In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Rock Island have ranged from a low of 13 °F (−11 °C) in January to a high of 85 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −22 °F (−30 °C) was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F (39 °C) was recorded in July 2006. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.28 inches (33 mm) in January to 4.75 inches (121 mm) in June.
There were 60,712 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.10% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.50% were non-families. 30.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the county the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $38,608, and the median income for a family was $47,956. Males had a median income of $35,998 versus $24,234 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,164. About 8.10% of families and 10.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.70% of those under age 18 and 6.80% of those age 65 or over.