List of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States

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This is a list of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States. They were discontinued for various reasons, such as bankruptcy of the parent company, mergers, or being phased out.

A[edit]

1911 Abbott-Detroit
1912 ALCO
1952 Allstate
1974 AMC Gremlin
1913 American Underslung
1932 Auburn 8-100A Custom 4-Door Sedan

B[edit]

1909 Babcock
Brewster Convertible Coupe
1919 Briscoe Model B 4/24 Touring
1912 Brush Runabout

C[edit]

1919 Chandler Light Weight Model 19 Touring
Checker Manhattan
Columbia Mark III Phaeton
1930 Cord L-29

D[edit]

1939 De Soto Series S-6 Custom De Luxe 4-Door Sedan
1930 Duesenberg J Walker Legrande Torpedo Phaeton
Duryea automobile

E[edit]

1995 Eagle Talon
1904 Eldredge Runabout
1912 E.M.F. Model 30 Roadster

F[edit]

Fiberfab FT Bonito
1925 Flint B-40 Touring

G[edit]

Geo Prizm
1932 Graham Blue Streak 4-Door Sedan

H[edit]

1916 Haynes
1937 Hudson Custom Eight
Hummer H3
1929 Hupmobile Series M De Luxe Century Opera Coupe

I[edit]

1981 Imperial

J[edit]

1928 Jordan sedan

K[edit]

1954 Kaiser Darrin
The 1914 Keystone

L[edit]

1921 LaFayette Four-Door Coupe
1938 La Salle Series Coupe
1919 Lexington Model R-19 Minute Man Six Touring 1919

M[edit]

1929 Marmon Series 8–69 4-Door Sedan
Driver Mel Marquette's wrecked McFarlan racing car at the 1912 Indianapolis 500
1916 Mercer 22/72 Touring
Moon Roadster 6–40

N[edit]

1946 Nash 4-Door Sedan

O[edit]

1957 Oldsmobile Super 88
1910 Overland Model 38 Roadster

P[edit]

1951 Packard 250 convertible
1966 Plymouth Barracuda
2007 Pontiac Solstice GXP
1910 Pope-Waverley coupe

Q[edit]

R[edit]

1906 REO Runabout
1929 Roosevelt 4-Door Sedan
A Royal Tourist of the US Army.

S[edit]

1904 Searchmont 10 HP Type VI 4-passenger Rear-entrance Tonneau
The Smith Flyer
1923 Stanley Steam Car
1935 Stout Scarab
1947 Studebaker Commander
1927 Stutz Vertical Eight AA Limousine

T[edit]

1938 Terraplane sedan
1948 Tucker sedan

U[edit]

V[edit]

1920 Velie Model 34 Touring

W[edit]

