondo (1981). La questione linguistica nei collegi gesuitici in Sardegna nella seconda metà del Cinquecento, in "Quaderni sardi di storia" 2, p. 57-87, at p. 60
  142. ^ a b "Sardegna Cultura - Lingua sarda - Letteratura - Dalle origini al '700". www.sardegnacultura.it.
  143. ^ a b «First attempts at national self-assertion through language date back to the 16th century, when G. Araolla, a speaker of Sassarese, wrote a poem intended to enrich and honour the Sardinian language.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 286.
  144. ^ a b J. Arce, La literatura hispánica de Cerdeña. Revista de la Facultad de Filología, 1956
  145. ^ Lo Frasso, Antonio (1573). Los diez libros de fortuna d'Amor
  146. ^ "Vicenç Bacallar, el sard botifler als orígens de la Real Academia Española". VilaWeb.cat.
  147. ^ Rime diverse, Cagliari, 1595
  148. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Giorgia Ingrassia (edited by). Storia della lingua sarda: dal paleosardo alla musica rap, evoluzione storico-culturale, letteraria, linguistica. Scelta di brani esemplari commentati e tradotti, 2009, Cuec, Cagliari, p. 99
  149. ^ Olaya, Vicente G. (2019), La segunda vida de los tercios (in Spanish), El País, retrieved 4 June 2019: "Los tercios españoles solo podían ser comandados por soldados que hablasen castellano, catalán, portugués o sardo. Cualquier otro tenía vedado su ascenso, por eso los italianos que chapurreaban español se hacían pasar por valencianos para intentar su promoción."; "The Spanish tercios could only be commanded by soldiers who spoke Castilian, Catalan, Portuguese or Sardinian. Everyone else had his promotion forbidden, that's why the Italians who spoke Spanish badly tried to pass themselves off as Valencians to try to get promoted."
  150. ^ "Las apo voltadas in sardu menjus qui non in atera limba pro amore de su vulgu [...] qui non tenjan bisonju de interprete pro bi-las decrarare, et tambene pro esser sa limba sarda tantu bona, quanta participat de sa latina, qui nexuna de quantas limbas si plàtican est tantu parente assa latina formale quantu sa sarda." Garipa, Ioan Matheu. Legendariu de santas virgines, et martires de Iesu Crhistu, 1627, Per Lodouicu Grignanu, Roma
  151. ^ "Totu sas naziones iscrient e imprentant sos libros in sas propias limbas nadias e duncas peri sa Sardigna – sigomente est una natzione – depet iscriere e imprentare sos libros in limba sarda. Una limba – sighit Garipa – chi de seguru bisongiat de irrichimentos e de afinicamentos, ma non est de contu prus pagu de sas ateras limbas neolatinas." ("All the nations write and print books in their native languages and therefore Sardinia – which is a nation – should do so as well, in Sardinian language. A language – follows Garipa – which certainly needs a little enrichment and refinement, but is no less important than the other Neolatin languages"). Casula, Francesco. Sa chistione de sa limba in Montanaru e oe
  152. ^ M. Lepori, Dalla Spagna ai Savoia. Ceti e corona della Sardegna del Settecento (Rome, 2003)
  153. ^ Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, pp. 86–87
  154. ^ Roberto Palmarocchi (1936). Sardegna sabauda. Il regime di Vittorio Amedeo II. Cagliari: Tip. Mercantile G. Doglio. p. 95.
  155. ^ Palmarocchi, Roberto (1936). Sardegna sabauda, v.I, Tip. Mercantile G. Doglio, Cagliari, p. 87
  156. ^ Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, p. 86
  157. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Giorgia Ingrassia (edited by). Storia della lingua sarda : dal paleosardo alla musica rap, evoluzione storico-culturale, letteraria, linguistica. Scelta di brani esemplari commentati e tradotti, 2009, Cuec, Cagliari, p. 110
  158. ^ Rossana Poddine Rattu. Biografia dei viceré sabaudi del Regno di Sardegna (1720-1848). Cagliari: Della Torre. p. 31.
  159. ^ Luigi La Rocca (1905). La cessione del Regno di Sardegna alla Casa Sabauda. Gli atti diplomatici e di possesso con documenti inediti, in "Miscellanea di Storia Italiana. Terza Serie", v.10. Torino: Fratelli Bocca. pp. 180–188.
  160. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 210.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  161. ^ On further information as to the role played by mixed marriages in general to spread Italian among the islanders, see Ines Loi Corvetto. L'italiano regionale di Sardegna. Bologna: Zanichelli. pp. 21–25. ; Francesco Bruni. L'italiano nelle regioni. Lingua nazionale e identità regionali. Torino: UTET. p. 913.
  162. ^ «La più diffusa, e storicamente precocissima, consapevolezza nell'isola circa lo statuto di lingua a sé del sardo, ragion per cui il rapporto tra il sardo e l'italiano ha teso a porsi fin dall'inizio nei termini di quello tra due lingue diverse (benché con potere e prestigio evidentemente diversi), a differenza di quanto normalmente avvenuto in altre regioni italiane, dove, tranne nel caso di altre minoranze storiche, la percezione dei propri "dialetti" come "lingue" diverse dall'italiano sembrerebbe essere un fatto relativamente più recente e, almeno apparentemente, meno profondamente e drammaticamente avvertito.» Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 209.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  163. ^ «La consapevolezza di alterità rispetto all'italiano si spiega facilmente non solo per i quasi 400 anni di fila sotto il dominio ispanico, che hanno agevolato nei sardi, rispetto a quanto avvenuto in altre regioni italiane, una prospettiva globalmente più distaccata nei confronti della lingua italiana, ma anche per il fatto tutt'altro che banale che già i catalani e i castigliani consideravano il sardo una lingua a sé stante, non solo rispetto alla propria ma anche rispetto all'italiano.» Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 210.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  164. ^ «Ma la percezione di alterità linguistica era condivisa e avvertita anche da qualsiasi italiano che avesse occasione di risiedere o passare nell'Isola.» Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 209.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  165. ^ According to the officer Giulio Bechi, the Sardinians spoke "a horrible language, as intricate as Saracen, and sounding like Spanish." Giulio Bechi (1997) [First published 1900]. Caccia grossa. Scene e figure del banditismo sardo. Nuoro: Ilisso. p. 43.
