Phoenix, Arizona

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Phoenix Arizona)
Jump to: navigation, search
Phoenix
State capital
City of Phoenix
Images, from top, left to right: Papago Park at sunset, Saint Mary's Basilica, downtown Phoenix, Phoenix skyline at night, Arizona Science Center, Rosson House, Phoenix light rail, a saguaro cactus, McDowell Mountains
Images, from top, left to right: Papago Park at sunset, Saint Mary's Basilica, downtown Phoenix, Phoenix skyline at night, Arizona Science Center, Rosson House, Phoenix light rail, a saguaro cactus, McDowell Mountains
Flag of Phoenix
Flag
Official seal of Phoenix
Seal
Nickname(s): "Valley of the Sun", "The Valley"
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Phoenix is located in USA
Phoenix
Phoenix
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°27′N 112°04′W / 33.450°N 112.067°W / 33.450; -112.067Coordinates: 33°27′N 112°04′W / 33.450°N 112.067°W / 33.450; -112.067
Country  United States of America
State  Arizona
County Maricopa
Incorporated February 5, 1881
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Body Phoenix City Council
 • Mayor Greg Stanton (D)
Area
 • City 517.948 sq mi (1,338.26 km2)
 • Land 516.704 sq mi (1,338.26 km2)
 • Water 1.244 sq mi (3.22 km2)
 • Metro 16,573 sq mi (42,920 km2)
Elevation[1] 1,086 ft (331 m)
Population (2010 census)[2]
 • City 1,445,632
 • Estimate (2013[3]) 1,513,367 (US: 6th)
 • Density 2,797.8/sq mi (1,080.2/km2)
 • Urban 3,629,114 (US: 12th)
 • Metro 4,398,762 (US: 12th)
 • Demonym Phoenician
Time zone MST (UTC−7)
 • Summer (DST) no DST/PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 85001–85099
Area code(s) 480, 602, 623
FIPS code 04-55000
GNIS ID(s) 44784, 2411414
Major airport Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport – PHX (Major/International)
Website www.phoenix.gov

Phoenix (/ˈfnɪks/) is the capital, and largest city, of the State of Arizona. With 1,445,632 people (as of the 2010 U.S. Census), Phoenix is the most populous state capital in the United States, as well as the sixth most populous city nationally, after (in order) New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, and Philadelphia.[4]

The anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area (also known as the Valley of the Sun, a part of the Salt River Valley), it is the 13th largest metro area by population in the United States, with approximately 4.3 million people in 2010.[5][6] In addition, Phoenix is the county seat of Maricopa County and is one of the largest cities in the United States by land area.[7]

Settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers, Phoenix incorporated as a city in 1881.[8] Located in the northeastern reaches of the Sonoran Desert, Phoenix has a subtropical desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community, many of the original crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton, citrus and hay (which was important for the cattle industry).[9][10] In fact, the "Five C's" (Cotton, Cattle, Citrus, Climate, and Copper), remained the driving forces of Phoenix's economy until after World War II, when high tech industries began to move into the valley.[11][12]

The population growth rate of the Phoenix metro area has been nearly 4% per year for the past 40 years. While that growth rate slowed during the Great Recession, it has already begun to rebound. Currently ranked 6th in population, it is predicted that Phoenix will rank 4th by 2020.[13] Being near the center of the state, Phoenix is the jumping off point for the various attractions in the Valley of the Sun, as well as the rest of Arizona.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Map portraying ancestral Hohokam lands circa 1350
Map of Hohokam lands ca. 1350

For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam peoples occupied the land that would become Phoenix.[8][14] The Hohokam created roughly 135 miles (217 km) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable. Paths of these canals would later become used for the modern Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. The Hohokam also carried out extensive trade with the nearby Anasazi, Mogollon and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations.[15] It is believed that between 1300 and 1450, periods of drought and severe floods led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.[16] Local Akimel O'odham settlements, thought to be the descendants of the formerly urbanized Hohokam, concentrated on the Gila River.[17][18]

When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, Mexico sold its northern zone to the United States and residents became U.S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory.[19] In 1863 the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County, to the north-west of modern Phoenix. At the time Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated: the land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg.

The U.S. Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Native American uprisings.[20] The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, which was the first non-native settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. In later years, other nearby settlements would form and merge to become the city of Tempe,[21] but this community was incorporated after Phoenix.

Founding and incorporation[edit]

The Phillip Darrell Duppa adobe house was built in 1870 and is the oldest known house in Phoenix. The homestead of "Lord" Darrell Duppa, an Englishman who is credited with naming Phoenix and Tempe as well as founding the town of New River.

The history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. In 1867 he saw in the Salt River Valley a potential for farming, much like that already cultivated by the military further east, near Fort McDowell. He formed a small community that same year about 4 miles (6 km) east of the present city. Lord Darrell Duppa suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization.[8][22]

The Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County, which at the time encompassed Phoenix, officially recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, and the first post office was established the following month, with Swilling as the postmaster.[8] On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County, the sixth one formed in the Arizona Territory, by dividing Yavapai County. The first election for county office was held in 1871, when Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff, actually running unopposed when the other two candidates, John A. Chenowth and Jim Favorite, fought a duel wherein Chenowth killed Favorite, and then was forced to withdraw from the race.[8]

The town grew during the 1870s, and President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the present site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office, sixteen saloons, and four dance halls, but the townsite-commissioner form of government needed an overhaul, so that year an election was held in which three village trustees as well as several other officials were selected.[8] By 1880, the town's population stood at 2,453.[22]

A lithograph showing an aerial view of Phoenix in 1885
Aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885

By 1881, Phoenix' continued growth made the existing village structure with a board of trustees obsolete. The Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government, and became official on February 25, 1881 when it was signed by Governor John C. Fremont, officially incorporating Phoenix as a city with an approximate population of 2,500.[8]

The coming of the railroad in the 1880s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. Phoenix became a trade center, with its products reaching eastern and western markets. In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888.[23] Earlier in 1888 the city offices were moved into the new City Hall, at Washington and Central.[8] When the territorial capital was moved from Prescott to Phoenix in 1889 the temporary territorial offices were also located in City Hall.[22] With the arrival of the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad in 1895, Phoenix was connected to the Prescott, Flagstaff and other northern state communities. The increased access to commerce, expedited the city's economic rise. The year 1895 also saw the establishment of Phoenix Union High School, with an enrollment of 90.[8]

1900 to World War II[edit]

Aerial view of Central Avenue in Phoenix in 1908.
Central Avenue, Phoenix, 1908
FIAV historical.svg The former city flag of Phoenix, adopted in November 1921.

On February 25, 1901, Governor Murphy dedicated the permanent state Capitol building,[8] and the Carnegie Free Library opened seven years later, on Feb.18, 1908, dedicated by Benjamin Fowler.[22] The National Reclamation Act was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902, which allowed for dams to be built on waterways in the west for reclamation purposes.[24] The first dam constructed under the act, the Theodore Roosevelt Dam was begun in 1906. It supplied both water and electricity, becoming the first multiple-purpose dam, and Roosevelt would attend the official dedication himself, on May 18, 1911. At the time, it was the largest masonry dam in the world, forming Theodore Roosevelt Lake in the mountain east of Phoenix.[25]

On February 14, 1912, under President William Howard Taft, Phoenix became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona.[25] This occurred just six months after Taft had vetoed in August 1911, a joint congressional resolution granting statehood to Arizona, due to his disagreement of the state constitution's position regarding the recall of judges.[24] In 1913 Phoenix adopted a new form of government, changing from a mayor-council system to council-manager, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. After statehood, Phoenix's growth started to accelerate, and by the end of its first eight years under statehood, Phoenix' population had grown to 29,053. In 1920 Phoenix would see its first skyscraper, the Heard Building.[8] In 1929 Sky Harbor was officially opened, at the time owned by Scenic Airways. It would later be purchased by the city in 1935, who operates it to this day.[26]

Photo of the skyline of downtown Phoenix circa 1940
Phoenix skyline – ca. 1940

On March 4, 1930, former U.S. President Calvin Coolidge dedicated a dam on the Gila River named in his honor. However, the state had just been through a long drought, and the reservoir which was supposed to be behind the dam, was virtually dry. The humorist Will Rogers, who was also on hand as a guest speaker joked, "If that was my lake I'd mow it."[24] Phoenix's population had more than doubled during the 1920s, and now stood at 48,118.[8]

During World War II, Phoenix's economy shifted to that of a distribution center, rapidly turning into an embryonic industrial city with mass production of military supplies. There were 3 air force fields in the area: Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field, as well as two large pilot training camps, Thunderbird Field No. 1 in Glendale and Thunderbird Field No. 2 in Scottsdale.[8][27][28]

Postwar explosive growth[edit]

A town that had just over sixty-five thousand residents in 1940 became America’s sixth largest city by 2010, with a population of nearly 1.5 million, and millions more in nearby suburbs. Shermer argues that after the war Phoenix boosters led by Barry Goldwater and other ambitious young businessmen and politicians, often with an Eastern education, created a neoliberal pro-business climate. They attracted Eastern industry by rejecting the New Deal formula of strong labor unions and tight regulation of industry. They told prospects that Phoenix had excellent weather, cheap land, good transportation, low-wage rates, a right-to-work law that weakened unions, minimal regulations, easy access to the West Coast markets, and an eagerness to grow. They pointed out it was highly attractive place for young couples to raise their families. Hundreds of manufacturing firms were attracted to Phoenix, especially those that emphasized high technology, along with, corporate headquarters. Shermer argues that the Phoenix plan was widely admired by other ambitious cities in the South and Southwest, and became part of national conservatism as exemplified by Goldwater and his supporters. The Phoenix plan was not built on libertarian low-government ideals. Rather, Shermer argues, it involved active government intervention in the economy to promote rapid growth. For example the state played the central role in giving Phoenix a guaranteed water supply, as well as good universities.[29]

When the war ended, many of the men who had undergone their training in Arizona returned bringing their new families. Large industry, learning of this labor pool, started to move branches here.[12] In 1948 high-tech industry, which would become a staple of the state's economy, arrived in Phoenix when Motorola chose Phoenix for the site of its new research and development center for military electronics. Seeing the same advantages as Motorola, other high-tech companies such as Intel and McDonnell Douglas would also move into the valley and open manufacturing operations.[12]

By 1950, over 105,000 people lived within the city and thousands more in surrounding communities.[8] The 1950s growth was spurred on by advances in air conditioning, which allowed both homes and businesses to offset the extreme heat known to Phoenix during its long summers. There was more new construction in Phoenix in 1959 alone than during the period of more than thirty years from 1914 to 1946.[12][30]

The 1960s through current[edit]

Over the next several decades, the city and metropolitan area attracted more growth and became a favored tourist destination for its exotic desert setting and recreational opportunities. In 1960 the Phoenix Corporate Center opened; at the time it was the tallest building in Arizona, topping off at 341 feet.[31] The 1960s saw many other buildings constructed as the city expanded rapidly, including: the Rosenzweig Center (1964), today called Phoenix City Square,[32] the landmark Phoenix Financial Center (1964),[33] as well as many of Phoenix's residential high-rises. In 1965 the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum was opened on the grounds of the Arizona State Fair, west of downtown, and in 1968, the city was surprisingly awarded the Phoenix Suns NBA franchise,[34][35] which played its home games at the Coliseum until 1992.[36] In 1968, the Central Arizona Project was approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson, assuring future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson, and the agricultural corridor in between.[37] The following year, Pope Paul VI created the Diocese of Phoenix on December 2, by splitting the Archdiocese of Tucson, with Edward A. McCarthy as the first Bishop.[38]

In the 1970s the downtown area experienced a resurgence, with a level of construction activity not seen again until the urban real estate boom of the 2000s. By the end of the decade, Phoenix adopted the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan which split the city into urban villages, each with its own village core where greater height and density was permitted, further shaping the free-market development culture. Originally, there were 9 villages,[39] but this has been expanded to 15 over the years (see Cityscape below). This officially turned Phoenix into a city of many nodes, which would later be connected by freeways. 1972 would see the opening of the Phoenix Symphony Hall,[40] Other major structures which saw construction downtown during this decade were the Wells Fargo Plaza, the Chase Tower (the tallest building in both Phoenix and Arizona)[41] and the U.S. Bank Center.

Nominated by President Reagan, on September 25, 1981 Phoenix resident Sandra Day O'Connor broke the gender barrier on the U.S. Supreme Court, when she was sworn in as the first female judge.[42] 1985 saw the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the nation's largest nuclear power plant, begin electrical production.[43] 1987 was marked by visits by both Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa.[44]

Recent photo of downtown Phoenix lit up at night
Downtown Phoenix at night

There was an influx of refugees due to low-cost housing in the Sunnyslope area in the 1990s, resulting in 43 different languages being spoken in local schools by the year 2000.[45] The new 20-story City Hall opened in 1992,[46] and 1993 saw the creation of "Tent City," by Sheriff Joe Arpaio, using inmate labor, to alleviate overcrowding in the Maricopa County Jail system, the fourth-largest in the world.[47] The famous "Phoenix Lights" UFO sightings took place in March 1997.