1905 White
1920 Willys-Knight advertisement
1908 Winton touring car

X[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abbotts were built in Cleveland. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.190.
  2. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 18
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Clymer, p.205.
  4. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946–1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.1016.
  5. ^ Built in New York City. Clymer, p.178.
  6. ^ Built by Alcoa. Kimes, p.29
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.170.
  8. ^ Clymer, p.31.
  9. ^ a b Kimes, p.47
  10. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 19
  11. ^ Built in St. Louis by the beer company. Clymer, p.170-1.
  12. ^ Kimes, p.50
  13. ^ Kimes, p.57
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Flory, p.1016.
  15. ^ Clymer, p.23 & 205.
  16. ^ Kimes, p.74
  17. ^ Formerly Aurora Carriage Top Company/ Kimes, p.74
  18. ^ Manuracturers of the Thor motorcycle. Kimes, p.74
  19. ^ Front-wheel drive, built in New York City; allegedly the first FWD car. Clymer, pp.178 & 205.
  20. ^ King-Remick
  21. ^ Distinct from Babcock Electric. Clymer, p.205.
  22. ^ Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.153 & 205.
  23. ^ Builder of cars and trucks in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  24. ^ Distinct from American Bantam and the bird. Clymer, p.170.
  25. ^ Sold an electric tricycle before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  26. ^ a b c d Flory, p.1016.
  27. ^ Built in York, Pennsylvania. Clymer, p.193.
  28. ^ Distinct from the other three. Clymer, p.205.
  29. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  30. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190.
  31. ^ a b c d Clymer, p.170-1.
  32. ^ A six-wheeler "motorcycle", built by Detroit artist & engineer James Scripps Booth. Clymer, p.115.
  33. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 61, & 205.
  34. ^ Distinct from the British brand. Flory, p.1016.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Clymer, p.23.
  36. ^ Smith Flyer
  37. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Clymer, p.206.
  39. ^ Automobiles built in Anderson, Indiana. Clymer, pp.5 & 190.
  40. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.178.
  41. ^ a b Suman-Hreblay, Marián (2000). Automobile Manufacturers Worldwide Registry. McFarland. p. 56. ISBN 9781476611402. Retrieved 4 February 2018. 
  42. ^ Clymer, pp.16, 170, & 206.
  43. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 206.
  44. ^ Distinct from Carhartt. Clymer, p.206.
  45. ^ Distinct from Carrol. Clymer, p.206.
  46. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 929
  47. ^ Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  48. ^ built in Chicago, Ill. Kimes 1985, p. 252
  49. ^ Offered vehicles with electric, steam, or gasoline engines.
  50. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 178.
  51. ^ Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago. Clymer, p.206.
  52. ^ Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  53. ^ Founded by J. Walter Christie. Clymer, p.206.
  54. ^ Or Clarksmobile. Clymer, pp.25 & 206.
  55. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.23.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  57. ^ Built in Little Rock, Arkansas. Clymer, p.178.
  58. ^ a b c Kimes 1985, p. 331
  59. ^ Clipper Division, Studebaker-Packard Corp.; Packard, A History of the Motor Car and the Company (General edition), Beverly Rae Kimes, editor (1978), Automobile Quarterly", ISBN 0-915038-11-0"
  60. ^ Triumph an Tragedy: The Last Real Packards by Richard M. Langworth, in Collectible Automobile, September, 1984 issue; p. 6-25; (ISSN 0742-812X)
  61. ^ Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.178.
  62. ^ Built in Denver, copied from the contemporary Renault. Clymer, p.87.
  63. ^ Founded by J. J. Cole, built in Indianapolis. Clymer, p.104.
  64. ^ Built in Yonkers, New York. Clymer, p.63.
  65. ^ a b One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.206.
  66. ^ Distinct from Columbia Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  67. ^ Built at 564 Dublin Avenue; Columbus, Ohio. Clymer, p.145.
  68. ^ Distinct from the Mercury. Clymer, p.206.
  69. ^ Built in Plymouth, Ohio, friction transmission, dual chain drive, 1000–6000 lb payload or 9–20 seats. Clymer, p.67.
  70. ^ "Electric car for the average Joe not far away". Wheels.ca. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  71. ^ built in Minneapolis, Minn. & Chicago, Ill. Kimes 1985, p. 357
  72. ^ Formerly Vaughn; builder of the Gas-au-lec, based in Peabody, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.158.
  73. ^ Distinct from the Nash. Clymer, p.206.
  74. ^ Distinct from Crane & Breed. Clymer, p.206.
  75. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 206.
  76. ^ Built in Ohio and Pennsylvania. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  77. ^ Distinct from the racers. Clymer, p.206.
  78. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, pp.158 & 206.
  79. ^ Named for the horse, built in Minneapolis. Clymer, p.178.
  80. ^ Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.93.
  81. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 206.
  82. ^ Clymer, p.170
  83. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 403
  84. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 403-404
  85. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 404-405
  86. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 405
  87. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 405-406
  88. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 406
  89. ^ Distinct from the tractor. Clymer, p.206.
  90. ^ Cite error: The named reference https://www.delorean.com/ was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  91. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  92. ^ Built in Auburn, Indiana. Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  93. ^ Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  94. ^ Offered an electric phaeton before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  95. ^ Distinct from Diamond T. Clymer, p.206.
  96. ^ Clymer, p.206. Tourist was a model.
  97. ^ a b Clymer, p.5.
  98. ^ Clymer, p.206. By Alberto Santos-Dumont
  99. ^ Clymer, p.206. Founder was later the author of Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia.
  100. ^ Conceived by Buckminster Fuller.
  101. ^ Built in Wisconsin, distinct from the Michigan company. Clymer, p.153.