  166. ^ «Lingue fuori dell'Italiano e del Sardo nessuno ne impara, e pochi uomini capiscono il francese; piuttosto lo spagnuolo. La lingua spagnuola s'accosta molto anche alla Sarda, e poi con altri paesi poco sono in relazione. [...] La popolazione della Sardegna pare dalli suoi costumi, indole, etc., un misto di popoli di Spagna, e del Levante conservano vari usi, che hanno molta analogia con quelli dei Turchi, e dei popoli del Levante; e poi vi è mescolato molto dello Spagnuolo, e dirò così, che pare una originaria popolazione del Levante civilizzata alla Spagnuola, che poi coll'andare del tempo divenne più originale, e formò la Nazione Sarda, che ora distinguesi non solo dai popoli del Levante, ma anche da quelli della Spagna.» Francesco D'Austria-Este (1993) [First published 1812]. Descrizione della Sardegna (1812), ed. Giorgio Bardanzellu. Cagliari: Della Torre. pp. 43, 64.
  167. ^ Antonio Bresciani (1861). Dei costumi dell'isola di Sardegna comparati cogli antichissimi popoli orientali (PDF). Napoli: Giannini Francesco.
  168. ^ «Come data ufficiale per la estensione della lingua italiana in Sardegna viene comunemente citato il 1764, anno in cui fu emanata un'apposita carta reale per le Università, ma questa, in effetti, fu preceduta nel 1760 da un piano regio per le scuole inferiori e seguita nel 1770 da un regio editto per la magistratura. Occorse dunque un periodo di dieci anni per rendere ufficiale, nell'isola, l'adozione dell'italiano, la cui diffusione fu da principio assai lenta anche negli ambienti colti, come attesta l'uso frequente della lingua spagnola in atti e documenti pubblici fino ai primi decenni dell'Ottocento.» Francesco Corda (1994). Grammatica moderna del sardo logudorese: con una proposta ortografica, elementi di metrica e un glossario. Cagliari: Edizioni della Torre. pp. 6–7.
  169. ^ Bolognesi, Roberto (1998). The Phonology of Campidanian Sardinian: A Unitary Account of a Self-Organizing Structure. Holland Academic Graphics. p. 3.
  170. ^ Amos Cardia (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola. Ghilarza: Iskra. pp. 88, 91.
  171. ^ Alessandro Mongili (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna. Cagliari. p. Premessa, 18; Postcolonial Sardinia, 65; Mondi post, informatica ed esclusione, 21.
  172. ^ "Limba Sarda 2.0S'italianu in Sardigna? Impostu a òbligu de lege cun Boginu – Limba Sarda 2.0". Limba Sarda 2.0. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  173. ^ "La limba proibita nella Sardegna del '700 da Ritorneremo, una storia tramandata oralmente". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  174. ^ «L'attività riformatrice si allargò anche ad altri campi: scuole in lingua italiana per riallacciare la cultura isolana a quella del continente, lotta contro il banditismo, ripopolamento di terre e ville deserte con Liguri, Piemontesi, Còrsi.» Roberto Almagia et al., Sardegna, Enciclopedia Italiana (1936), Treccani, "Storia"
  175. ^ «L'italianizzazione dell'isola fu un obiettivo fondamentale della politica sabauda, strumentale a un più ampio progetto di assimilazione della Sardegna al Piemonte.» Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, p. 92
  176. ^ «To the Savoyard functionaries, who were well into bureaucratic absolutism as well as raised to the cult of orderliness and precision, the island looked like something alien and bizarre, like a Country that was prey to barbarism and anarchy, populated by savages who were anything but nice. It was unlikely that the functionaries could regard anything different as other than utter evil. They therefore proceeded to apply to Sardinia the same formulas of Piedmont.» Original text: «Ai funzionari sabaudi, inseriti negli ingranaggi dell'assolutismo burocratico ed educati al culto della regolarità e della precisione, l'isola appariva come qualcosa di estraneo e di bizzarro, come un Paese in preda alla barbarie e all'anarchia, popolato di selvaggi tutt'altro che buoni. Era difficile che quei funzionari potessero considerare il diverso altrimenti che come puro negativo. E infatti essi presero ad applicare alla Sardegna le stesse ricette applicate al Piemonte.». Guerci, Luciano (2006). L'Europa del Settecento : permanenze e mutamenti , UTET, p. 576
  177. ^ «En aquest sentit, la italianització definitiva de l'illa representava per a ell l'objectiu més urgent, i va decidir de contribuir-hi tot reformant les Universitats de Càller i de Sàsser, bandejant-ne alhora els jesuïtes de la direcció per tal com mantenien encara una relació massa estreta amb la cultura espanyola. El ministre Bogino havia entès que només dins d'una Universitat reformada podia crear-se una nova generació de joves que contribuïssin a homogeneïtzar de manera absoluta Sardenya amb el Piemont.» Joan Armangué i Herrero, Represa i exercici de la consciència lingüística a l'Alguer (ss.XVIII-XX), Arxiu de Tradicions de l'Alguer, Cagliari, I.1
  178. ^ Girolamo Sotgiu (1984), Storia della Sardegna Sabauda, Editori Laterza
  179. ^ a b Bolognesi, Roberto; Heeringa, Wilbert. Sardegna fra tante lingue, p. 25, 2005, Condaghes
  180. ^ a b c Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, p. 181
  181. ^ Martin Maiden, John Charles Smith, Adam Ledgeway (edited by). The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages: Volume II, Contexts, Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 302
  182. ^ Caria, Clemente (1981). Canto sacro-popolare in Sardegna, Oristano, S'Alvure, p. 45
  183. ^ "Sardegna Cultura - Lingua sarda - Letteratura - Dalle origini al '700". www.sardegnacultura.it.
  184. ^ "sardi, dialetti in "Enciclopedia dell'Italiano"". www.treccani.it.
  185. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Giorgia Ingrassia (edited by). Storia della lingua sarda: dal paleosardo alla musica rap, evoluzione storico-culturale, letteraria, linguistica. Scelta di brani esemplari commentati e tradotti, 2009, Cuec, Cagliari, p. 127
  186. ^ Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, pp. 182–183
  187. ^ Madau, Matteo (1782). Saggio d'un opera intitolata Il ripulimento della lingua sarda lavorato sopra la sua analogia colle due matrici lingue, la greca e la latina, Bernardo Titard, Cagliari
  188. ^ "MADAO, Matteo in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it.
  189. ^ "Ichnussa - la biblioteca digitale della poesia sarda". www.poesias.it.
  190. ^ "Sa limba tocare solet inue sa dente dolet". 23 February 2014.
  191. ^ Un arxipèlag invisible: la relació impossible de Sardenya i Còrsega sota nacionalismes, segles XVIII-XX – Marcel Farinelli, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Institut Universitari d'Història Jaume Vicens i Vives, pp.285
  192. ^ a b Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, pp. 111–112
  193. ^ "Febrés, la prima grammatica sul sardo. A lezione di limba dal gesuita catalano". Sardiniapost.it.