Phoenix has maintained a growth streak in recent years, growing by 24.2% before 2007. This made it the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States, surpassed only by Las Vegas.[48] In 2008 Squaw Peak, the second tallest mountain in the city, was renamed Piestewa Peak after Army Specialist Lori Ann Piestewa, an Arizonan and the first Native American woman to die in combat, as well as being the first American female casualty of the 2003 Iraq War.[49] 2008 also saw Phoenix as one of the cities hardest hit by the subprime mortgage crisis, and by early 2009, the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in 2007.[50] Crime rates in Phoenix have gone down in recent years and once troubled, decaying neighborhoods such as South Mountain, Alhambra, and Maryvale have recovered and stabilized. Recently downtown Phoenix and the central core have experienced renewed interest and growth, resulting in numerous restaurants, stores and businesses opening or relocating to central Phoenix.[51]

Geography[edit]

A photo taken from space of the Phoenix Area
Landsat 7 satellite image of the Phoenix metro area in 2002

Phoenix is in the southwestern United States, in the south-central portion of Arizona, and about halfway between Tucson to the south and Flagstaff to the north. The metropolitan area is known as the "Valley of the Sun", due to its location in the Salt River Valley. It lies at a mean elevation of 1,117 feet (340 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert.[52][53]

A photo showing the skyline of Phoenix, looking north.  It shows the various buildings of the downtown area, as well as Sunnyslope Mountain in the background
Northern skyline, downtown Phoenix, Sunnyslope Mountain clearly visible in background

Other than the mountains in and around the city, the topography of Phoenix is generally flat, allowing the city's main streets to run on a precise grid with wide, open-spaced roadways. Scattered, low mountain ranges surround the valley: McDowell Mountains to the northeast, the White Tank Mountains to the west, the Superstition Mountains far to the east, and the Sierra Estrella to the southwest. On the outskirts of Phoenix are large fields of irrigated cropland and several Indian reservations.[23][52][54] The Salt River runs westward through the city of Phoenix, and the riverbed is often dry or contains a little water due to large irrigation diversions. The community of Ahwatukee is separated from the rest of the city by South Mountain.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 517.9 square miles (1,341 km2); 516.7 square miles (1,338 km2) of it is land and 1.2 square miles (0.6 km², or 0.2%) of it is water. Even though it is the 6th most populated city, the large area gives it a low density rate of approximately 2,797 people per square mile.[55] In comparison, Philadelphia, the 5th most populous city has a density of over 11,000.[56]

As with most of Arizona, Phoenix does not observe daylight saving time. In 1973, Gov. Jack Williams argued to the U.S. Congress that due to air conditioning units not being used as often in the morning on standard time, energy use would increase in the evening. He went on to say that energy use would rise "because there would be more lights on in the early morning." He was also concerned about children going to school in the dark, which was quite accurate.[57]

Cityscape[edit]

aerial view of the Phoenix skyline, showing the tall buildings of downtown Phoenix to the left of the photo, mountains in the background, the flatness of the rest of the city, with Sky Harbor airport
A panoramic view of Phoenix from the South Mountain range, winter 2008, with Sky Harbor International Airport on the far right.
Phoenix Skyline from South Mountain at Night - 2010

Neighborhoods[edit]

tall buildings of downtown Phoenix, with the mountains to the north in the background, centering on Camelback mountain.
Downtown Phoenix skyline looking northeast toward Camelback Mountain
a graphic representation showing how Phoenix is broken up into 15 urban villages
Map of the urban villages of Phoenix
a photo of the reds and oranges of a sunset over the skyline of Phoenix, as seen from Papago park.
Phoenix sunset from Papago Park – 2010

Since 1979, the City of Phoenix has been divided into urban villages, many of which are based upon historically significant neighborhoods and communities that have since been annexed into Phoenix.[58][59] Each village has a planning committee that is appointed directly by the city council. According to the village planning handbook issued by the city, the purpose of the village planning committees is to work with the city's planning commission to ensure a balance of housing and employment in each village, concentrate development at identified village cores, and to promote the unique character and identity of the villages.[60]

The 15 urban villages are:

In addition to the above urban villages, Phoenix has a variety of commonly referred-to regions and districts, such as Downtown, Midtown, West Phoenix, North Phoenix, South Phoenix, Biltmore, Arcadia, and Sunnyslope.

Climate[edit]

Phoenix has a subtropical desert climate (Köppen: BWh), typical of the Sonoran Desert in which it lies. Phoenix has extremely hot summers and warm winters. The average summer high temperatures are some of the hottest of any major city in the United States, and approach those of cities such as Riyadh and Baghdad.[61] On average (1981–2010), there are 107 days annually with a high of at least 100 °F (38 °C),[62] including most days from late May through early October. Highs top 110 °F (43 °C) an average of 18 days during the year[63] Every day from June 10 through August 24, 1993, the temperature in Phoenix reached 100 °F or more, the longest continuous number of days (76) in the city's history. Officially, the number of days with a high of at least 100 °F has historically ranged from 48 in 1913 to 143 in 1989. For comparison, since 1870, New York City has seen a temperature of 100 degrees or more a total of only 59 days.[64] On June 26, 1990, the temperature reached an all-time recorded high of 122 °F (50 °C).[65]

Most deserts undergo drastic fluctuations between day and nighttime temperatures, but not Phoenix due to the urban heat island effect. As the city has expanded, average summer low temps have been rising steadily. The daily heat of the sun is stored in pavement, sidewalks and buildings, and is radiated back out at night.[66] During the summer, overnight lows greater than 80 °F (27 °C) are commonplace, as the daily normal low remains at or above 80 °F from June 22 to September 8. On average, 67 days throughout the year will see the nighttime low at or above 80 °F (27 °C). July 15, 2003 officially saw the record high daily minimum temperature, at 96 °F (36 °C).[61][62]

photo of a dust storm, called a haboob, sweeping in over the city of phoenix
Phoenix haboob – 2011

The city averages over 330 days of sunshine, or over 90%, per year, and receives scant rainfall, the average annual total at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport being 7 inches (180 mm).[67] Precipitation is sparse during most of the year, but the monsoon brings an influx of moisture. Historically, the monsoon officially started when the average Dew point was 55 degrees for three days in a row; on average this event occurred around July 7; however, in 2008 the National Weather Service decreed that from that point forward, June 15 would be the official first day of the monsoon, and it would end on September 30.[68] The monsoon raises humidity levels and can cause heavy localized precipitation, occasional flooding, large hail, strong winds, the rare tornado, and dust storms,[69] which can rise to the level of a haboob in some years.[70] July is the wettest month of the year (1.05 inches (27 mm)), while June is the driest (.02 inches (0.51 mm)). On September 8, 2014, the City of Phoenix recorded its single highest rainfall total by the National Weather Service with a total of 3.29 inches. This total rainfall on this day measured more than Phoenix's annual rainfall average and broke a 75-year old previous record of 2.91 inches, set back on Sepetember 4, 1939.[71][72] This storm was created from the remnants of Hurricane Norbert that had moved up from the Gulf of California and turned the city's major interstates and low-lying roadways into flood plains stranding hundreds of motorists.[73]

photo of graupel covered lawn furniture in a suburban backyard
Graupel fall – February 2013

On average, Phoenix has only one day per year where the temperature drops to or below freezing.[62] However, the frequency of freezes increases the further one moves outward from the urban heat island. Frequently, outlying areas of Phoenix see frost. Officially, the earliest freeze on record occurred on November 4, 1956, and the latest occurred on March 31, 1987.[a] The all-time lowest recorded temperature in Phoenix was 16 °F (−9 °C) on January 7, 1913, while the coldest daily maximum was 36 °F (2 °C) on December 10, 1898. The longest continuous stretch without a day of frost in Phoenix was over 5 years, from November 23, 1979 to January 31, 1985.[74][75] Snow is a very rare occurrence for the city of Phoenix. Snowfall was first officially recorded in 1898, and since then, accumulations of 0.1 inches (0.25 cm) or greater have occurred only eight times. The heaviest snowstorm on record dates to January 21–22, 1937, when 1 to 4 inches (2.5 to 10.2 cm) fell in parts of the city and did not melt entirely for three days. Before that, 1 inch (2.5 cm) had fallen on January 20, 1933. On February 2, 1939, 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) fell. Snow also fell on March 12, 1917 and on November 28, 1919. The most recent snow of significance fell on December 6, 1998, across the northwest portions of the valley that are below 2,000 feet. During the 1998 event, Sky Harbor reported a dusting of snow. The last measurable snowfall was recorded when 0.1 inches (0.25 cm) fell in central Phoenix on December 11, 1985.[76] On December 30, 2010 and February 20, 2013, graupel fell, although it was widely believed to be snow.[77][78]


Flora and fauna[edit]

Camera trap image of mountain lion
Mountain lion (aka puma)
picture of a giant, many limbed saguaro cactus outlined against a blue sky
Giant saguaro

Unusual species are occasionally found within Phoenix boundaries and surrounding areas of Arizona. Native species include desert tortoises, gila monsters, roadrunners, coyotes, chuckwallas (large lizards), javelina (wild pigs), bobcats, jaguars, and mountain lions. There are many species of falcons, hawks, golden and bald eagles, and the state bird, the cactus wren.[81][82][83] Phoenix is also home to a plethora of snakes, such as the western diamondback rattlesnake, sonoran sidewinder, several other types of rattlesnakes, sonoran coralsnake, and dozens of other non-venomous snakes, including the California kingsnake.[84]

The Arizona Upland subdivision of the Sonoran Desert (of which Phoenix is a part) has the most structurally diverse vegetation in the United States. It includes one of the most famous species of succulents, the giant saguaro cactus. Other important species are organpipe, ocotillo, barrel, prickly pear and cholla cacti, Palo Verde trees, various types of palm trees, agaves, foothill and blue paloverde, ironwood, mesquite and creosote bush.[85][86]

The Greater Phoenix region is home to the only thriving feral population of rosy-faced lovebirds in the U.S. This bird is a popular birdcage pet, native to southwestern Africa. Feral birds were first observed living outdoors in 1987, probably escaped or released pets, and by 2010 the Greater Phoenix population had grown to about 950 birds. These lovebirds prefer older neighborhoods where they nest under untrimmed dead palm tree fronds.[87][88]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 240
1880 1,708 611.7%
1890 3,152 84.5%
1900 5,544 75.9%
1910 11,314 104.1%
1920 29,053 156.8%
1930 48,118 65.6%
1940 65,414 35.9%
1950 106,818 63.3%
1960 439,170 311.1%
1970 581,572 32.4%
1980 789,704 35.8%
1990 983,403 24.5%
2000 1,321,045 34.3%
2010 1,445,632 9.4%
Est. 2013 1,513,367 [89] 4.7%
Sources:[89][90][3]

Phoenix is the sixth most populous city in the United States according to the 2010 United States Census, with a population of 1,445,632, making it the most populous state capital in the United States.[47] Phoenix's ranking as the sixth most populous city was a drop from the number five position it had held since the U. S. Census Bureau released population estimates on June 28, 2007. Those statistics used data from 2006, which showed Phoenix's population at 1,512,986, which put it just ahead of Philadelphia.[47] The 2010 Census, while showing an overall increase from the official 2000 Census showed a drop in Phoenix' population from the 2007 estimates, allowing Philadelphia to regain the fifth spot.[47]

After leading the nation in population growth for over a decade, the sub-prime mortgage crisis, followed by the recession, led to a slowing in the growth of Phoenix. There were approximately 77,000 people added to the population of the Phoenix metropolitan area in 2009, which was down significantly from its peak in 2006 of 162,000.[91][92] Despite this slowing, Phoenix's population grew by 9.4% since the 2000 census (a total of 124,000 people), while the entire Phoenix metropolitan area grew by 28.9% during the same period. This compares with an overall growth rate nationally during the same time frame of 9.7%.[93][94] Not since 1940-50, when the city had a population of 107,000, had the city gained less than 124,000 in a decade. And when you look at the growth as a percentage of the population, you have to go all the way back to the 1880-90 census period to find a lower growth rate than the 9.4% Phoenix experienced during the last decade.[95]

The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) (officially known as the Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale MSA), is one of 10 MSAs in Arizona, and was the 14th largest in the United States, with a total population of 4,192,887 as of the 2010 Census. Consisting of parts of both Pinal and Maricopa counties, the MSA accounts for 65.5% of the total population of the state of Arizona.[93][94] Phoenix only contributed 13% to the total growth rate of the MSA, down significantly from its 33% share during the prior decade.[96] Phoenix is also part of the Arizona Sun Corridor megaregion (MR), which is the 10th most populous of the 11 MRs, and the 8th largest by area. It had the 2nd largest growth by percentage of the MRs (behind only the Gulf Coast MR) between 2000 and 2010.[97]

photo taken from an aircraft showing the tall buildings of downtown Phoenix, with the mountains which surround the city in the background.
Downtown Phoenix from an airplane, 2011