  102. ^ Steam and electric cars, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  103. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Eaton's.
  104. ^ Distinct from either of the two Economys. Clymer, p.206.
  105. ^ Clymer, p.38.
  106. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Electric Launch Company.
  107. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 207. Distinct from Elite.
  108. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch Clymer, p.207.
  109. ^ Clymer, p.170-1 & 207.
  110. ^ Built in Cincinnati, Ohio. Clymer, p.104.
  111. ^ Later Halladay or Streator, eventually Barley. Clymer, p.207.
  112. ^ Car and truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  113. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.104.
  114. ^ Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the Fords.
  115. ^ Built in Newark, Ohio by Halladay
  116. ^ Built in Lewistown, Pennsylvania by Moller
  117. ^ Distinct from Federal steam automobile company. Clymer, p.207.
  118. ^ Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the header maker.
  119. ^ "Early American Automobiles 1904 Models". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  120. ^ http://www.northfield.org/files/REGuide031908.pdf
  121. ^ Built in Cheboygan, Michigan, it weighed 900 pd and cost US$450. Clymer, p.166.
  122. ^ Distinct from the other one. Clymer, p.207.
  123. ^ An electric car. Clymer, p.40.
  124. ^ a b One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  125. ^ Built in Massillon, Ohio; called their car the Jewel. Clymer, p.63.
  126. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1289
  127. ^ Clymer, p.16.
  128. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 593
  129. ^ Built in Clintonville, Wisconsin, with four-wheel drive. Clymer, p.153.
  130. ^ a b Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  131. ^ Clymer, p.51.
  132. ^ Kimes, Clark (1996), p.625.
  133. ^ Distinct from the steamer. Clymer, p.207.
  134. ^ Made by the multinational as experimental models.
  135. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from the multinational
  136. ^ Gasoline and steam. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  137. ^ Flory, p.1016, credits them only for 1950.
  138. ^ Supposedly from Atlanta, Georgia. Clymer, p.207.
  139. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland 1916–1922. Clymer, p.190.
  140. ^ a b Clymer, p.178.
  141. ^ Clymer, pp.14 & 22.
  142. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1447
  143. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  144. ^ Truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  145. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 190.
  146. ^ No relation to the school. Clymer, p.170.
  147. ^ "Indiana Truck History Report". Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  148. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 652,761
  149. ^ Distinct from Hatfield Motor Vehicle Company and Hatfield Company (truck manufacturer). Kimes 1985, p. 682
  150. ^ An air-cooled, built in Wisconsin, sold for US$2000. Clymer, p.23.
  151. ^ Clymer, p.112.
  152. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Hewitt-Lindstrom.
  153. ^ Steam and gasoline, based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  154. ^ Distinct from the Australian company.
  155. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Holley.
  156. ^ Clymer, pp.170–1 & 207.
  157. ^ a b Clymer, pp.23 & 207.
  158. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 23.
  159. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 207.
  160. ^ no relation with Jackson car. Kimes 1985, p. 742
  161. ^ In Boston. Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1407
  162. ^ a b In New York City. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  163. ^ Clymer, p.207; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  164. ^ In Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.23; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  165. ^ In Buffalo, New York. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  166. ^ a b Clymer, pp.18 & 23.
  167. ^ Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.23 & 153.
  168. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de Clymer, p.208.
  169. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with this one.
  170. ^ Also sold commercial vans of 1, 2, 3, & 6 tons. Clymer, p.53.
  171. ^ Clymer, p.131.
  172. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.208.
  173. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 769
  174. ^ Flory, pp.1011–12.
  175. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 774
  176. ^ Based in Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.158.
  177. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 782
  178. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  179. ^ a b c Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  180. ^ Clymer, p.208. Electrette was a model.
  181. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from LaSalle.
  182. ^ Distinct from Lewis Motocycle. Clymer, p.208.
  183. ^ a b c Horseless Age 1895.
  184. ^ A four-wheeler, despite the name. Clymer, p.8.
  185. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 828
  186. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 635
  187. ^ Before 1912, the cars were called Sears. Clymer, p.90.
  188. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 859–860
  189. ^ a b Kimes 1975, p. 1004
  190. ^ began with steam autos
  191. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.22.
  192. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.890
  193. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 208.
  194. ^ Clymer, p.23. Distinct from Mason (automobile company).
  195. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from Mason (steam automobile company).
  196. ^ Truck maker, Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  197. ^ Built in Waterloo, Iowa. Clymer, p.93.
  198. ^ Clymer, p.84.
  199. ^ Built in Wisconsin by Joe Merkel, who later built the Merkel Motorcycle. Clymer, p.153.
  200. ^ Distinct from the steamer and the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  201. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from the Nash
  202. ^ Built in Waltham, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.145.
  203. ^ Built in Moline, Illinois. Clymer, p.93.
  204. ^ Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.36 & 153.
  205. ^ Clymer, p.57.
  206. ^ Clymer, p.208. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Moline-Knight.
  207. ^ Clymer, p.190.
  208. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with Moggie.