  194. ^ Febres, Andres (1786). Prima grammatica de' tre dialetti sardi , Cagliari [the volume can be found in Cagliari's University Library, Baille Collection, ms. 11.2.K., n.18]
  195. ^ Maurizio Virdis. "Geostorica sarda. Produzione letteraria nella e nelle lingue di Sardegna". Literature 8.2. Rhesis UniCa. p. 21.
  196. ^ «Nel caso della Sardegna, la scelta della patria italiana è avvenuta da parte delle élite legate al dominio sabaudo sin dal 1799, in modo esplicito, più che altro come strategia di un ceto che andava formandosi attraverso la fusione fra aristocrazia, nobiltà di funzione e borghesia, in reazione al progetto antifeudale, democratico e repubblicano della Sarda rivoluzione.» Mongili, Alessandro. Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Condaghes, chpt. 1.2 "indicibile è il sardo"
  197. ^ Maurizio Virdis (2012). Prospettive identitarie in Sardegna, in Contarini, Silvia. Marras, Margherita. Pias, Giuliana. L'identità sarda del XXI secolo tra globale, locale e postcoloniale. Nuoro: Il Maestrale. pp. 32–33.
  198. ^ Saggio di grammatica sul dialetto sardo meridionale dedicato a sua altezza reale Maria Cristina di Bourbon infanta delle Sicilie duchessa del genevese, Cagliari, Reale stamperia, 1811
  199. ^ «[Il Porru] In generale considera la lingua un patrimonio che deve essere tutelato e migliorato con sollecitudine. In definitiva, per il Porru possiamo ipotizzare una probabilmente sincera volontà di salvaguardia della lingua sarda che però, dato il clima di severa censura e repressione creato dal dominio sabaudo, dovette esprimersi tutta in funzione di un miglior apprendimento dell'italiano. Siamo nel 1811, ancora a breve distanza dalla stagione calda della rivolta antifeudale e repubblicana, dentro il periodo delle congiure e della repressione.» Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, pp. 112–113
  200. ^ Johanne Ispanu (1840). "Ortographia Sarda Nationale o siat Grammatica de sa limba logudoresa cumparada cum s'italiana" (PDF). Kalaris: Reale Stamperia.
  201. ^ «Il presente lavoro però restringesi propriamente al solo Logudorese ossia Centrale, che questo forma la vera lingua nazionale, la più antica ed armoniosa e che soffrì alterazioni meno delle altre». Ispanu, Johanne (1840). Ortographia sarda nationale o siat grammatica de sa limba logudoresa cumparada cum s'italiana, p. 12
  202. ^ «[...] Nonetheless, the two works by Spano are of extraordinary importance, as they put on the table in Sardinia the "question of the Sardinian language", the language that should have been the unified and unifying one, to be enforced on the island over its singular dialects; the language of the Sardinian nation, through which the island was keen to project itself onto the other European nations, that already reached or were about to reach their political and cultural actualization in the 1800s, including the Italian nation. And just along the lines of what had been theorized and put into effect in favour of the Italian nation, that was successfully completing the process of linguistic unification by elevating the Florentine dialect to the role of "national language", so in Sardinia the long-desired "Sardinian national language" was given the name of "illustrious Sardinian".» Original: «[...] Ciononostante le due opere dello Spano sono di straordinaria importanza, in quanto aprirono in Sardegna la discussione sul problema della lingua sarda, quella che sarebbe dovuta essere la lingua unificata ed unificante, che si sarebbe dovuta imporre in tutta l'isola sulle particolarità dei singoli dialetti e suddialetti, la lingua della nazione sarda, con la quale la Sardegna intendeva inserirsi tra le altre nazioni europee, quelle che nell'Ottocento avevano già raggiunto o stavano per raggiungere la loro attuazione politica e culturale, compresa la nazione italiana. E proprio sulla falsariga di quanto era stato teorizzato ed anche attuato a favore della nazione italiana, che nell'Ottocento stava per portare a termine il processo di unificazione linguistica, elevando il dialetto fiorentino e toscano al ruolo di "lingua nazionale", chiamandolo italiano illustre, anche in Sardegna l'auspicata lingua nazionale sarda fu denominata sardo illustre"». Massimo Pittau, Grammatica del sardo illustre, Nuoro, pp. 11–12, Introduction
  203. ^ Cardia, Amos (2006). S'italianu in Sardìnnia candu, cumenti e poita d'ant impostu: 1720–1848; poderi e lìngua in Sardìnnia in edadi spanniola, Iskra, Ghilarza, p. 89
  204. ^ Carboni, Salvatore (1881). Sos discursos sacros in limba sarda, Bologna.
  205. ^ Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, pp. 186–187
  206. ^ a b Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, p. 184
  207. ^ «Des del seu càrrec de capità general, Carles Fèlix havia lluitat amb mà rígida contra les darreres actituds antipiemonteses que encara dificultaven l'activitat del govern. Ara promulgava el Codi felicià (1827), amb el qual totes les lleis sardes eren recollides i, sovint, modificades. Pel que ara ens interessa, cal assenyalar que el nou codi abolia la Carta de Logu – la «consuetud de la nació sardesca», vigent des de l'any 1421 – i allò que restava de l'antic dret municipalista basat en el privilegi.» Joan Armangué i Herrero, Represa i exercici de la consciència lingüística a l'Alguer (ss.XVIII-XX), Arxiu de Tradicions de l'Alguer, Cagliari, I.1
  208. ^ «Il trapiantamento in Sardegna, senza riserve ed ostacoli, della civiltà e cultura continentale, la formazione d’una sola famiglia civile sotto un solo Padre meglio che Re, il Grande Carlo Alberto.» Martini, Pietro (1847). Sull’unione civile della Sardegna colla Liguria, col Piemonte e colla Savoia, Cagliari, Timon, p. 4
  209. ^ a b c "Lingue sotto il tetto d'Italia. Le minoranze alloglotte da Bolzano a Carloforte - 8. Il sardo | Treccani, il portale del sapere". www.treccani.it.
  210. ^ «...la ‘lingua della sarda nazione’ perse il valore di strumento di identificazione etnica di un popolo e della sua cultura, da codificare e valorizzare, per diventare uno dei tanti dialetti regionali subordinati alla lingua nazionale.» Dettori, Antonietta, 2001. Sardo e italiano: tappe fondamentali di un complesso rapporto, in Argiolas, Mario; Serra, Roberto. Limba lingua language: lingue locali, standardizzazione e identità in Sardegna nell’era della globalizzazione, Cagliari, CUEC, p. 88
  211. ^ "Spanu, Gian Nicola. Il primo inno d'Italia è sardo" (PDF).