The population is almost equally split between men and women, with men making up 50.2% of city's citizens. The population density is 2,797.8 people per square mile, and the median age of the city is 32.2 years, with only 10.9 of the population being over 62. 98.5% of Phoenix's population lives in households with an average household size of 2.77 people. There were 514,806 total households, with 64.2% of those households consisting of families: 42.3% married couples, 7% with an unmarried male as head of household, and 14.9% with an unmarried female as head of household. 33.6% of those households have children below the age of 18. Of the 35.8% of non-family households, 27.1% of them have a householder living alone, almost evenly split between men and women, with women having 13.7% and men occupying 13.5%. Phoenix has 590,149 housing units, with an occupancy rate of 87.2%. The largest segment of vacancies is in the rental market, where the vacancy rate is 14.9%, and 51% of all vacancies are in rentals. Vacant houses for sale only make up 17.7% of the vacancies, with the rest being split among vacation properties and other various reasons.[98]

The median income for a household in the city was $47,866, and the median income for a family was $54,804. Males had a median income of $32,820 versus $27,466 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,110. 21.8% of the population and 17.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 31.4% of those under the age of 18 and 10.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[99]

According to the 2010 Census, the racial breakdown of Phoenix was as follows:[100]

Racial composition 2010[101] 1990[102] 1970[102] 1940[102]
White (includes White Hispanics) 65.9% 81.7% 93.3% 92.3%
Black or African American 6.5% 5.2% 4.8% 6.5%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 40.8% 20.0% 12.7%[103] n/a
Asian 3.2% 1.7% 0.5% 0.8%
Non-Hispanic Whites 46.5% 71.8% 81.3%[103] n/a

Phoenix's population has historically been predominantly white. From 1890 to 1970, over 90% of the citizens were white. In recent years, this percentage has dropped, reaching 65% In 2010. However, a significant portion of this decrease can be attributed to new guidelines put out by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1980, when a question regarding Hispanic origin was added to the census questionnaire. This has led to an increasing tendency for some groups to no longer self-identify as white, and instead categorize themselves as "other races".[102] 20.6% of the population of the city was foreign born in 2010. Of the 1,342,803 residents over 5 years of age, 63.5% spoke only English, 30.6% spoke Spanish at home, 2.5% spoke another Indo-European language, 2.1% spoke Asian or Islander languages, with the remaining 1.4% speaking other languages. About 15.7% of non-English speakers reported speaking English less than "very well". The largest national ancestries reported were Mexican (35.9%), German (15.3%), Irish (10.3%), English (9.4%), Black (6.5%), Italian (4.5%), French (2.7%), Polish (2.5%), American Indian (2.2%), and Scottish (2.0%).[104]

Trinity Episcopal Cathedral

In 2010, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives, which conducts religious census each ten years, 39% of those polled in Maricopa county considered themselves a member of a religious group. Of those who expressed a religious affiliation, the area's religious composition was reported as 35% Catholic, 22% to Evangelical Protestant denominations, 16% Latter-Day Saints (LDS), 14% to nondenominational congregations, 7% to Mainline Protestant denominations, and 2% Hindu. The remaining 4% belong to other religions, such as Buddhism, and Judaism. While there was an overall increase in the number of religious adherents over the decade of 103,000, that did not keep pace with the overall population increase in the country during the same period, which increased by almost three-quarters of million individuals, resulting in the percentage drop. The largest aggregate increases were in the LDS (a 58% increase) and Evangelical Protestant churches (14% increase), while all other categories actually saw their numbers drop slightly, or remain static. Overall, the Catholic Church had an 8% drop, while Mainline Protestant groups saw a 28% decline.[105]

Economy[edit]

The early economy of Phoenix was focused primarily on agriculture and natural resources, dependent mainly on the "5Cs" which were copper, cattle, climate, cotton and citrus.[11] Once the Salt River Project was completed, the city, and the valley in general, began to develop more rapidly, due to a now fairly reliable source of water. Led by agriculture, the number one crop in the 1910s was alfalfa, followed by citrus, cotton and other crops, with almost a quarter-million acres under cultivation by the middle of the decade. World War I would greatly change the agricultural landscape of the valley, and teach the farmers of the region an invaluable, if difficult lesson.[106][107]

A cotton field outside Phoenix.

As the war began, imports of foreign cotton were no longer available to American manufacturing, since cotton was a major material used in the production of tires and airplane fabric, those manufacturers began to look for new sources. The Salt River Valley looked to be an ideal location for expansion of the cotton crop. Led by Goodyear, tire and airplane manufacturers began to buy more and more cotton from valley growers. In fact, the town of Goodyear was founded during this period when the company purchased desert acreage southwest of Phoenix to grow cotton. By 1918, cotton had replaced alfalfa as the number one industry in Phoenix. As the price of cotton rose, more and more of Phoenix acreage was devoted to the crop, however, in 1920, when cotton accounted for three-quarters of the cultivated acreage in the valley, the bottom fell out of the cotton market due to the dual reasons of lower demand due to the end of the war production machine and foreign growers now once again having access to the American market, resulting in their shipping large amounts of cotton to the U.S. This led to a diversification of crops in the valley from that point forward.[108][107]

Cattle, and the meat industry was also a vital part of the economy. The cotton bust led to more production of alfalfa, wheat and barley, as well as citrus. The grain production in turn led to an increase in the cattle ranching industry. By the end of the Roaring Twenties, Phoenix boasted the largest meat processing plant between Dallas and Los Angeles.[109][110] While that plant, and its attendant stockyards are long gone, a remnant remains in the famous Stockyards Restaurant. The prosperity following the local depression caused by the cotton bust enabled other industries to grow as well. The city's first skyscraper, the 7-story Heard Building was built in 1920, followed by the 10-story Luhrs Building following the bust in 1924, and the Westward Ho, a 16-story hotel was constructed in 1928.[111]

Hotel San Carlos, which opened in 1928
Jokake Inn, 1926

With the establishment of a main rail line in 1926 (the Southern Pacific), the opening of the Union Station in 1923, and the creation of Sky Harbor airport by the end of the decade, it allowed greater ease of access to the city.[112] The construction of the Westward Ho was part of a concerted effort on the part of both civic and business organizations in Phoenix to develop Phoenix as a tourist destination. Phoenix already had two highly rated resorts, the Ingleside Inn and the Jokake Inn, and after the Westward Ho, the Arizona Biltmore, designed by one of Frank Lloyd Wright's students, was constructed in 1929.[113] Other major hotels were built during this era, such as the San Carlos (also in 1928), which led older hotels, like the Hotel Adams to refurbish themselves in order to remain competitive.[113] By the end of the decade, the tourism industry topped $10 million for the first time in the city's history.[114] Tourism remains one of the top ten economic drivers of the city to this day.[115]

The Great Depression affected Phoenix, just as it did every other location in the country, but the effects were not as deep, nor lasted as long. Phoenix had a very diverse economy, and was not heavily vested in the manufacturing sector.[116] While the stock market crash did not affect the city very directly, the suppression of the national economy did. Revenue from all major industries in the valley decreased drastically: copper mining dropped from $155 million in 1929 to $15 million by 1932; agriculture and livestock also saw reductions during that same period, although not as drastic, from $42 million to $14 million and $25.5 million to $15 million, respectively. Compared to the rest of the country, and even the rest of the state, Phoenix was not as badly affected by bankruptcies, foreclosures, or unemployment, and by 1934, the recovery was underway.[117]

At the conclusion of World War II, the valley's economy began to further grow and expand. After the war, the city's population began to surge as many men who had undergone their military training at the various bases in and around Phoenix, returned with their families. In 1948, Motorola chose Phoenix for the site of its new research and development center for military electronics. They were followed in time, by other high-tech companies such as Intel and McDonnell Douglas.[12]

low angle shot of modern all glass office building in downtown Phoenix.
Office building at 3300 N. Central Avenue – downtown Phoenix

The construction industry, spurred on by the city's growth, further expanded with the development of Sun City. Much like Levittown, New York became the template for suburban development in post-WWII America,[118] Sun City, just northwest of Phoenix, became the template for retirement communities when Del E. Webb opened the community in 1960. Over 100,000 people visited the community during the opening weekend.[119]

As the financial crisis of 2007–10 began, construction in Phoenix collapsed in 2008, and housing prices plunged. Historically, Arizona trailed the rest of the country into recession but due to the prominence of the construction industry in its economy, Phoenix entered this last recession before the rest of the country.[120]

Phoenix Financial Center

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce, in 2012 (the latest year for which data is available), the Phoenix MSA had a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of just over $201 billion, a 4.5% increase over the prior year. Phoenix's GDP finally exceeded the high it had attained in 2008, prior to the recession. The top 10 industries were, in descending order: real estate ($31B), financial services ($21.3B), manufacturing ($16.8B), health care ($15.7B), retail ($14.9B), wholesale ($12.9B), professional services ($12.8B), construction ($10.4B), waste management ($9.1B), and tourism ($6.8B). Government, if it had been a private industry, would have been ranked third on the list, generating $18.9 billion.[115] Manufacturing now ranks third among Phoenix's industries, and includes the production of computers and other electronic equipment, missiles, aircraft parts, chemicals, and processed foods.[52]

In major job markets, as defined as those markets with greater than 1 million jobs, Greater Phoenix ranked number 1 in employment growth prior to the recession beginning in 2007. Just three years later, it ended its free fall in job growth by hitting the bottom of the list of those 28 major markets, dead last. However, 2013 saw Greater Phoenix rebound to 7th. Arizona's year-over-year job growth (of which Phoenix is the main driver) continued to outpace the nation through August 2013. Arizona's year-over-year job growth was at or above 2.0% each month of that year. In contrast, national job growth was between 1.5% and 1.7% on a year-over-year basis.[121][122] Arizona is forecast to regain its previous employment peak in 2015, making it eight years for the state to get back to even terms after the Great Recession; the national economy is currently forecast to replace all of the jobs lost by 2014, one year earlier than Arizona. This is due to the more severe downturn in Arizona as compared to the rest of the nation, as evidenced by the fact that from peak to trough, Arizona jobs declined by 11.8%, compared to 6.3% for the nation.[123] In 2013, the Phoenix area saw a 2.7% increase in non-farm employment, from 1.758 million to 1.805 million. Job growth has occurred across the board with the fastest rate in education and health services, trade, transportation and utilities, professional and business services, financial activities and leisure and hospitality.[124][125]

exterior shot of Phoenix Convention center, showing the center from an upward angle, highlighting the modern style of the building, with a bright blue sky in the background, and the streamlined light rail train passing in front
Phoenix Convention Center, light rail in front - 2009

According to the 2010 Census, the top ten employment categories are office and administrative support occupations (17.8%), sales and related occupations (11.6%), food preparation and serving related occupations (9%), transportation and material moving occupations (6.1%), management occupations (5.8%), education, training, and library occupations (5.5%), business and financial operations occupations (5.3%), healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (5.3%), production occupations (4.6%), and construction and extraction occupations (4.2%). The single largest occupation is retail salespersons, which account for 3.7% of the entire workforce.[126] As of December, 2013, 12.9% of the workforce were government employees, a high number because the city is both the county seat and state capitol. The civilian labor force was 2,033,400 (down 0.5% from twelve months earlier), and the unemployment rate stood at 7.6%, above the national rate of 6.7%.[127][128]

Phoenix is currently home to four Fortune 500 companies: electronics corporation Avnet,[129] mining company Freeport-McMoRan,[130] retailer PetSmart[131] and waste hauler Republic Services.[132] Honeywell's Aerospace division is headquartered in Phoenix, and the valley hosts many of their avionics and mechanical facilities.[133] Intel has one of their largest sites in the area, employing about 12,000 employees, the second largest Intel location in the country; they are spending $5 billion to expand their semiconductor plant.[134] American Express hosts their financial transactions, customer information, and their entire website in Phoenix. The city is also home to: the headquarters of U-HAUL International, a rental and moving supply company; Best Western, the world's largest family of hotels; Apollo Group, parent of the University of Phoenix; and utility company Pinnacle West. Choice Hotels International has its IT division and operations support center in the North Phoenix area. US Airways, now merged with American Airlines has a strong presence in Phoenix, with the corporate headquarters located in the city prior to the merger. US Air/American Airlines is the largest carrier at Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix. Mesa Air Group, a regional airline group, is headquartered in Phoenix.[135]

The military has a significant presence in Phoenix with Luke Air Force Base located in the western suburbs. At its height, in the 1940s, the Phoenix area had three military bases: Luke Field (still in use), Falcon Field, and Williams Air Force Base (now Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport), with numerous auxiliary air fields located throughout the region.[136] Foreign governments have established 30 consular offices and eleven active foreign chambers of commerce and trade associations in metropolitan Phoenix.[137][138]