  209. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 208.
  210. ^ Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.92.
  211. ^ Flory, p.1016, dates it to 1950.
  212. ^ Built in Traverse City, Michigan. Clymer, pp.170 & 178.
  213. ^ Not to be confused with the producers of the Ruxton.
  214. ^ Clymer, pp.170–1 & 208.
  215. ^ Often misspelled as Neilson (Clymer, p.208)
  216. ^ a b c Kimes 1975, p. 1003
  217. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with the motorcycle.
  218. ^ Kimes 1975, p. 1005
  219. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds Clymer, p.209.
  220. ^ Built in Milwaukee. Clymer, p.153.
  221. ^ Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945 (1985), p.1013
  222. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 209.
  223. ^ Based in Cleveland. Same as Ottoker? Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  224. ^ Based in Cleveland. Distinct from Owen Magnetic. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  225. ^ built in Salem, Mass.; 1 gasoline & 2 electric cars Kimes 1985, p. 1063
  226. ^ Built in Indianapolis, Indiana. Clymer, p.102.
  227. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.151.
  228. ^ a b Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1125
  229. ^ Clymer, p.42.
  230. ^ a b c Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1126
  231. ^ Clymer, pp.6 & 153.
  232. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.5, 178, & 190.
  233. ^ Friction-drive, built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  234. ^ Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981). Auto Katalog 1982 (in German). 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 165. 
  235. ^ Based in Cleveland.Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  236. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the GM division.
  237. ^ Clymer, pp.13 & 23.
  238. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Porter Motor Company.
  239. ^ Flory, p.1016. Distinct from Powell Manufacturing Company?
  240. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Randall (automobile company).
  241. ^ Distinct from the pickup. Clymer, p.209.
  242. ^ Cars & trucks, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  243. ^ Clymer, p.149.
  244. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Reading Steamer.
  245. ^ Clymer, p.209. Said to be the cheapest car ever built.
  246. ^ Producer of four-axle Octoauto and twin rear axle Sextoauto in Columbus, Indiana. Clymer, p.122-4.
  247. ^ 1895 car produced by Remington Arms Company. Clymer, p.209.
  248. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  249. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 209.
  250. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers (steam automobile company) and Rogers (automobile company).
  251. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 209.
  252. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers Steamobile (automobile company). One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.209.
  253. ^ Rolls Royce
  254. ^ Royal Princess was the gasoline-powered car.
  255. ^ a b Kimes (1985), p. 1273
  256. ^ Kimes (1985), p. 431
  257. ^ A tricycle. Clymer, p.8.
  258. ^ Clymer, p.209. Same as Dumont (automobile company); both names used without permission from Alberto Santos-Dumont?
  259. ^ Clymer, p.8.
  260. ^ Clymer, pp.90 & 209.
  261. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the Chrysler.
  262. ^ Built in Buffalo, New York. Clymer, p.5.
  263. ^ Built by William H. Sharp. Clymer, p.88.
  264. ^ "Shay Model A Roadster". shayhistory.com. Retrieved 4 February 2018. 
  265. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw Clymer, p.210.
  266. ^ Distinct from Spencer (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  267. ^ Distinct from Spencer (automobile company). Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  268. ^ One of two companies with this name. Clymer, p.210.
  269. ^ Distinct from Stanley Motor Carriage Company. Clymer, p.210.
  270. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Stearns (automobile).
  271. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 512
  272. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1351
  273. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.210.
  274. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  275. ^ Originally Erie.
  276. ^ Production was continued in Canada until 1966.
  277. ^ Flory, p.1016. Fitting Cadillac V8s into Studebakers was common in the 1950s, under the nickname Studillac, as well as into Fords as Fordillacs; it appears Flory has mistaken it.
  278. ^ Clymer, pp.38 & 210.
  279. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the Dodge, Plymouth, Studebaker, Nash Motors, Chevrolet, or GMC.
  280. ^ Clymer, p.52.
  281. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with Summit Racing Equipment.
  282. ^ Clymer, p.190, locates them in Cleveland.
  283. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 210.
  284. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1417–1419
  285. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1423–1424
  286. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1463, 45
  287. ^ Clymer, p.22; Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1472
  288. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the sportscar or the motorcycle.
  289. ^ "Renaissance Cars Inc. / Zebra Motors Inc". Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  290. ^ Distinct from Victor (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  291. ^ Clymer, pp.23. Distinct from Victor (automobile company).
  292. ^ Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9. p 1455
  293. ^ Built in Painesville, Ohio. Clymer, p.135.
  294. ^ Detroit-based builder of "generic" cars without badges so dealers could badge them as desired. Clymer, p.146.
  295. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (electric automobile company)
  296. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (automobile company)
  297. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1491
  298. ^ Built by Reo.
  299. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1519
  300. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1521
  301. ^ a b Kimes(1985), p. 1524

Sources[edit]

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  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1975. ISBN 0-87341-111-0
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  • Kirsch, David A.: The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick NJ and London, 2000. ISBN 0-8135-2809-7