  212. ^ "In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Italy, and the island became part of the unified Italian state. Sardinia's distinct language and culture as well as its geographic isolation from the Italian mainland, made it something of a forgotten province, however." "Sardinia, History, People and Points of Interest. Sardinia in a united Italy". Britannica.
  213. ^ "Il ventennio fascista – come ha affermato Manlio Brigaglia ‒ segnò il definitivo ingresso della Sardegna nel “sistema" nazionale. L’isola fu colonialisticamente integrata nella cultura nazionale: modi di vita, costumi, visioni generali, parole d’ordine politiche furono imposte sia attraverso la scuola, dalla quale partì un’azione repressiva nei confronti dell’uso della lingua sarda, sia attraverso le organizzazione del partito..." Garroni, M. (2010). La Sardegna durante il ventennio fascista, art.torvergata.it
  214. ^ Deidda, Giancarlo (1990). Folk festivals in Sardinia, Janus, p. 7
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  222. ^ "Masala, Francesco. Est torradu Montanaru, Messaggero, 1982" (PDF).
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  224. ^ «Il diffondere l’uso della lingua sarda in tutte le scuole di ogni ordine e grado non è per gli educatori sardi soltanto una necessità psicologica alla quale nessuno può sottrarsi, ma è il solo modo di essere Sardi, di essere cioè quello che veramente siamo per conservare e difendere la personalità del nostro popolo. E se tutti fossimo in questa disposizione di idee e di propositi ci faremmo rispettare più di quanto non-ci rispettino.» Antioco Casula (1982). Poesie scelte. Cagliari: Edizioni 3T. p. 35.
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  230. ^ Francesco Casula. "Gramsci, la Sardegna, la lingua sarda, le tradizioni popolari". LaBarbagia.net.
  231. ^ "lettera n° 23 : 26 marzo 1927 : a Teresina". 13 November 2009.
  232. ^ Carlo Pala (2016). Idee di Sardegna. Carocci Editore. p. 121.
  233. ^ Fiorenzo Caterini, La mano destra della storia. La demolizione della memoria e il problema storiografico in Sardegna, Carlo Delfino Editore, p. 99
  234. ^ «Le argomentazioni sono sempre le stesse, e sostanzialmente possono essere riassunte con il legame a loro avviso naturale tra la lingua sarda, intesa come la lingua delle società tradizionali, e la lingua italiana, connessa ai cosiddetti processi di modernizzazione. Essi hanno interiorizzato l'idea, molto rozza e intellettualmente grossolana, che essere italofoni è essere "moderni". La differenza tra modernità e tradizione è ai loro occhi di sostanza, si tratta di due tipi di società opposti per natura, in cui non-esiste continuità di pratiche, di attori, né esistono forme miste.» Mongili, Alessandro (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Chpt. 9: I problemi della standardizzazione in Sardegna
  235. ^ «La tendenza che caratterizza invece molti gruppi dominati è quella di gettare a mare i segni che indicano la propria appartenenza a un'identità stigmatizzata. È quello che accade in Sardegna con la sua lingua (capp. 8–9, in questo volume).» Mongili, Alessandro (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Chapt. 1: Indicible è il sardo
  236. ^ Pintore, Gianfranco (1996). La sovrana e la cameriera: La Sardegna tra sovranità e dipendenza. Nuoro: Insula, 13
  237. ^ "Relazione di accompagnamento al disegno di legge "Norme per la tutela, valorizzazione e promozione della lingua sarda e delle altre varietà linguistiche della Sardegna", p. 7" (PDF).
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  239. ^ "Francesco Casula, Gianfranco Contu. Storia dell'autonomia in Sardegna, dall'Ottocento allo Statuto Sardo, Dolianova, Stampa Grafica del Parteolla, 2008, pp. 116, 134" (PDF).
  240. ^ Pala, Carlo (2016). Idee di Sardegna, Carocci Editore, p. 118
  241. ^ Pier Sandro Pillonca (2020). La lingua sarda nelle istituzioni. Quarant'anni di dibattiti in Consiglio Regionale (PDF). Rende: Edizioni Fondazione Sardinia. p. 12.
  242. ^ "Strumenti giuridici per la promozione della lingua sarda". Sardegna Cultura.
  243. ^ "Francesco Casula, Gianfranco Contu. Storia dell'autonomia in Sardegna, dall'Ottocento allo Statuto Sardo, Dolianova, Stampa Grafica del Parteolla, 2008, p. 118" (PDF).
  244. ^ "Un autonomismo nettamente economicistico, perché non si volle o non si poté disegnare un’autonomia forte, culturalmente motivata, una specificità sarda che non si esaurisse nell’arretratezza e nella povertà economica". Cardia, Mariarosa (1998). La conquista dell’autonomia (1943–49), in Luigi Berlinguer, Luigi e Mattone, Antonello. La Sardegna, Torino, Einaudi, p. 749
  245. ^ "Sardinia and the right to self-determination of peoples, Document to be presented to the European left University of Berlin – Enrico Lobina" (PDF).
  246. ^ "Schedati tutti gli insegnanti che vogliono portare la lingua sarda nelle scuole". Nazione Sarda. 20 January 1981.
  247. ^ "E in tempi a noi più vicini, con una nota riservata del Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione – regnante Malfatti – del 13-2-1976 si sollecitano Presidi e Direttori Didattici a controllare eventuali attività didattiche- culturali riguardanti l’introduzione della lingua sarda nelle scuole. Una precedente nota riservata dello stesso anno del 23-1 della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri aveva addirittura invitato i capi d’Istituto a schedare gli insegnanti." "Lingua sarda: dall'interramento alla resurrezione?". Il Manifesto Sardo. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  248. ^ Salvatore Serra (2021). "Cando ischedaiant sos maistros de sardu".
  249. ^ Manuale di linguistica sarda (Manual of Sardinian linguistics), 2017, Ed. by Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo. Manuals of Romance Linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton, p. 208
  250. ^ «Come primo atto, il maestro decise di dividere la classe in due: da una parte sistemò i bambini che lui sapeva essere già "bravi", che appartenevano a famiglie di ceto e condizione superiore, che parlavano in italiano, dall'altra aggregò, ben distinti per banco, i bambini "non bravi", qualcuno più irrequieto di altri, qualche altro scalzo e che puzzava di pecora, quelli, cioè, che l'italiano non sapevano neppure cosa fosse, e che portavano addosso, ben impresso, il marchio dei figli della gleba. Quando poi fece l'appello, con mia grande sorpresa, scoprii che per la scuola e per il maestro io non ero più "Giuanneddu" ma "Giovanni".» Melis Onnis, Giovanni (2014). Fueddariu sardu campidanesu-italianu, Domus de Janas, Presentazione.