Culture[edit]

Performing arts[edit]

photo of the front entrance of the Orpheum theater, with the red marquee clearly displaying the Orpheum name, contrasted with the pale brown of the stone building
Orpheum Theater – Phoenix

The city has numerous performing arts venues, most of which are located in and around downtown Phoenix or Scottsdale. The Phoenix Symphony Hall is home to the Phoenix Symphony Orchestra, the Arizona Opera and Ballet Arizona.[139] The Arizona Opera company also has intimate performances at its new Arizona Opera Center, which opened in March 2013.[140] Another venue is the Orpheum Theatre, which is home to the Phoenix Opera, formerly known as the Phoenix Metropolitan Opera.[141] Ballet Arizona, in addition to the Symphony Hall, also has performances at the Orpheum Theater as well at the Dorrance Theater. Concerts also regularly make stops in the area. The largest downtown performing art venue is the Herberger Theater Center, which houses three performance spaces and is home to two resident companies, the Arizona Theatre Company and the Centre Dance Ensemble. Three other groups also use the facility: Valley Youth Theatre, iTheatre Collaborative[142] and Actors Theater.[143]

Concerts can be attended at the US Airways Center and the Comerica Theatre in downtown Phoenix, Ak-Chin Pavilion (formerly Cricket Wireless Pavilion) in Maryvale, Jobing.com Arena in Glendale, and Gammage Auditorium in Tempe (the last public building designed by Frank Lloyd Wright).[144] Several smaller theatres including Trunk Space, the Mesa Arts Center, the Crescent Ballroom, Celebrity Theatre, and Modified Arts support regular independent musical and theatre performances. Music can also be seen in some of the venues usually reserved for sports, such as Wells Fargo Arena and University of Phoenix Stadium.[145]

Several television series have been set in Phoenix, including Alice, the 2000s paranormal drama Medium, the 1960–61 syndicated crime drama The Brothers Brannagan, and The New Dick Van Dyke Show from 1971 to 1974.

Museums[edit]

Dozens of museums exist throughout the valley. They include the Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona Capitol Museum, Arizona Military Museum, Hall of Flame Firefighting Museum, the Pueblo Grande Museum and Cultural Park, Children's Museum of Phoenix, Arizona Science Center, and the Heard Museum. In 2010 the Musical Instrument Museum opened their doors, featuring the biggest musical instrument collection in the world.[146]

Designed by Alden B. Dow, a student of Frank Lloyd Wright, the Phoenix Art Museum was constructed in a single year, opening in November 1959.[147] The Phoenix Art Museum presents a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The Southwest's largest destination for visual art, it displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's comprehensive collection of more than 17,000 works of contemporary and modern art from around the world, as well as exhibits of fashion design.[148][149][150] Interactive exhibits can be found in nearby Peoria's Challenger Space Center, where individuals learn about space, renewable energies, and meet astronauts.[151]

The Heard Museum has over 130,000 square feet (12,000 m²) of gallery, classroom and performance space. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum attracts about 250,000 visitors a year.[152]

Fine arts[edit]

The downtown Phoenix art scene has developed in the past decade. The Artlink organization and the galleries downtown have successfully launched a First Friday cross-Phoenix gallery opening. In April 2009, artist Janet Echelman inaugurated her monumental sculpture, Her Secret Is Patience, a civic icon suspended above the new Phoenix Civic Space Park, a two-city-block park in the middle of downtown. This netted sculpture makes the invisible patterns of desert wind visible to the human eye. During the day, the 100-foot (30 m)-tall sculpture hovers high above heads, treetops, and buildings, the sculpture creates what the artist calls "shadow drawings", which she says are inspired by Phoenix's cloud shadows. At night, the illumination changes color gradually through the seasons. Author Prof. Patrick Frank writes of the sculpture that "... most Arizonans look on the work with pride: this unique visual delight will forever mark the city of Phoenix just as the Eiffel Tower marks Paris."[153]

Architecture[edit]

Xeros Residence Bill Timmerman Photography

Phoenix is the home of a unique architectural tradition and community. Frank Lloyd Wright moved to Phoenix in 1937 and built his winter home, Taliesin West, and the main campus for The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture.[154] Over the years, Phoenix has attracted notable architects who have made it their home and have grown successful practices. These architectural studios embrace the desert climate, and are unconventional in their approach to the practice of design. They include the Paolo Soleri, Al Beadle, Will Bruder, Wendell Burnette, and Blank Studio architectural design studios.

Tourism[edit]

The tourist industry is the longest running of today's top industries in Phoenix. Starting with promotions back in the 1920s, the industry has grown into one of the top 10 in the city.[155] Due to its climate, Phoenix and its neighbors have consistently ranked among the nation's top destinations in the number of Five Diamond/Five Star resorts.[156] With more than 62,000 hotel rooms in over 500 hotels and 40 resorts, greater Phoenix sees over 16 million visitors each year, the majority of whom are leisure (as opposed to business) travelers.[157][158][159] Sky Harbor Airport, which serves the Greater Phoenix area, serves about 40 million passengers a year, ranking it among the 10 busiest airports in the nation.[156]

One of the biggest attractions to the Phoenix area is golf, with over 200 golf courses.[53][156] In addition to the sites of interest in the city, there are many attractions near Phoenix, such as: Agua Fria National Monument, Arcosanti, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Lost Dutchman State Park, Montezuma's Castle, Montezuma's Well, and Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Phoenix also serves as a jumping off point to many of the sights around the state of Arizona, such as the Grand Canyon, Lake Havasu (where the London Bridge is located), Meteor Crater, the Painted Desert, the Petrified Forest, Tombstone, Kartchner Caverns, Sedona and Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff.

Other attractions and annual events[edit]

Due to its natural beauty and climate, Phoenix has a plethora of outdoor attractions and recreational activities. The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned, non-profit zoo in the United States. Since opening in 1962, the zoo has developed an international reputation for its efforts on animal conservation, including breeding and reintroducing endangered species back into the wild.[160] Right next to the zoo, the Phoenix Botanical Gardens were opened in 1939, and are acclaimed worldwide for their exhibits and educational programs, featuring the largest collection of arid plants in the U.S.[161][162][163] South Mountain Park, the largest municipal park in the U.S., is also the highest desert mountain preserve in the world.[164]

Other popular sites in the city are: Japanese Friendship Garden, Historic Heritage Square, Phoenix Mountains Park, Pueblo Grande Museum, Tovrea Castle, Camelback Mountain, Hole in the Rock, Mystery Castle, St. Mary's Basilica, Taliesin West, and the Wrigley Mansion.[165]

There are long list of annual events in and near Phoenix which celebrate the heritage of the city, as well as its diversity. Some of them are:[166][167]

  • Scottsdale Arabian Horse Show — The largest Arabian horse show in the U.S. Held each February.
  • Gold Rush Days (in nearby Wickenburg) - A rodeo and carnival held each March.
  • Matsuri: A Festival of Japan — A celebration of Japanese culture held in February.
  • Pueblo Grande Indian Market — A December event highlighting Native American arts and crafts.
  • Christmas Mariachi Festival — Features world renowned mariachi bands and dancers.
  • Grand Menorah Lighting — Annual December event celebrating Hanukah.
  • Candyland Concert — Interactive children's festival in late November.
  • ZooLights — Annual December evening event at the Phoenix Zoo, featuring millions of lights.
  • Arizona State Fair — Begun in 1884, annual fair in September.
  • Scottish Gathering & Highland Games - 2014 marks the 50th year of this annual event celebrating Scottish heritage.[168]
  • Cave Creek Fiesta Days Rodeo & Parade — Annual March rodeo and festival.
  • Polish Festival — Annual festival held in March.[169]
  • Estrella War — Annual event celebrating medieval life, held in February/March.[170]
  • Tohono O’odham Nation Rodeo & Fair — Oldest Indian rodeo in Arizona, held in February.
  • Chinese Week & Culture & Cuisine Festival — Annual celebration of Chinese culture in February.

Cuisine[edit]

Like many other western towns, the earliest restaurants in Phoenix were often steakhouses. Today, Phoenix is also renowned for its Mexican food, thanks to both its large Hispanic population and its proximity to Mexico. Some of Phoenix's restaurants have a long history. The Stockyards steakhouse dates to 1947, while Monti's La Casa Vieja (Spanish for "The Old House") has been in operation as a restaurant since the 1890s.[171][172] Macayo's (a Mexican restaurant chain) was established in Phoenix in 1946, and other major Mexican restaurants include Garcia's (1956) and Manuel's (1964).[173] The recent population boom has brought people from all over the nation, and to a lesser extent from other countries, and has since influenced the local cuisine. Phoenix currently boasts cuisines from all over the world, such as Korean, barbecue, Cajun/Creole, Greek, Hawaiian, Irish, Japanese, sushi, Italian, fusion, Persian, Indian, Spanish, Thai, Chinese, southwestern, Tex-Mex, Vietnamese, Brazilian, and French.[174]

The first McDonald's franchise was sold by the McDonald brothers to a Phoenix entrepreneur in 1952. Neil Fox paid $1,000 for the rights to open an establishment based on the McDonald brothers' restaurant.[175] The hamburger stand opened in 1953 on the southwest corner of Central Avenue and Indian School Road on the growing north side of Phoenix, and was the first location to sport the now internationally known "golden arches", which were initially twice the height of the building. Three other franchise locations opened that year, a full two years before Kroc purchased McDonald's and opened his first franchise in Illinois. [175]

Sports[edit]

Phoenix is home to several professional sports franchises, and is one of only 12 U.S. cities to have representatives of all four major professional sports leagues, although only one of these teams actually carry the city name and two of them play within the city limits.

photo showing the semi-circular entrance to the America West Arena in downtown Phoenix, blue sky in background
US Airways Center in downtown Phoenix

The Phoenix Suns were the first major sports team in Phoenix, being granted a National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise in 1968.[176] Jerry Colangelo was their first general manager, the youngest in the league up to that time, and their name was chosen through a contest through the Arizona Republic. They originally played at the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, moving to the America West Arena (now U.S. Airways Center) in 1992.[177] The year following their move to the new arena, the Suns made the NBA finals for the second time in franchise history, losing to Michael Jordan's Chicago Bulls, 4 games to 2.[178] In 1997, the Phoenix Mercury were one of the original eight teams to launch the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). They also play at U.S. Airways Center. They have been to the WNBA championship series four times, losing in 1998 to the Houston Comets, before winning their first WNBA championship in 2007, when they defeated the Detroit Shock in five games.[179] They would repeat their championship in 2009, when they defeated the Indiana Fever,[180] and in 2014 when they swept the Chicago Sky.[181]

photo of major league baseball pitcher Randy Johnson on the mound, right after releasing a pitch to the plate, arm extended in front of him.
Randy Johnson pitching for the Arizona Diamondbacks

The Arizona Diamondbacks of Major League Baseball (National League West Division) began play as an expansion team in 1998. The team has played all of its home games in the same downtown park; originally called Bank One Ballpark (or "BOB" for short), in 2005 the stadium's name was changed to Chase Field.[182][183] It is the second highest stadium in the U.S. (after Coors Field in Denver), and is famous for its nationally known swimming pool beyond the outfield fence.[184] In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees 4 games to 3 in the World Series,[185] becoming the city's first professional sports franchise to win a national championship while located in Arizona. The win was also the fastest an expansion team had ever won the World Series, surpassing the old mark of the Florida Marlins of 5 years, set in 1997.[186]

The Arizona Cardinals are the oldest continuously run professional football franchise in the nation. They moved to Phoenix from St. Louis, Missouri in 1988 and currently play in the Western Division of the National Football League's National Football Conference. The Cardinals were founded in 1898 in Chicago, as the Morgan Athletic Club, and became known as the Cardinals shortly after, due to the color of their jerseys. Around the turn of the last century, they were known as the Racine Cardinals, and in 1920, they became a charter member of the American Professional Football League, which would eventually become the National Football League. Upon their move to Phoenix, the Cardinals originally played their home games at Sun Devil Stadium on the campus of Arizona State University in nearby Tempe. In 2006 they moved to the newly constructed University of Phoenix Stadium in suburban Glendale.[187] Since moving to Phoenix, the Cardinals have made one championship appearance, Super Bowl XLIII on February 1, 2009, where they lost 27-23 to the Pittsburgh Steelers.[188]

Jobing.com Arena satellite view

The Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League moved to the area in 1996,[189] formerly known as the Winnipeg Jets. They originally played their home games downtown at America West Arena before moving in December 2003 to the Jobing.com Arena, adjacent to University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale.[190]

Phoenix has an arena football team, the Arizona Rattlers of the Arena Football League. Games are played at U.S. Airways Center in downtown Phoenix. They won their first of five AFL championships in 1994; in 2014 they won their third championship in a row.[191]

The Greater Phoenix area is home to the Cactus League, one of two spring training leagues for Major League Baseball. With the move by the Colorado Rockies and the Arizona Diamondbacks to their new facility in Scottsdale, the league is entirely based in the Greater Phoenix area, as opposed to the Grapefruit League, which is spread throughout southern Florida. With the Cincinnati Reds' move to Goodyear, fifteen of MLB's thirty teams are now included in the Cactus League.[192]

The Phoenix International Raceway, was built in 1964 with a one-mile oval, with a one-of-a-kind design, as well as a 2.5-mile road course.[193] Today, "Phoenix International Raceway has a tradition that is unmatched in the world of racing."[194] It currently hosts several NASCAR events per season,[195][196] and the annual Fall NASCAR weekend, which includes events from four different NASCAR classes, is a huge event.[194] After thirty years of hosting various events, especially NHRA drag racing events, Firebird International Raceway (FIR) closed operations in 2013.[197] However, the NHRA negotiated a deal with the Gila River Indian Community (the owners of FIR) and re-opened the venue to NHRA events in 2014, under the new name, "Wild Horse Pass Motorsports Park".[198] Phoenix hosted the United States Grand Prix from 1989 to 1991. The race was discontinued after the 1991 edition due to poor attendance.[199]

photo of the University of Phoenix Stadium taken from the parking lot, showing the domed stadium against an overcast sky
University of Phoenix Stadium on the game day of Super Bowl XLII (February 3, 2008)

The Phoenix Marathon is a new addition to the city's sports scene, and is a qualifier for the Boston Marathon.[200] The Rock 'n' Roll Marathon series has held an event in Phoenix every January since 2004.[201]

Sun Devil Stadium held Super Bowl XXX in 1996 when the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Pittsburgh Steelers.[202] University of Phoenix Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3, 2008, in which the New York Giants defeated the New England Patriots.[203] The University of Phoenix Stadium will host Super Bowl XLIX in 2015.[204] The U.S. Airways Center hosted both the 1995 and the 2009 NBA All-Star Games.[205]

The Phoenix area is the site of two college football bowl games: the Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl, formerly known as the Insight Bowl, which was at Chase Field until 2005, after which it moved to Sun Devil Stadium;[206] and the Fiesta Bowl, played at the University of Phoenix Stadium.[207] The city is also host to several major professional golf events, including the LPGA's Founder's Cup[208] and, since 1932, The Phoenix Open of the PGA.[209]

Phoenix's Ahwatukee American Little League reached the 2006 Little League World Series as the representative from the U.S. West region.

Professional clubs

Club Sport League Venue Championships
Arizona Cardinals Football National Football League – NFC University of Phoenix Stadium 2*
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball – National League Chase Field 1
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association – Western Conference US Airways Center 0
Arizona Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League – Western Conference Jobing.com Arena 0
Phoenix Mercury Women's Basketball Women's National Basketball Association US Airways Center 4
Arizona Rattlers Arena Football Arena Football League US Airways Center 3
Arizona United SC Soccer USL Professional Division Peoria Sports Complex 0

*Note: The Cardinals won 2 of their championships while in Chicago, pre-modern era.

Semi-professional and amateur clubs

Club Sport League Venue Championships
Arizona Scorpions Basketball American Basketball Association Phoenix College 0
Arizona Derby Dames Banked Track Roller Derby Roller Derby Coalition of Leagues Hall of Dames 0

Parks and recreation[edit]

a view of the craggy tops of two small mountain peaks in the Phoenix Mountain preserve, with the city of Phoenix in the background.
Midtown Phoenix is visible to the left in this view from the Phoenix Mountain Preserve, December 2010.
Camelback Mountain

Phoenix is home to a large number of parks and recreation areas. The city of Phoenix includes national parks, county (Maricopa County) parks and city parks. Tonto National Forest forms part of the northeast boundary of the city, while the county has the largest park system in the country.[210] The city park system was established to preserve the desert landscape in areas that would otherwise have succumbed to development, and includes South Mountain Park, the world's largest municipal park with 16,500 acres (67 km2).[211] The city park system has 189 parks which contain over 33,000 acres, and has facilities for hiking, camping, swimming, horseback riding, cycling, and climbing.[212] Some of the other notable parks in the system are Camelback Mountain, Encanto Park (another large urban park) and Sunnyslope Mountain, also known as "S" Mountain.[213] Papago Park in east Phoenix is home to both the Desert Botanical Garden and the Phoenix Zoo, in addition to several golf courses and the Hole-in-the-Rock geological formation. The Desert Botanical Garden, which opened in 1939, is one of the few public gardens in the country dedicated to desert plants, and displays desert plant life from all over the world. The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned non-profit zoo in the United States, and is internationally known for its programs devoted to saving endangered species.[214]

In addition, many waterparks are scattered throughout the valley to help residents cope with the desert heat during the summer months. Some of the notable parks include Big Surf in Tempe, Wet 'n' Wild Phoenix in Phoenix, Golfland Sunsplash in Mesa, and the Oasis Water Park at the Arizona Grand Resort – formerly known as Pointe South Mountain Resort – in Phoenix. The area also has two small amusement parks, Castles N' Coasters in north Phoenix, next to the Metrocenter Mall and Enchanted Island located at Encanto Park.

Government[edit]

frontal view of the Arizona State Capitol, in winter, framed by the bare limbs of trees, showing the Arizona granite of the building topped by a copper dome
The Arizona State Capitol, which used to house the state legislature, is now a museum.

In 1913, Phoenix adopted a new form of government, switching from the mayor-council system to the council-manager system, making it one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government, where a strong city manager supervises all city departments and executes the policies adopted by the Council.[215][216]

The city council consists of a mayor and eight city council members. While the mayor is elected in a citywide election, Phoenix City Council members are elected by votes only in the districts they represent, with both the Mayor and the Council members serving four year terms.[217] The current mayor of Phoenix is Greg Stanton, a Democrat who was elected to a four-year term in 2011.[218] In setting city policy and passing rules and regulations, the mayor and city council members each have equal voting power.[217] The city's website was given a "Sunny Award" by Sunshine Review for its transparency efforts.[219][220]

State government facilities[edit]

photos showing the short obelisk signage showing City Hall, and topped with the seal of the city, a stylized maroon phoenix.  The semi-circular front of the building in the background, adorned with a stylized sunburst.
Phoenix City Hall, showing the city's logo, the phoenix bird

As the capital of Arizona, Phoenix houses the state legislature,[221] along with numerous state government agencies, many of which are located in the State Capitol district immediately west of downtown. The Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections operates the Adobe Mountain and Black Canyon Schools in Phoenix.[222] Another major state government facility is the Arizona State Hospital, operated by the Arizona Department of Health Services. This is a mental health center which is the only medical facility run by the state government.[223] The headquarters of numerous Arizona state government agencies are in Phoenix, with many located in the State Capitol district immediately west of downtown.

Federal government facilities[edit]

The Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) Phoenix which is in the city limits, near its northern boundary.[224]

The Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse, the U.S. District Court of Arizona, is located on Washington Street downtown. It is named in honor of retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, who was raised in Arizona.[225]

The Federal Building is at the intersection of Van Buren Road and First Avenue downtown, and contains various federal field offices and the local division of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court.[226] This building also formerly housed the U.S. District Court offices and courtrooms, but these were moved in 2001 to the new Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse. Before the construction of this building in 1961, federal government offices were housed in the historic U.S. Post Office on Central Avenue, completed in the 1930s.[227]

Crime[edit]

By the 1960s crime was becoming a significant problem in Phoenix, and by the 1970s crime continued to increase in the city at a faster rate than almost anywhere else in the country.[228] It was during this time frame when an incident occurred in Phoenix which would have national implications. On March 16, 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested and charged with the rape of an 18-year-old woman with mild intellectual disabilities.[229] The subsequent Supreme Court ruling on June 13, 1966, in the matter of Miranda v. Arizona, has led to practice in the United States of issuing a Miranda Warning to all suspected criminals.[230]

Arizona State Capitol Executive Tower DSC 2708 ad

By the mid 1970s, Phoenix was close to or at the top of the list for cities with the highest crime rate. The mayor during the mid-70s, Mayor Graham, introduced policies which raised Phoenix from near the bottom of the statistics regarding police officers per capita, to where it resided in the middle of the rankings. He also implemented other changes, including establishing a juvenile department within the police force. With Phoenix's rapid growth, it drew the attention of con men and racketeers, with one of the prime areas of activity being land fraud. The practice became so widespread that newspapers would refer to Phoenix as the Tainted Desert.[231]

These land frauds led to one of the more infamous murders in the history of the valley, when Arizona Republic writer Don Bolles was murdered by a car bomb at the Clarendon Hotel in 1976.[232][233] It was believed that his investigative reporting on organized crime and land fraud in Phoenix made him a target.[234] Bolles' last words referred to Phoenix land and cattle magnate Kemper Marley,[235] who was widely regarded to have ordered Bolles' murder, as well as John Harvey Adamson, who pleaded guilty to second-degree murder in 1977 in return for testimony against contractors Max Dunlap and James Robison.[236]

The trial gained national attention since Bolles was the only reporter from a major U.S. newspaper to be murdered on U.S. soil due to his coverage of a story, and led to reporters from all over the country descending on Phoenix to cover his murder.[234] Dunlap was convicted of first degree murder in the case in 1990 and remained in prison, until his death on July 21, 2009, while Robison was acquitted, but pleaded guilty to charges of soliciting violence against Adamson.[236] Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s. Despite continued improvements in the size of the police force and other anti-crime measures, the crime rate in Phoenix continued to grow, albeit at a lower growth rate than other southwestern cities.[237]

After seeing a peak in the early and mid 1990s, the city has seen a general decrease in both the violent and property crime rates. 1993 saw the creation of "Tent City," by Sheriff Joe Arpaio, using inmate labor, to alleviate overcrowding in the Maricopa County Jail system, the fourth-largest in the world.[47] The violent crime rate peaked in 1993 at 1146 crimes per 100,000 people, while the property crime rate peaked a few years earlier, in 1989, at 9,966 crimes per 100,000. In the most recent numbers from the FBI (2012), those rates currently stand at 637 and 4091, respectively. When compared to the other cities on the 10 most populated list, this ranks Phoenix 5th and 6th, respectively. Since their peak in 2003, murders have dropped from 241 to 123 in 2012. Assaults have also dropped from 7,800 in 1993 to 5,260 in 2012. In the 20 years since 1993, there have only been five years in which the violent crime rate has not declined.[238]

The year 2012 was an anomaly to the general downward trend in violent crime in Phoenix, with the rates for every single violent crime, except rape, showing an increase. The murder rate increased by 15.4% and aggravated assaults jumped by 27%, while rapes were down by 2%. However, the property crime rate returned to the downward trend begun in the 1990s, after a slight uptick in the previous two years. Vehicle thefts, which have been perceived as a major issue in the Valley of the Sun for decades, saw a continuation of a downward trend begun over a decade ago.[238] In 2001 Phoenix ranked first in the nation in vehicle thefts, with over 22,000 cars stolen that year.[239] That continued in 2002, when car thefts rose to over 25,000, a rate of over 1,825 thefts per 100,000 people. It has declined every year since then, and last year stood at just over 480, a drop of almost 75% in the decade. According to the "Hot Spots" report put out by the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), The Phoenix MSA has dropped to 70th in the nation in terms of car thefts in 2012.[240]

As the first decade of the new century came to a close, Arizona had become the gateway to the U.S. for drug trafficking. By 2009, seizures in Arizona amounted for approximately half of all Marijuana captured along the U.S.-Mexican border.[241] Another crime issue related to the drug trade are kidnappings. In the late 2000s, Phoenix earned the title "Kidnapping capital of the USA".[242] The majority of the kidnapped are believed to be victims of human smuggling, or related to illegal drug trade, while the kidnappers are believed to be part of Mexican drug cartels, particularly the Sinaloa cartel.[241]

Education[edit]

Public education in the Phoenix area is provided by 29 school districts. There are 21 elementary school districts, which contain over 215 elementary schools, and they are paired with 4 high school districts, which have a total of 31 high schools serving Phoenix. Three of the high school districts (Glendale Union, Tempe Union and Tolleson Union) only partially serve Phoenix. With over 27,000 students, and spread over 220 square miles, The Phoenix Union High School District is one of the largest high school districts in the country, containing 16 schools and nearly 3,000 employees.[243] In addition there are 4 unified districts, which cover grades K-12, which add an additional 58 elementary schools and 4 high schools to Phoenix's educational system. Of those four, only the Paradise Valley district completely serves Phoenix.[244] Phoenix is also served by an expanding number of charter schools, with over 30 currently operating in the city.[245]

photo of the campus of Arizona State University, taken from a high angle from the top of Tempe Butte, looking down on the campus nestled among the city buildings
The campus of ASU from Tempe Butte in nearby Tempe