  251. ^ «Anche qui, per quanto riguarda le percentuali di posticipatari [ripetenti] presenti nel campione, viene rilevata una loro maggiore presenza nelle regioni settentrionali e una diminuzione costante nel passaggio dal Centro al Sud. In Val d'Aosta sono il 31% e nelle scuole italiane della Provincia di Bolzano il 38%. Scendendo al sud, la tendenza alla diminuzione è la stessa della scuola media, fino ad arrivare al 13% in Calabria. Unica eccezione la Sardegna che arriva al 30%. Le cause ipotizzate sono sempre le stesse. La Sardegna, in controtendenza con le regioni dell'Italia meridionale, a cui quest'autore vorrebbe associarla, mostra percentuali di ripetenze del tutto analoghe a quelle di regioni abitate da altre minoranze linguistiche.» Roberto Bolognesi (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei Sardi. Condaghes. p. 66.
  252. ^ Mongili, Alessandro (2013). Introduction to Corongiu, Giuseppe, Il sardo: una lingua normale, Condaghes, 2013
  253. ^ «Ancora oggi, nonostante l'eradicazione e la stigmatizzazione della sardofonia nelle generazioni più giovani, il "parlare sbagliato" dei sardi contribuisce con molta probabilità all'espulsione dalla scuola del 23% degli studenti sardi (contro il 13% del Lazio e il 16% della Toscana), e lo giustifica in larga misura anche di fronte alle sue stesse vittime (ISTAT 2010).» Mongili, Alessandro (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Chpt. 9: I problemi della standardizzazione del sardo
  254. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 38–39.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  255. ^ Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, pp. 198–199
  256. ^ Manuale di linguistica sarda (Manual of Sardinian linguistics), 2017, Ed. by Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo. Manuals of Romance Linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton, pp. 31, 36
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  259. ^ «Mossa era un intellettuale poliedrico: architetto di grande talento, insegnante, giornalista, viaggiatore instancabile. Fin da giovane manifestò un particolare interesse verso le problematiche delle minoranze etnico-linguistiche, europee e mondiali, a rischio di estinzione e vittime di un “genocidio culturale”. Un pericolo che incombeva anche sulla Sardegna, considerata da Mossa “un’unità o comunità etnica ben distinta dalle altre componenti dello Stato italiano”.» Pier Sandro Pillonca (2020). La lingua sarda nelle istituzioni. Quarant'anni di dibattiti in Consiglio Regionale (PDF). Rende: Edizioni Fondazione Sardinia. p. 9.
  260. ^ Pier Sandro Pillonca (2020). La lingua sarda nelle istituzioni. Quarant'anni di dibattiti in Consiglio Regionale (PDF). Rende: Edizioni Fondazione Sardinia. p. 11.
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  262. ^ «The University of Cagliari passed a resolution demanding from regional and state authorities the recognition of the Sardinians as an ethnic and linguistic minority and of Sardinian as their national language.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 272.
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  264. ^ Carlo Pala (2016). Idee di Sardegna. Carocci Editore. p. 122.
  265. ^ «S. Salvi described the Sardinians as a "nazione proibita" [forbidden nation] since their status as a linguistic or ethnic minority is nowhere reflected in national or regional legislation. His books (Salvi 1973, 1975) contributed significantly to the increased intensity in the controversy surrounding the language question.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 272.
  266. ^ Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 272.
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  272. ^ «It also became obvious that the polarization of the language controversy had brought about a change in the attitude towards Sardinian and its use. Sardinian had become a symbol of ethnic identity: one could be proud of it and it served as a marker to distance oneself from the 'continentali' [Italians on the continent].» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 279.
  273. ^ «It also turned out that this segregation from Italian became proportionately stronger as speakers felt that they had been let down by the 'continentali' in their aspirations towards better socio-economic integration and greater social mobility.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 279.
  274. ^ «The data in Sole 1988 point to the existence of two opposing tendencies: Sardophone speakers hold their language in higher esteem these days than before but they still use it less and less.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 288.
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  277. ^ «In August 1980 the Italian Communist Party (PCI) presented the regional council with another bill, and in October of that year a further proposal "for the protection of the language and culture of the Sardinian people" was put forward on the initiative of the education advisory council.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 273.
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  283. ^ «Se dunque il quadro delle competenze e degli usi linguistici è contraddittorio ed estremamente eterogeneo per le ragioni che abbiamo citato prima, non altrimenti si può dire per l'opinione. Questa è generalmente favorevole a un mutamento dello status pubblico della lingua sarda e delle altre lingue della Sardegna, le vuole tutelare e vuole diffonderne l'uso, anche ufficiale.» Caretti, Paolo; Rosini, Monica; Louvin, Roberto (2017). Regioni a statuto speciale e tutela della lingua. Turin, Italy: G. Giappichelli. p. 72. ISBN 978-88-921-6380-5.
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  303. ^ «...Per la più gran parte dei parlanti, la lingua sarda è sinonimo o comunque connotato di un passato misero e miserabile che si vuole dimenticare e di cui ci si vuole liberare, è il segno della subordinazione sociale e politica; la lingua di classi più che subalterne e per di più legate a modalità di vita ormai ritenuta arcaica e pertanto non-desiderabile, la lingua degli antichi e dei bifolchi, della ristrettezza e della chiusura paesane contro l'apertura, nazionale e internazionale, urbana e civile.» Virdis, Maurizio (2003). La lingua sarda oggi: bilinguismo, problemi di identità culturale e realtà scolastica, cit. in Convegno dalla lingua materna al plurilinguismo, Gorizia, 4.
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  305. ^ «Nella coscienza dei sardi, in analogia coi processi che caratterizzano la subalternità ovunque, si è costituita un'identità fondata su alcune regole che distinguono il dicibile (autonomia in politica, italianità linguistica, criteri di gusto musicali convenzionali non-sardi, mode, gastronomie, uso del tempo libero, orientamenti politici) come campo che può comprendere quasi tutto ma non-l'indicibile, cioè ciò che viene stigmatizzato come "arretrato", "barbaro", "primitivo", cioè sardo de souche, "autentico". Questa esclusione del sardo de souche, originario, si è costituita lentamente attraverso una serie di atti repressivi (Butler 2006, 89), dalle punizioni scolastiche alla repressione fascista del sardismo, ma anche grazie alla pratica quotidiana del passing e al diffondersi della cultura di massa in epoca recente (in realtà molto più porosa della cultura promossa dall'istruzione centralizzata).» Mongili, Alessandro (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Condaghes, Chapter 1.2, Indicibile è il sardo
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  370. ^ «Lo stato italiano che, nel passato e ancora oggi, controlla la maggioranza dei settori della sfera pubblica, è stato responsabile di aver trascurato e anche denigrato la lingua sarda. Attraverso l'istruzione, i media e l'assenza della lingua sarda nella sfera pubblica, la popolazione locale ha assistito alla svalutazione e al disprezzo della sua lingua e della sua cultura.» Naomi Wells (2012). Multilinguismo nello Stato-Nazione, in Contarini, Silvia. Marras, Margherita. Pias, Giuliana. L'identità sarda del XXI secolo tra globale, locale e postcoloniale. Nuoro: Il Maestrale. p. 161.
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  378. ^ «L'utilizzo della lingua sarda nelle scuole è pressoché assente e i vari progetti realmente esistenti non sono dislocati su tutto il territorio regionale in maniera omogenea così come nei mass media, ancor più dopo la bocciatura del Senato della possibilità di inserire anche il sardo nella programmazione regionale nelle zone in cui sono presenti minoranze linguistiche.» Carlo Pala (2016). Idee di Sardegna. Carocci Editore. pp. 125–126.
  379. ^ "- Institut für Linguistik/Romanistik – Universität Stuttgart". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
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  385. ^ «Tutte le lingue dei sardi sono prive di uno status ufficiale che non-sia un mero riconoscimento legislativo, non-hanno protezione legale né supporto finanziario, e solo il sardo ha una qualche forma di codifica e di standardizzazione ma che sono sconosciute ai parlanti, nessuna è impiegata se non-episodicamente sui media, a scuola, dalla Chiesa, dall'amministrazione e dalle imprese. [...] Ancora oggi non-esiste una Radio che trasmetta solo in sardo, né giornali, né scuole private sardofone. Esiste pochissimo a livello di società civile.» Mongili, Alessandro (2015). Topologie postcoloniali. Innovazione e modernizzazione in Sardegna, Condaghes, Chpt. 8: Lo conosco ma non-lo parlo. La visibilità sociale delle competenze linguistiche in Sardegna
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  392. ^ "Il Consiglio d'Europa: "Lingua sarda discriminata, norme non rispettate"". L'Unione Sarda.it. 24 June 2016.
  393. ^ "Resolution CM/ResCMN(2017)4 on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Italy, Council of Europe".
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  395. ^ «Language group endogamy among the Sardinian language group is in excess of 80 per cent, but with only 14 per cent of the children using Sardinian to each other.» Glyn Williams (2005). Sustaining Language Diversity in Europe. Evidence from the Euromosaic Project. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 152.
  396. ^ Matteo Valdes. Valori, opinioni e atteggiamenti verso le lingue locali, in Oppo, Anna (2007). p. 62.
  397. ^ As summarized by Giulio Paulis, nowadays it is the Sardinians themselves that «identify with their language to lesser degree than other linguistic minorities in Italy, and instead they seem to identify with Italian to a higher degree than other linguistic minorities in Italy» (si identificano con loro lingua meno di quanto facciano altre minoranze linguistiche esistenti in Italia, e viceversa sembrano identificarsi con l'italiano più di quanto accada per altre minoranze linguistiche d'Italia). Paulis, Giulio (2001). Il sardo unificato e la teoria della panificazione linguistica, in Argiolas, Mario; Serra, Roberto, Limba lingua language: lingue locali, standardizzazione e identità in Sardegna nell’era della globalizzazione, Cagliari, CUEC, p. 16
  398. ^ «Bisogna partire dal constatare che il processo di ‘desardizzazione’ culturale ha trovato spunto e continua a trovare alimento nella desardizzazione linguistica, e che l’espropriazione culturale è venuta e viene a rimorchio dell’espropriazione linguistica.» Virdis, Maurizio (2003). La lingua sarda oggi: bilinguismo, problemi di identità culturale e realtà scolastica, cit. in Convegno dalla lingua materna al plurilinguismo, Gorizia, 6.
  399. ^ "Difendere l'italiano per resuscitare il sardo". 2 September 2016.
  400. ^ Bolognesi, Roberto (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei sardi. Cagliari: Condaghes. p. 63.
  401. ^ Corsale, Andrea; Sistu, Giovanni (2019). Sardegna: geografie di un'isola. Milano: Franco Angeli. pp. 191, 199.
  402. ^ «The sociolinguistic subordination of Sardinian to Italian has resulted in the gradual degeneration of the Sardinian language into an Italian patois under the label of regional Italian. This new linguistic code that is emerging from the interference between Italian and Sardinian is very common among the less privileged cultural and social classes.» "Sardinian in Italy, 1995". Euromosaic. Archived from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2019. To access the article, click on List by languages, Sardinian, then scroll to "Sardinian in Italy"
  403. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 211.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  404. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 213.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  405. ^ «Yet, it cannot be ignored that at present many young speakers, who have frequently been brought up in Italian, have a restricted active or even a merely passive command of their ethnic language.» Kurt Braunmüller, Gisella Ferraresi (2003). Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: University of Hamburg. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 241.
  406. ^ «Benché si tratti anche qui di atteggiamenti e stereotipi in via di rapido cambiamento, va rilevato che anche essi implicano però una profonda consapevolezza dello statuto di lingua, fortemente marcata etnicamente, e non di semplice "dialetto", del sardo stesso: ciò che si può inferire da questo tipo di atteggiamenti (neanche troppo cripticamente normativi) è infatti che, così come si deve evitare di "storpiare" l'italiano, si deve evitare di "storpiare" anche il sardo, a meno che non si sia giustificati in partenza dal fatto di non essere etnicamente sardi, o non si tratti di scelte stilistiche consapevoli per particolari generi testuali/discorsivi diversi dal normale parlato quotidiano.» Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 213–214.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  407. ^ Kurt Braunmüller, Gisella Ferraresi (2003). Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: University of Hamburg. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 241.