Post-secondary education[edit]

Arizona State University is the main institution of higher education in the region. Its main campus is in Tempe. ASU also has campuses in northwest Phoenix (ASU West Campus), downtown Phoenix (ASU Downtown Campus) and Mesa (ASU Polytechnic Campus).[246]

A branch of the University of Arizona College of Medicine is located near ASU's downtown Phoenix campus.[247] ASU is currently one of the largest public universities in the U.S., with a 2011 student enrollment of 72,250.[248] There is also a small satellite campus for Northern Arizona University (based in Flagstaff) located in Phoenix.[249]

The Maricopa County Community College District includes ten community colleges and two skills centers throughout Maricopa County, providing adult education and job training. Phoenix College, part of the district, was founded in 1920 and is the oldest community college in Arizona and one of the oldest in the country.[250]

The city is also home to numerous other institutions of higher learning. Some of the more notable are:

photo of the administrative building of the Thunderbird School of Global Management, featuring the historical control tower from the 1940s airfield on which it was built.
Thunderbird control tower-Thunderbird School of Global Management

Media[edit]

The first newspaper in Phoenix was the weekly Salt River Valley Herald, established in 1878, which would change its name the following year to the Phoenix Herald. The paper would go through several additional name changes in its early years before finally settling on the Phoenix Herald, which still exists today in an on-line form.[257] Today, the city is served by two major daily newspapers: The Arizona Republic, which along with its online entity, azcentral.com, serves the greater metropolitan area; and the East Valley Tribune, which primarily serves the cities of the East Valley.[258][259] The Jewish News of Greater Phoenix is an independent weekly newspaper established in 1948. In addition, the city is also served by numerous free neighborhood papers and weeklies such as the Phoenix New Times, and Arizona State University's The State Press.[260]

The Phoenix metro area is served by many local television stations and is the largest designated market area (DMA) in the Southwest, and the 12th largest in the U.S., with over 1.8 million homes (1.6% of the total U.S.).[261] The major network television affiliates are KNXV 15 (ABC), KPHO 5 (CBS), KPNX 12 (NBC), KSAZ 10 (Fox), KASW 61 (The CW), KUTP 45 (MyNetworkTV), and KAET 8 (PBS, operated by Arizona State University). Other network television affiliates operating in the area include KPAZ 21 (TBN), KTVW-DT 33 (Univision), KTAZ 39 (Telemundo), KDPH 48 (Daystar), and KPPX-TV 51 (ION). KTVK 3 (3TV) and KAZT 7 (AZ-TV) are independent television stations operating in the metro area.

Many major feature films and television programs have been filmed in the city. The radio airwaves in Phoenix cater to a wide variety of musical and talk radio interests.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

aerial view of Sky Harbor airport, showing the spoke structure of the terminals and gates, with the spike of the control tower toward the lower left of the picture.
An aerial view of the control tower at Phoenix Sky Harbor that began operations on January 17, 2007.

Phoenix is served by Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHXICAO: KPHX), one of the ten busiest airports in the United States, serving over 110,000 people on over 1000 flights per day.[262] The airport is centrally located in the metro area near several major freeway interchanges east of downtown Phoenix. The airport serves more than 100 cities with non-stop flights.[263]

Aeroméxico, Air Canada, British Airways, and WestJet are among several international carriers as well as American carrier US Airways (which maintains a hub at the airport) providing flights to destinations such as Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, and London.[264]

The Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: IWA, ICAO: KIWA) in neighboring Mesa also serves the area's commercial air traffic. It was converted from Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. The airport has recently received substantial commercial service with Allegiant Air opening a hub operation at the airport with non-stop service to over a dozen destinations, as well as Frontier Airlines and Spirit Air also operating out of the airport.[265]

Smaller airports that primarily handle private and corporate jets include Phoenix Deer Valley Airport, located in the Deer Valley district of north Phoenix, and Scottsdale Airport, located just east of the Phoenix/Scottsdale border. There are also other municipal airports including Glendale Municipal Airport, Falcon Field Airport[266] in Mesa, and Phoenix Goodyear Airport.

Rail and bus[edit]

front view of the southwestern architecture of the closed Union railroad station in Phoenix, surrounded by a chain link fence
Union Station Phoenix – 2009

Amtrak served Phoenix Union Station until 1996 when the Union Pacific Railroad (UP) threatened to abandon the route between Yuma, Arizona and Phoenix.[267] Amtrak rerouted trains to Maricopa, 30 miles south of downtown Phoenix, where passengers can board the Texas Eagle (Los Angeles-San Antonio-Chicago) and Sunset Limited (Los Angeles-New Orleans).[268][269] Though UP ultimately retained the trackage, Amtrak did not return, leaving Phoenix as the most populated city in the U.S. without passenger Amtrak service, although the station is still there (see photo).

Amtrak Thruway buses connect Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport to Flagstaff, Arizona for connection with the Los Angeles-Chicago Southwest Chief.[270] Phoenix is also served by Greyhound bus service, which stops at 24th Street near the airport.[271]

Public transportation[edit]

photo of streamlined light rail car pulling into a station
Phoenix light rail station – 2009

Valley Metro provides public transportation throughout the metropolitan area, with its trains, buses, and a ride-share program. 3.38% of workers commute by public transit. During the summer it is very difficult to wait for a bus in the heat as many of the stops have no canopies. Valley Metro's 20-mile (32 km) light rail project, called METRO, through north-central Phoenix, downtown, and eastward through Tempe and Mesa, opened December 27, 2008. Future rail segments of more than 30 miles (48 km) are planned to open by 2030.[272]

Bicycle transportation[edit]

The Maricopa Association of Governments has a bicycle advisory committee working to improve conditions for bicycling on city streets and off-road paths.[273] Bicycling Magazine ranked Phoenix the 15th most bicycle friendly city of fifty cities in the United States with a population greater than 100,000.[274]

Roads and freeways[edit]

Phoenix auto traffic depends on both surface streets and freeways. Freeways fall under the auspices of the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). Phoenix ranks first in the nation in the quality of its urban freeways, and the state as a whole ranks first in the nation in the quality of bridges.[275] While being the sixth most populous city in the nation, Phoenix's freeways do not suffer from the same type of congestion seen in other large cities. In fact, in a recent study, there is not a single stretch of freeway in Phoenix ranked in the 100 worst freeways for either congestion or unreliability.[276]

photo showing the multiple levels of roadways at the interchange between Interstates ten and seventeen, called "the stack" in downtown Phoenix at night.
The Stack (Interstates 10 and 17) interchange at night in 2012

Part of the reason for this is the extensive freeway system in the city, due to the majority of that system being funded by local, rather than federal funds, through a ½ cent general sales tax measure approved by voters in 1985. Another offshoot of this local funding is that Phoenix is the largest city in the United States to have two Interstate Highways and no 3-digit interstates.[277]

As of 2005, the metropolitan area of Phoenix contains one of the nation's largest and fastest growing freeway systems, boasting over 1,405 lane miles.[278] The freeway system is a mix of Interstate, U.S., and State highways which include Interstate 10, Interstate 17, US 60, SR 51, Loop 101, Loop 202, SR 51, SR 143, and SR 30. There are still major additions to routes 101, 202 and 303 underway, as well as several other smaller projects around the valley.[279] State Routes 30, 87, 85, and 74 connect Phoenix with other areas of the Valley and Arizona.[280]

The street system in Phoenix (and some of its suburbs) is laid out in a grid system, with most roads oriented either north-south or east-west, and the zero point of the grid being the intersection of Central Avenue and Washington Street.[280] The original plan was for the east-west streets to be named after presidents, with the north-south streets named after Indians, however the north-south streets were quickly changed to numbers, with avenues running to west of Central, and streets to its east.[8] Major arterial streets are spaced one mile (1.6 km) apart, divided into smaller blocks approximately every 1/8 of a mile. For example, Scottsdale Road, being the 7200 block, lies 9 miles to the east of Central Avenue (72 / 8).[280]

Freeways and state highways in Phoenix:[280]

Utilities[edit]

picture of a straight blue ribbon of water, the canal, running through the desert, from a vantage point of one of the mountains surrounding the city.
Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal

Being located in the desert, Phoenix relies on a water supply delivered to the city via a system of canals which divert water from the region's rivers and lakes, with the largest portion of the city's water coming from the Colorado River through the Central Arizona Project's canal.[281] The city's electrical needs are served primarily by Arizona Public Service, although some customers receive their electricity from the Salt River Project (SRP). The main sources of electrical generation are nuclear, and coal power plants. Arizona is home to the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Station, the largest nuclear generating facility in the United States. SRP is also the largest water provider in Phoenix.[282]

Health care[edit]

In 2011 (the last year for which information is available), Phoenix had a slightly younger population than the country as a whole. While the United States had 13.3% of its population over the age of 65, Phoenix's percentage stood significantly lower, at 8.1%. Phoenix's percentage of 18.8% in the next age group, 45–64 was also a great deal lower than the national average of 26.6%. This results in 73% of Phoenix's population being 44 or younger, as compared to national percentage of 60.[283]

In 2010 (the last year for nationally reported figures), Phoenix was at or below national levels for most reportable diseases, with the exception of both hepatitis A and B, where they were slightly over the national average (0.8 and 1.8 to 0.5 and 1.1%, respectively).[284]

Maricopa Medical Center

In most major categories, Phoenix had a lower incidence of death than the rest of the nation. Only deaths due to Alzheimer's (29.7 to 27.2 deaths per 100,000) and pre-natal conditions (5.3 to 3.8 deaths per 100,000) were slightly above the national average. Deaths due to HIV and liver disease were exactly at the national average of 2.5 and 10.8 respectively. However, in several major categories, Phoenix had significantly lower indices of death: deaths by cancer stood at only 57% (106) of the national average of 184.6 deaths per 100,000; deaths due to heart disease, 56.1% of the national rate of 249.8 per 100,000.[285] Cancer and heart disease were the two top causes of death in the country.[286]

Low weight births (7.5%) were below the national average of 8.1%, yet infant mortality (7.2%) was higher than the rest of the U.S. (6.1%). Births to teen mothers were significantly higher than the rest of the country, sitting at 12.2% as compared to 8.4% nationally.[283]

The Phoenix metropolitan area is serviced by 56 hospitals and medical centers.[287] Some of the top ranked are:

  • The Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical practice and medical research group based in Rochester, Minnesota. Phoenix is one of two other locations with Mayo Clinics (the other being Jacksonville, Florida).[288] It is the first and largest integrated not-for-profit medical group practice in the world; Mayo Clinic has been near the top of the U.S. News & World Report List of "Best Hospitals" for more than 20 years.[289]
  • St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center is part of Dignity Health (formerly Catholic Healthcare West), one of the largest healthcare systems in the western United States. St. Joseph's is a not-for-profit hospital with special advocacy for the poor and underserved.
  • John C. Lincoln North Mountain Hospital is a general medical and surgical hospital, which performed nearly at the level of nationally ranked U.S. News Best Hospitals in 4 adult specialties.[290]
  • Phoenix Children's Hospital in Phoenix, AZ is nationally ranked in 5 pediatric specialties according to U.S. News & World Report. It is a 425-bed children's teaching hospital.[291]
  • Arizona Heart Institute, opened in 1971, is known internationally as one of the first freestanding outpatient clinics dedicated exclusively to cardiovascular health.[292]
  • Banner Health is a non-profit health system in the United States, based in Phoenix. It operates 23 hospitals as well as specialized facilities. The health system is the 2nd largest employer in Arizona, behind Walmart, employing more than 35,000.[293] Banner Health was created in 1999 through a merger of Lutheran Health Systems, based in North Dakota, and Samaritan Health System, based in Phoenix. Of the top 10 rated hospitals in the city (top 12 in the state), 4 are Banner hospitals.[294]
  • Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center is the world's largest dedicated neurosurgical center and a leader in neurosurgical training, research, and patient care.[251] More operative neurosurgical procedures take place at BNI than at any other institution in the United States.[251]

Other top hospitals in the area are the two Scottsdale Healthcare Centers, Chandler Regional Medical Center, and Mercy Gilbert Medical Center.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

photo of signpost with ten signs pointing in the direction of Phoenix's sister cities, stating their names and distances from Phoenix.
Sign showing Phoenix's sister cities

With the creation of the Phoenix Sister Cities (PSC) organization in 1972, Phoenix became a member of the international Sister City movement. It would take the organization several years to become official, not filing for Articles of Incorporation until 1975, and not entering into their first Sister City agreement until 1976, with Hermosillo, Mexico.[295] The organization's mission statement states their purpose is to "... create people-to-people relationships between the residents of Phoenix and its sister cities through commercial, educational, cultural and artistic exchange programs and events that create and sustain global, long-term, international partnerships and business opportunities for the citizens of Phoenix."[296] Currently, Phoenix has ten sister cities, as designated by the Phoenix Sister Cities Commission and Sister Cities International, shown in the table below.[297] Phoenix and Prague have shared a Capital Cities relationship since May 1991, which was expanded to Sister City Status in 2013.[298]