  408. ^ «La situazione del sardo in questi ultimi decenni risente da un lato degli esiti del processo di italianizzazione linguistica, profondo e pervasivo, e dall'altro di un processo che si può definire come risardizzazione linguistica, intendendo con questo una serie di passaggi che incidono sulla modifica dello status del sardo come lingua, sulla determinazione di una regola scritta, sulla diffusione del suo uso nei media e nella comunicazione pubblica e, infine, sullo sviluppo del suo uso come lingua di comunicazione privata e d'uso in set d'interazione interpersonale dai quali era stato precedentemente bandito o considerato sconveniente». Paolo Caretti; et al. (2017). Regioni a statuto speciale e tutela della lingua. G. Giappichelli Editore. pp. 67–68.
  409. ^ "Il bilinguismo perfetto è ancora solo un miraggio". La Nuova Sardegna. 23 March 2021.
  410. ^ «Ciò nonostante non si è potuto né frenare l'italianizzazione progredente attraverso la scuola e gli ambiti ufficiali, né restituire vitalità al sardo in famiglia. La trasmissione intergenerazionale, fattore essenziale per la riproduzione etnolinguistica, resta seriamente compromessa.» Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 40.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  411. ^ Martin Harris, Nigel Vincent (2003). The Romance languages. London, New York. p. 21.
  412. ^ «If present trends continue, it is possible that within a few generations the regional variety of Italian will supplant Sardinian as the popular idiom and that linguists of the future will be obliged to refer to Sardinian only as a substratal influence which has shaped a regional dialect of Italian rather than as a living language descended directly from Latin.» Martin Harris, Nigel Vincent (2003). The Romance languages. London, New York. p. 349.
  413. ^ «il sardo continua ad agire anche nelle menti dei sardi che il sardo non lo conoscono né lo parlano, che non l'hanno mai appreso e imparato; il sardo agisce se non altro nelle strutture linguistiche d'ogni livello dell'italiano regionale di Sardegna, che è il codice usato dai più (agisce nella fonetica, nella sintassi e in ampi settori del lessico)...» Virdis, Maurizio (2003). La lingua sarda oggi: bilinguismo, problemi di identità culturale e realtà scolastica, cit. in Convegno dalla lingua materna al plurilinguismo, Gorizia, 6.
  414. ^ Maurizio Virdis (2012). Prospettive identitarie in Sardegna, in Contarini, Silvia. Marras, Margherita. Pias, Giuliana. L'identità sarda del XXI secolo tra globale, locale e postcoloniale. Nuoro: Il Maestrale. p. 34.
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  423. ^ Jones, Michael Allan (1988). Sardinian. The Romance Languages: London/Sydney: Croom Helm. pp. 314–350.
  424. ^ Mura, Riccardo; Virdis, Maurizio (2015). Caratteri e strutture fonetiche, fonologiche e prosodiche della lingua sarda. Condaghes.
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  428. ^ "Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, Declamationes Minores 1.4.14-15". latin.packhum.org. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  429. ^ Barbato, Marcello (10 July 2017). "2.6 Superstrato catalano". Manuale di linguistica sarda (in Italian). De Gruyter. p. 161. doi:10.1515/9783110274615-010. ISBN 978-3-11-027461-5.
  430. ^ a b Sampson, Rodney (5 September 2016). "Sandhi phenomena". In Ledgeway, Adam; Maiden, Martin (eds.). The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 736–748. ISBN 978-0-19-106325-1.
  431. ^ Limba Sarda Comuna (PDF)
  432. ^ Arrègulas po ortografia, fonètica, morfologia e fueddàriu de sa norma campidanesa de sa lìngua sarda (PDF) (1st ed.). Alfa. 2009. ISBN 9788885995475.
  433. ^ a b Frigeni, Chiara (1 January 2005). "The development of liquids from Latin to Campidanian Sardinian: The role of contrast and structural similarity". Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics. 24. ISSN 1718-3510.
  434. ^ a b c d Frigeni, Chiara (2009). "Sonorant relationships in two varieties of Sardinian" (PDF). TSpace Repository. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  435. ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo (2017). Manuale di linguistica sarda. Manuals of Romance Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 308–309.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  436. ^ Wolfe, Sam (2015). "Medieval Sardinian: New evidence for syntactic change from Latin to Romance". In Haug, Dag, T. T. (ed.). Historical Linguistics 2013: Selected papers from the 21st International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Oslo, 5–9 August 2013. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 303–324. ISBN 9789027268181.
  437. ^ Wolfe, Sam. "Verb-initial orders in Old Romance: A comparative Account."[dead link] Revue roumaine de linguistique 60.2–3 (2015): 147–172.
  438. ^ «Due dialetti principali si distinguono nella medesima lingua sarda; ciò sono il campidanese, e ’l dialetto del capo di sopra.» Francesco Cetti (1774). Storia naturale della Sardegna. I quadrupedi. Sassari.
  439. ^ "Marinella Lőrinczi, Confini e confini. Il valore delle isoglosse (a proposito del sardo)" (PDF).
  440. ^ a b Bolognesi, Roberto (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei sardi (in Italian). Cagliari: Condaghes. p. 141. ISBN 978-88-7356-225-2. OCLC 874573242. In altre parole, queste divisioni del sardo in logudorese e campidanese sono basate unicamente sulla necessità - chiarissima nel Cetti - di arrivare comunque a una divisione della Sardegna in due "capi". [...] La grande omogeneità grammaticale del sardo viene ignorata, per quanto riguarda gli autori tradizionali, in parte per mancanza di cultura linguistica, ma soprattutto per la volontà, riscontrata esplicitamente in Spano e Wagner, di dividere il sardo e i sardi in varietà "pure" e "spurie". In altri termini, la divisione del sardo in due varietà nettamente distinte è frutto di un approccio ideologico alla variazione dialettale in Sardegna
  441. ^ a b Corongiu, Giuseppe (2013). Il sardo: una lingua normale: manuale per chi non ne sa nulla, non conosce la linguistica e vuole saperne di più o cambiare idea (in Italian). Cagliari: Condaghes. ISBN 978-88-7356-214-6. OCLC 856863696.
  442. ^ Massimo Pittau. "Sardo, Grafia".
  443. ^ a b «The phonetic differences between the dialects occasionally lead to communicative difficulties, particularly in those cases where a dialect is believed to be 'strange' and 'unintelligible' owing to the presence of phonetic peculiarities such as laryngeal or pharyngeal consonants or nazalized vowels in Campidanese and in the dialects of central Sardinia. In his comprehensive experimental-phonetic study, however, Contini (1987) concludes that interdialectal intelligibility exists and, on the whole, works satisfactorily.» Rebecca Posner, John N. Green (1993). Bilingualism and Linguistic Conflict in Romance. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 287.
  444. ^ «Queste pretese barriere sono costituite da una manciata di fenomeni lessicali e fonetico-morfologici che, comunque, non-impediscono la mutua comprensibilità tra parlanti di diverse varietà del sardo. Detto questo, bisogna ripetere che le varie operazioni di divisione del sardo in due varietà sono tutte basate quasi esclusivamente sull'esistenza di pronunce diverse di lessemi (parole e morfemi) per il resto uguali. [...] Come si è visto, non-solo la sintassi di tutte le varietà del sardo è praticamente identica, ma la quasi totalità delle differenze morfologiche è costituita da differenze, in effetti, lessicali e la percentuale di parole realmente differenti si aggira intorno al 10% del totale.» Roberto Bolognesi (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei sardi. Condaghes. p. 141.
  445. ^ a b Mar Vanrell, Maria del; Ballone, Francesc; Schirru, Carlo; Prieto, Pilar (2015). "Sardinian intonational phonology: Logudorese and Campidanese varieties" (PDF). In Frota, Sónia; Prieto, Pilar (eds.). Intonation in Romance. Oxford University Press. pp. 317–349. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685332.003.0009. ISBN 9780199685332.
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  449. ^ a b «L'esistenza di una striscia di "terra di nessuno" (fatta eccezione, comunque, per i dialetti di Laconi e Seneghe) tra dialetti meridionali e settentrionali, come anche della tradizionale suddivisione della Sardegna in due "capi" politico-amministrativi oltre che, ma fino a un certo punto, sociali e antropologici (Cabu de Susu e Cabu de Jossu), ma soprattutto della popolarizzazione, condotta dai mass media negli ultimi trent'anni, di teorie pseudo-scientifiche sulla suddivisione del sardo in due varietà nettamente distinte tra di loro, hanno contribuito a creare presso una parte del pubblico l'idea che il sardo sia diviso tra le due varietà del "campidanese" e del "logudorese". In effetti, si deve più correttamente parlare di due tradizioni ortografiche, che rispondono a queste denominazioni, mettendo bene in chiaro però che esse non-corrispondono a nessuna varietà reale parlata in Sardegna.» Bolognesi, Roberto (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei sardi, Condaghes, p. 93
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  453. ^ Koryakov, Yuri. "2017 Проблема "язык или диалект" и попытка лексикостатистического подхода / Language vs. dialect: A lexicostatistic approach" – via www.academia.edu. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  454. ^ Le occlusive velari davanti a vocale palatale, Centro di Studi Filologici Sardi
  455. ^ et ipso quoque sermo Sardorum adhuc retinetnon pauca verba sermonis graeci atque ipse loquentium sonum graecisanum quendam prae se fert – Roderigo Hunno Baeza, Caralis Panegyricus, about 1516, manuscript preserved in the University Library of Cagliari
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  457. ^ a b "Le minoranze linguistiche in Italia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  458. ^ Maxia, Mauro. Studi sardo-corsi – Dialettologia e storia della lingua tra le due isole Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taphros, 2010, Olbia
  459. ^ «Le lingue che si parlano in Sardegna si possono dividere in istraniere, e nazionali. Straniera totalmente è la lingua d'Algher, la quale è la catalana, a motivo che Algher medesimo è una colonia di Catalani. Straniera pure si deve avere la lingua che si parla in Sassari, Castelsardo e Tempio; è un dialetto italiano, assai più toscano, che non la maggior parte de’ medesimi dialetti d'Italia.» Francesco Cetti (1774). Storia naturale della Sardegna. I quadrupedi. Sassari.
  460. ^ De Concini, Wolftraud (2003). Gli altri d'Italia : minoranze linguistiche allo specchio, Pergine Valsugana : Comune, p. 196.
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  462. ^ Pittau, Massimo (2005). Grammatica del sardo illustre: con la messa cristiana in lingua sarda (in Italian). Sassari: Carlo Delfino editore. ISBN 978-88-7138-372-9. OCLC 238818951.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  463. ^ «Nel periodo giudicale si osserva una certa unitarietà del modo di scrivere il sardo, ma non-si ha notizia di alcuna regolazione: la sua ufficialità era implicita e data per scontata. Nel XVI e, poi, nel XVIII secolo, nei circoli umanisti e in quelli gesuitici, rispettivamente, si è osservato un tentativo di fornire una regolazione, ma tali tentativi furono non solo ostacolati ma anche repressi dalle autorità coloniali ispaniche e soprattutto sabaude.»Caretti, Paolo; Rosini, Monica; Louvin, Roberto (2017). Regioni a statuto speciale e tutela della lingua. Turin, Italy: G. Giappichelli. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-88-921-6380-5.
  464. ^ "Regole Ortografiche - Premio Ozieri di Letteratura Sarda". Retrieved 18 April 2021. Unknown parameter |site= ignored (help)
  465. ^ Corongiu, Giuseppe (2013). Il sardo: una lingua normale: manuale per chi non ne sa nulla, non conosce la linguistica e vuole saperne di più o cambiare idea. Cagliari: Condaghes. ISBN 88-7356-214-0. OCLC 856863696.
  466. ^ Bolognesi, Roberto (2013). Le identità linguistiche dei Sardi, Condaghes, p. 41 (Le strutture linguistiche comuni del sardo. Sintassi, pp. 42–51; Morfologia, pp. 51–55)
  467. ^ Bolognesi, Roberto (13 June 2011). "Finché la barca va…". Bolognesu: in sardu (in Sardinian). Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  468. ^ Deliberazione n. 20/15 del 9.5.2005: Promozione e valorizzazione della cultura e della lingua della Sardegna. Indagine socio-linguistica sulla lingua sarda. (PDF), Regione Autonoma della Sardegna
  469. ^ Frias, Xavier. "Proposte di Miglioramento dello Standard Sardo L.S.C." Academia (in Italian).
  470. ^ Bolognesi, Roberto (23 June 2014). "Sì alla lingua sarda standard, ma con questi emendamenti" (in Italian). Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  471. ^ "Arrègulas po ortografia, fonètica, morfologia e fueddàriu de sa Norma Campidanesa de sa Lìngua Sarda" (PDF) (in Sardinian and Italian). 2009.
  472. ^ a b c d "Monitoraggio sull'utilizzo sperimentale della Limba Sarda Comuna 2007–2013" (PDF). SardegnaCultura (in Italian).
  473. ^ Gobbo, Federico; Vardeu, Laura (2021). "Which Sardinian for education?". Contested Languages: The Hidden Multilingualism of Europe. 8: 221. doi:10.1075/wlp.8.13gob.
  474. ^ Gobbo, Federico; Vardeu, Laura (12 May 2016). "Which Sardinian for education?". Slideshare.

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External links[edit]