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Since Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX) opened, the earliest and latest freezes recorded there are November 3, 1946 and April 4, 1945, respectively. However, as the official Phoenix climatology station was changed to PHX in October 1953, those records are not considered official.
  2. ^ Official records for Phoenix kept at downtown August 1895 to September 1953, and at Sky Harbor Int'l since October 1953. For more information see ThreadEx.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Feature Detail Report for: Phoenix". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  3. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  4. ^ "Phoenix QuickFacts from US Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 11, 2012. 
  5. ^ Census: Phoenix-area population tops 4.3 million, moves up metro rankings – Phoenix Business Journal. Bizjournals.com (March 14, 2013). Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
  6. ^ People in Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale Metro Area, Arizona. Bestplaces.net. Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
  7. ^ "County and City Data Book: 2007" (14 ed.). U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. p. 712. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "History of Phoenix". City of Phoenix. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Farming and Ranching". arizonaexperience.org. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  10. ^ "A Short History of South Phoenix from 1865 to the early 1930's". barriozona. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "The Five C's – An Arizona History Lesson". azsos.gov. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d e "Growing into a Metropolis". The Natural American. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Why Phoenix?". Growth Nation. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  14. ^ Trimble, Marshall (1988). Arizoniana. American Traveler Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-885590-89-3. 
  15. ^ "The Hohokam". Arizona Museum of Natural History. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  16. ^ Trimble 1988, p. 105.
  17. ^ "Xalychidom Piipaash (Maricopa) People". Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Maricopa Tribe". Access Genealogy. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  19. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2012). The Encyclopedia of the Mexican-American War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 255. 
  20. ^ Joan Fudala (2001). Historic Scottsdale: A Life from the Land. HPN Books. p. 28. 
  21. ^ "Tempe History Timeline". Tempe.gov. Archived from the original on January 5, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Phoenix Valley History". The Natural American. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Phoenix: History". City-Data.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c "This Day in Arizona History". AZ100Years.org. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "Phoenix History". Hello Phoenix. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  26. ^ "1935 and The Farm – Sky Harbor's Early Years and Memories". skyharbor.com. August 30, 1930. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Scottsdale Airport History". scottsdaleaz.gov. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  28. ^ Manning, Thomas A. (2005). History of Air Education and Training Command, 1942–2002. Randolph AFB, Texas: Office of History and Research, Headquarters, AETC. ISBN 978-1-178-48983-5. 
  29. ^ Elizabeth Tandy Shermer, Sunbelt Capitalism: Phoenix and the Transformation of American Politics (2013) ch 1
  30. ^ "20th Century". Arizona Edventures. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Phoenix Corporate Center". Emporis. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Phoenix City Square". Emporis. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  33. ^ "The Phoenix Financial Center a.k.a. Western Savings and Loan". ModernPhoenix.net. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Suns Timeline". NBA.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Season Review 68–69". NBA.com. p. 122. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Season Review 92–93". NBA.com. p. 170. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  37. ^ "CAP Your Water. Your Future". cap-az.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  38. ^ "History of the Diocese of Phoenix". The Roman Catholic Diocese of Phoenix. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  39. ^ Luckingham, Bradford (1989). Phoenix: The History of a Southwestern Metropolis. University of Arizona Press. pp. 235–7. ISBN 0-8165-1116-0. 
  40. ^ "Symphony Hall — a perfect harmony between event and venue". Phoenix Convention Center. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  41. ^ "Chase Tower". Emporis. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  42. ^ "First Woman to Supreme Court". History Central. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Arizona Centennial". The Arizona Republic/AZCentral.com. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  44. ^ "Arizona Centennial". The Arizona Republic/AZCentral.com. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  45. ^ "John C. Lincoln Timeline – 1990s". John C. Lincoln Health Network. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  46. ^ "Phoenix City Hall". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  47. ^ a b c d e "Timeline: 1980–2010". The Arizona Republic/AZCentral.com. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  48. ^ Woolsey, Matt (October 31, 2007). "In Pictures: America's Fastest-Growing Cities from". Forbes. Retrieved June 30, 2010. 
  49. ^ Myers, Amanda Lee (April 10, 2008). "Feds OK naming Phoenix peak for soldier". USA Today. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  50. ^ Snow, Mary; Acosta, Jim (February 17, 2009). "Obama expected to announce foreclosure plan". CNN. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  51. ^ Trulsson, Nora Burba (March 2005). "Phoenix Rising". Sunset: 27. 
  52. ^ a b c "Geography of Phoenix". How Stuff Works. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  53. ^ a b "Facts about Phoenix, Arizona". Phoenix-Arizona.com. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  54. ^ "Phoenix Mountain Overview". summitpost.org. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  55. ^ "Phoenix (city) QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  56. ^ "Philadelphia (city) Quickfacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  57. ^ "Arizona does not need daylight saving time – Arizona Daily Star.'". Web.archive.org. September 29, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  58. ^ Phoenix General Plan Update: Transitioning to a Sustainable Future. Phoenix.gov. December 2010. p. 1. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  59. ^ "Village Planning Committees". Phoenix City Government. Retrieved January 9, 2007. 
  60. ^ "The Village Planning Handbook" (PDF). City of Phoenix. Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  61. ^ a b "Collier Center". Collier Center of Phoenix. Retrieved September 12, 2012. [dead link]
  62. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  63. ^ "Climatology of heat in the southwest". National Weather Service. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  64. ^ NWS Upton, NY. Retrieved 2014-05-24
  65. ^ Dorish, Joe. "10 All-Time Hottest Weather Temperature Days in Phoenix". Knoji. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  66. ^ Sirois, Kevin, ed. (2012). Insider's Guide: Phoenix & Scottsdale (7th ed.). Morris Book Publishing. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7627-7321-3. 
  67. ^ "Community Profile". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  68. ^ "Phoenix Monsoon Facts". phoenix.about.com. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  69. ^ "Sweeping Dust Storm in Arizona History". Research History. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  70. ^ "Haboob Blasts Through Phoenix Area". The Weather Channel. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Southwest Flooding: Flash Flooding Near Las Vegas Damages Highways; 2 Killed in Tucson Area". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  72. ^ "Wettest Day on Record in Phoenix, Flooding Leaves 2 Dead". NBC News. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  73. ^ "Record amount of rainfall floods Phoenix as Hurricane Norbert remnants soak Southwest". FOX News. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Frost in the Valley of the Sun". The University of Arizona. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  75. ^ "Frost Protection". The University of Arizona. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  76. ^ "A history of snow fall in Phoenix". NOAA. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  77. ^ Haldiman, Philip (December 30, 2010). "Phoenix-area residents report snow falling across Valley". Azcentral.com. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  78. ^ Volentine, Jason (February 20, 2013). "Was that snow in Phoenix?". Azfamily.com. Retrieved February 21, 2013. 
  79. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PHOENIX/SKY HARBOR INTL, AZ 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  80. ^ "Monthly Averages for Phoenix, AZ – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  81. ^ "The Wildlife of the Phoenix Mountain Preserves". phoenix.gov. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  82. ^ "Living With Wildlife – Arizona Wildlife". Arizona Game and Fish Department. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  83. ^ "Arizona – Flora and fauna". city-data.com. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  84. ^ "Common Snakes of the Phoenix Area". Phoenix Snake Removal. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  85. ^ "Sonoran Desert Region Flora – Maricopa County". Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  86. ^ "Natural Vegetation of Arizona". University of Arizona Library. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  87. ^ Radamaker, Kurt A.; Corman, Troy E. (September 15, 2011). "Status of the Rosy-faced Lovebird in Phoenix, Arizona". Arizona Field Ornithologists. Retrieved September 4, 2014. 
  88. ^ Clark, Greg. "Peach-faced Lovebird Range Expansion Data in Greater Phoenix, Arizona Area". Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  89. ^ a b "Phoenix (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  90. ^ Moffatt, Riley (1996). Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow. p. 14. 
  91. ^ Van Velzer, Ryan. "Census estimates show sharp drop in Arizona's population growth". Tucson Sentinel. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  92. ^ El Nasser, Haya. "Most major U.S. cities show population declines". US Today. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  93. ^ a b "Arizona Statistics: Taking a Look at Census 2010". phoenix.about.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  94. ^ a b "Large Metropolitan Statistical Areas—Population: 1990 to 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  95. ^ Cox, Wendell. "Phoenix Population Counts Lower than Expected". newgeography.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  96. ^ Cox, Wendell. "Phoenix Population Counts Lower than Expected". newgeography.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  97. ^ "Megaregions". america2050. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  98. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  99. ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS: 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  100. ^ "Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  101. ^ "State & County QuickFacts - Phoenix (city), Arizona". United States Census Bureau. 
  102. ^ a b c d "Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  103. ^ a b From 15% sample
  104. ^ "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES: 2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  105. ^ "2010 U.S. Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study.". The Association of Religious Data Archives. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  106. ^ Luckingham & 1989 p.74.
  107. ^ a b VanderMeer & 2010 p.32.
  108. ^ Luckingham & 1989 pp.74-76.
  109. ^ Luckingham & 1989 p.76.
  110. ^ "History of Arizona – Ed A. Tovrea". Tovrea Castle. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  111. ^ Luckingham & 1989 p.79.
  112. ^ VanderMeer & 2010 p.44.
  113. ^ a b Luckingham & 1989 p.86.
  114. ^ Luckingham & 1989 p.88.
  115. ^ a b "GDP by Metropolitan Area". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  116. ^ VanderMeer & 2010 p.79.
  117. ^ Luckingham & 1989 p.102.
  118. ^ "Levittown: the Archetype for Suburban Development". American History Magazine. October 2007. 
  119. ^ "The History of Sun City". sunaz.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  120. ^ Vest, Marshall J. (January 2009). "Economic Outlook for 2009–2010: Riding Out the Storm". Arizona's Economy (Eller College of Management) (Winter): 2. 
  121. ^ Hammond, George W. (January 2014). "Still in a Hole, But Making Progress: Fourth Quarter Forecast Update". Arizona's Economy (Eller College of Management) (Winter): 1. 
  122. ^ "If you liked 2013, you'll probably enjoy 2014". ArizonaEconomy.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  123. ^ Hammond 2014, p. 3.
  124. ^ Hammond 2014, p. 1.
  125. ^ "Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ: Nonfarm employment and labor force data". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  126. ^ "May 2012 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates: Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  127. ^ "Arizona Economic Indicators". Eller College of Management. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  128. ^ "Unemployment Rates for States Monthly Rankings Seasonally Adjusted Dec. 2013". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  129. ^ "Avnet – About Us". avnet.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  130. ^ "Freeport-McMoRan – Who We Are". fcx.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  131. ^ "PetSmart Company Information". PetSmart. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  132. ^ "Fortune 500 2012: States: Arizona". Money.cnn.com. May 21, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  133. ^ "Tim Mahoney, President & CEO". aerospace.honeywll.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  134. ^ "Intel in Arizona". Intel.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  135. ^ "Contact Us." Mesa Air Group. Retrieved on January 30, 2009.
  136. ^ McCoy, Mathew G. (2003). "Base Instinct: Phoenix and the Fight Over Luke Field, 1946–1948". Military History of the West 35: 57–76. 
  137. ^ "Phoenix Consulates". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  138. ^ "Phoenix Chambers". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  139. ^ "Symphony Hall". phoenix.about.com. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  140. ^ "$5.2M Arizona Opera Center". frontdoor news. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  141. ^ "Phoenix Opera". phoenixopera.org. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  142. ^ "2013–14 Season". iTheatre Collaborative. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  143. ^ "About Herberger Theater Center". herbergertheater.org. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  144. ^ "ASU Gammage from the beginning". Arizona State University. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  145. ^ "Phoenix Theatre". phoenix-theater.com. Retrieved February 16, 2014. 
  146. ^ "Phoenix Museums". phoenix.org. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  147. ^ "History & Mission". phxart.org. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  148. ^ "Phoenix Art Museum". VisitPhoenix. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  149. ^ "Phoenix Art Museum – Permanent Collection". phoenix.about.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  150. ^ "Major Metro Phoenix Area Museums". phoenixasap.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  151. ^ "AZ Challenger Space Center". Azchallenger.org. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  152. ^ "Heard Museum: Welcome". Heard Museum. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  153. ^ Frank, Patrick (2011). Prebles' ARTFORMS. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-205-79753-9. 
  154. ^ Herberholz, B (1997). "Taliesin West and Frank Lloyd Wright". Arts and Activities 122 (3): 30-32. 
  155. ^ Towne, Douglas (December 2010). "Phoenix in the 1920s". PHOENIX magazine: 88. 
  156. ^ a b c "About Phoenix- Fun Facts". visitphoenix.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  157. ^ "Facts about Phoenix, Arizona". Phoenix-Arizona.com. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  158. ^ "2012 Arizona Domestic Overnight Visitors by Region". Arizona Office of Tourism. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  159. ^ "Stats & Facts". Visit Phoenix. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  160. ^ "History of the Zoo". The Phoenix Zoo. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  161. ^ "About the Garden". Desert Botanical Garden. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  162. ^ "Desert Botanical Garden". About.com. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  163. ^ "13 must-see botanical gardens". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  164. ^ "South Mountain Park and Preserve". Discover Phoenix Arizona. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  165. ^ "Phoenix Points of Pride". City of Phoenix. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  166. ^ "Annual Phoenix Events". Discover Phoenix. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  167. ^ "Heritage & Cultural". Arizona Guide. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  168. ^ "50th Scottish Gathering & Highland Games". The Caledonian Society of Arizona. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  169. ^ "11th Annual Polish Festival". PolishFestivalAZ.org. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  170. ^ "Estrella War XXX: Newcomer's Guide". EstrellaWar.org. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  171. ^ "Stockyards Steakhouse". stockyardssteakhouse.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  172. ^ "Monti's". montis.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  173. ^ "History". Macayo's. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  174. ^ "Phoenix Restaurants by Cuisine Type". phoenixrestaurants.com. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  175. ^ a b "McDonald Brothers". Around Arizona. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  176. ^ "The Suns Rise in Phoenix". NBA.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  177. ^ "A Storybook Season". NBA.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  178. ^ "1993 Retrospective". NBA.com. Retrieved March 29, 2014. 
  179. ^ "Mercury History". Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  180. ^ "Phoenix Mercury, 2009 WNBA Champions". WNBA.com. Retrieved March 29, 2014. 
  181. ^ "Mercury finish sweep of Sky for third WNBA title". WNBA.com. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  182. ^ "ARIZONA GRANTED MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL FRANCHISE". Arizona Diamondbacks. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  183. ^ "Bank One Ballpark". JDBaseball. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  184. ^ "Bank One Ballpark / Chase Field". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  185. ^ "2001 World Series". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  186. ^ "Diamondbacks win World Series". cbcsports. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  187. ^ "Franchise History". Arizona Cardinals. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  188. ^ "Alone On Top". The National Football League. Retrieved March 29, 2014. 
  189. ^ "Phoenix Coyotes Historical Moments". sportsecyclopedia.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  190. ^ "Team History". NHL.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  191. ^ "Champion Arizona Rattlers to parade through Phoenix". azcentral.com. Retrieved September 10, 2014. 
  192. ^ "Sun, scenery, history mark Spring Training baseball in Arizona, Florida". MLB. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  193. ^ "Timeline". phoenixraceway.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  194. ^ a b "Phoenix International Raceway History". FoxSports. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  195. ^ "Phoenix International Raceway Schedule". NASCAR.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  196. ^ "Mexico Series returning to Phoenix in 2014". NASCAR.com. February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  197. ^ McMacken, Marcy (January 3, 2013). "Firebird Raceway closing down; drag racing possible in 2014". azfamily.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  198. ^ "Wild Horse Pass Motorsports Park and NHRA Drag Racing". racewildhorse.com. Retrieved 14 February. 
  199. ^ Indianapolis Monthly (June 2004) p. 40
  200. ^ "BMO Harris Bank Announces Multi-Year Sponsorship of The Phoenix Marathon". marketwatch. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  201. ^ "Events". competitorgroup.com. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  202. ^ "Super Bowl XXX". onpointevents.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  203. ^ "Super Bowl XLII: Giants 17 Patriots 14; Road Warrior Giants Bring It Home". ihavenet.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  204. ^ Klemko, Robert (October 11, 2011). "Arizona, not Tampa, will host Super Bowl XLIX in 2015". USA Today. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  205. ^ "NBA All-Star Game History". NBA.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  206. ^ "Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl". football-bowl.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  207. ^ "Fiesta Bowl". fiestabowl.org. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  208. ^ "LPGA Vision for Founders Cup Now Long-Term Reality". LPGA. November 4, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  209. ^ "Waste Management Phoenix Open". wmphoenixopen.com. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  210. ^ Sirois 2012, page 195
  211. ^ Sirois 2012, page 201
  212. ^ "Parks and Recreation: About Us". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 
  213. ^ Sirois 2012, page 196
  214. ^ Sirois 2012, page 147
  215. ^ "Establishing a Council-Manager Government". City of Phoenix. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  216. ^ VanderMeer 2010, p. 73.
  217. ^ a b "Official Site of the City of Phoenix- About the Phoenix City Council". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  218. ^ "Official website of the City of Phoenix- Mayor Home". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  219. ^ "City of Phoenix, City Web Site Recognized for Transparency in Government Information, April 8, 2010". Phoenix.gov. April 8, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  220. ^ "2010 Sunny Awards". ballotpedia.org. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  221. ^ "Member Roster". Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  222. ^ "Safe Schools/Secure Facilities." Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections. Retrieved on August 13, 2010.
  223. ^ "Arizona State Hospital Stats & Services". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  224. ^ "FCI Phoenix". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  225. ^ "Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse". United States District Court, District of Arizona. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  226. ^ "United States Federal Building and Courthouse". emporis.com. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  227. ^ "Federal Building-U.S. Post Office, Phoenix, AZ". U.S. General Services Administration. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  228. ^ VanderMeer 2010, p. 252.
  229. ^ "Ernesto Miranda, AKA Ernesto Arturo Miranda". NNDB. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  230. ^ "History of Miranda Warning". mirandawarning.org. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  231. ^ VanderMeer 2010, pp. 252-3.
  232. ^ Vandermeer 2010, p. 253.
  233. ^ Luckingham 1989, pp. 211-2.
  234. ^ a b "Journalism students revisit the death of Don Bolles". Arizona Republic/azcentral.com. March 28, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  235. ^ Fitzpatrick, Tom (February 10, 1993). "The Bolles Trial Goes Into Reruns". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  236. ^ a b "Key players in the Bolles' case". Arizona Republic/azcentral.com. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  237. ^ VanderMeer 2010, p. 323.
  238. ^ a b "Uniform Crime Reports". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  239. ^ "Auto Theft, Key Facts". Insurance Information Institute. June 2002. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  240. ^ "Hot Spots 2012". NICB. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  241. ^ a b "Phoenix Number Two Kidnapping Capital as Drug Cartel Wars Intensify". Drug Addiction Treatment. January 28, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  242. ^ "Kidnapping Capital of the U.S.A.". February 11, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 
  243. ^ "Welcome to the Phoenix Union High School District". Phoenix High School. Retrieved April 5, 2014. 
  244. ^ "School Districts in Phoenix". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  245. ^ "Charter Schools in Phoenix". EOT.org. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  246. ^ "Arizona State University: Home". Arizona State University. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  247. ^ "College of Medicine, Phoenix". University of Arizona. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  248. ^ a b "Top 500 Ranked Colleges – Highest Total Enrollment". StateUniversity.com. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  249. ^ "NAU Phoenix Campus". Northern Arizona University. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  250. ^ "Discover PC". Phoenix College. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  251. ^ a b c Lochhead, RA; Abla, AA; Mitha, AP; Fusco, D; Almefty, K; Sanai, N; Oppenlander, ME; Albuquerque, FC (July 2010). "A history of the Barrow Neurological Institute". World Neurosurgery. 74(1): 71–80. 
  252. ^ "About Grand Canyon University". Grand Canyon University. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  253. ^ Ledbetter, Tammi Reed (February 10, 2004). "Grand Canyon Univ. sold; trustees in advisory role". Baptist Press. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  254. ^ "Grand Canyon University". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  255. ^ "About Thunderbird School of Global Management". BusinessWeek. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  256. ^ "Phoenix School of Law Announces New Name: Arizona Summit Law School". Arizona Summit Law School. November 4, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  257. ^ "About Salt River herald". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  258. ^ "The Arizona Republic Online". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  259. ^ "East Valley Tribune". The East Valley Tribune. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  260. ^ "Arizona Newspapers". USNPL. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  261. ^ "Nielsen Reports 1.3% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2007–2008 Season." Nielsen Media Research. (September 22, 2007) Retrieved on March 3, 2008.
  262. ^ "Airport Facts". skyharbor.com. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  263. ^ "Where We Fly". skyharbor.com. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  264. ^ "Sky Harbor International Destinations". Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  265. ^ Holland, Catherine (August 21, 2012). "Allegiant Air, Gateway: Aloha, passengers to Honolulu". azfamily.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  266. ^ http://www.mesaaz.gov/falcon_field/
  267. ^ "Arizona Transit Association". Azta.org. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  268. ^ "Amtrak's Texas Eagle | Maricopa, AZ". Texaseagle.com. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  269. ^ "Phoenix, AZ". TrainWeb.org. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  270. ^ "Amtrak's Southwest Chief". TrainWeb.org. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  271. ^ "Greyhound, Phoenix AZ". Greyhound. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  272. ^ "Current Valley Metro Projects". Valley Metro. Retrieved February 26, 2014. 
  273. ^ "Bicycle and Pedestrian Committee". Maricopa Association of Governments. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  274. ^ "America's Most Bicycle-Friendly Cities | Bicycling Magazine". Bicycling.com. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  275. ^ Hartgen, Ph.D., P.E., David T.; Fields, M. Gregory (July 2013). 20th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems. Reason Foundation. 
  276. ^ Eisele, Bill; Schrank, David; Lomax, Tim (November 2011). TTI's 2011 CONGESTED CORRIDORS REPORT. Texas A&M-Texas Transportation Institute. 
  277. ^ "Auxiliary Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved February 26, 2014. 
  278. ^ Artibise, Yuri; Gammage Jr., Grady; Welch, Nancy (September 7, 2008). "Transformation into Big City has Benefits, Burdens". Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 12, 2008. 
  279. ^ "Phoenix Metro Area Projects". ADOT. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  280. ^ a b c d "Phoenix Streets and Freeways". discoverphoenix.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  281. ^ "Geography Information: Phoenix, AZ". ezinemark.com. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  282. ^ "Arizona's Energy Infrastructure". azenergy.com. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  283. ^ a b Health Status Report for Cities and Towns in Maricopa County 2009 – 2011. Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Office of Epidemiology. May 2013. p. 86. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  284. ^ Health Status Report for Cities and Towns in Maricopa County 2009 – 2011. Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Office of Epidemiology. May 2013. p. 87. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  285. ^ Health Status Report for Cities and Towns in Maricopa County 2009 – 2011. Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Office of Epidemiology. May 2013. p. 88. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  286. ^ Murphy B.S., Sherry L.; Xu, M.D., Jiaquan; Kochanek, M.A., Kenneth D. (May 8, 2013). "Deaths: Final Data for 2010". National Vital Statistics Reports (CDC, Division of Vital Statistics) 61 (4): 7. 
  287. ^ "Best Hospitals in Phoenix, Ariz.". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  288. ^ "About Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  289. ^ "Top American Hospitals – US News Best Hospitals". US News & World Report. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  290. ^ "John C. Lincoln North Mountain Hospital". US News & World Report. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  291. ^ "Phoenix Children's Hospital". Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  292. ^ "Arizona Heart Institute – To Care. To Teach. To Pioneer.". azheart.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  293. ^ "Banner Health at a Glance". Banner Health. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  294. ^ "Best Hospitals in Phoenix, Ariz.". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  295. ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". phoenixsistercities.org. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  296. ^ "Why a Sister City?". Phoenix Sister Cities. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  297. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved February 8, 2014. 
  298. ^ "Prague, Czech Republic". Phoenix Sister Cities. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  299. ^ Steffenino, Jérôme; Masson, Marguerite. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  300. ^ "Ramat Gan Sister Cities". Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Larson, Kelli L.; Gustafson, Annie; Hirt, Paul (April 2009). "Insatiable Thirst and a Finite Supply: An Assessment of Municipal Water-Conservation Policy in Greater Phoenix, Arizona, 1980–2007". Journal of Policy History 21 (2): 107–137. doi:10.1017/S0898030609090058. 
  • Johnson, G. Wesley, Jr. (1993). Phoenix in the Twentieth Century: Essays in Community History. Diane Pub Co. ISBN 0-7881-6249-7. 
  • Johnson, G. Wesley, Jr. (1982). Phoenix, Valley of the Sun. Continental Heritage Press. ISBN 0-932986-33-1. 
  • Luckingham, Bradford (1995). Phoenix: The History of a Southwestern Metropolis. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1116-0. 
  • Shermer, Elizabeth Tandy. Sunbelt Capitalism: Phoenix and the Transformation of American Politics (2013) 432pp excerpt and text search
  • VanderMeer, Philip (2010). Desert Visions and the Making of Phoenix, 1860–2009. Univ of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-4891-3. ; scholarly history online review
  • VanderMeer, Philip; Mary VanderMeer (2002). Phoenix Rising: The Making of a Desert Metropolis. Heritage Media Corp. ISBN 1-886483-69-8. ; well illustrated popular history

External links[edit]