Page semi-protected

2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 2019 Rojava offensive)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria
Part of the Rojava conflict, Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War, and the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (2015–present)
Barış Pınarı Hârekatı sonrası Resulayn (Serêkanî) bombalanıyor.jpg
Ras al-Ayn bombing on 10 October 2019
Date9 October 2019 – ongoing
(5 days)
Northern parts of Aleppo, Hasakah, and Raqqa Governorates, Syria


Syrian Interim Government[1][2][3]
Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
(from 13 October)
Commanders and leaders
Hulusi Akar
(Minister of Defence)
Gen. Yaşar Güler
(Chief of the General Staff)[12]
Hakan Fidan[13]
(MİT Chief)
Brig. Gen. Salim Idris
(Minister of Defence)
Sayf Abu Bakr
(Hamza Division Commander)[14]
Mazlum Abdi
Riad Khamis al-Khalaf
(Tal Abyad Military Council Commander)
Imad Meno
(Serê Kanîyê Military Council Commander)[15]
Units involved
See order of battle See order of battle
Turkey 80,000[16]
[better source needed]
40,000-60,000 [18][19]
Casualties and losses

Per SOHR:[20][7]
108 killed
8 killed

Per Turkey:[21]
16 killed
2 killed[a]

Per SOHR:[22][7]
133 killed

Per SDF:
45 killed[23]

Per Turkey:
500 killed, 26 wounded and 24 captured[24][25][26]
69 civilians killed in Syria by TAF and SNA[27] and 1 civilian killed by SDF shelling (per SOHR)[28]
18 civilians killed in Turkey by SDF shelling (according to Turkey's Interior Minister)[29][30]
130,000+ civilians displaced[31][32]
a Two additional Turkish soldiers were killed in the area of Operation Olive Branch in northwestern Syria,[33] which are counted in the toll provided by SOHR.[34]

The 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, code-named by Turkey as Operation Peace Spring (Turkish: Barış Pınarı Harekâtı), is an ongoing military operation[35] conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) and the Syrian National Army against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the Syrian Army in the North and East Syria.

On 6 October 2019, the Trump administration ordered American troops to withdraw from northeast Syria, where the United States had been supporting its Kurdish allies.[36] The military operation began on 9 October 2019 when the Turkish Air Force launched airstrikes on border towns.[37] The conflict resulted in the displacement of over 130,000 people. It has also caused the death of several civilians.[38]

According to the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the operation is intended to expel the SDF—viewed as a terrorist organization by Turkey due to its ties with the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) but considered an ally against ISIL by the United States and its allies—from the border region as well as to create a 30 km-deep (20 mi) "safe zone" in Northern Syria where some of the 3.6 million Syrian refugees in Turkey would resettle.[17] As the proposed settlement zone is heavily Kurdish in demographic makeup, this intention has been criticized as an attempt to force a drastic demographic change,[39][40][41] a criticism denied by Turkey by saying that it only intended to "correct" the demographics that Turkish officials asserted were changed by the SDF.[41][42][43] The offensive also allowed at least 750 ISIS affiliates escape from their detention camp. SDF accused Turkey stating they escaped after Turkish bombs struck near the prison compound.[44] US President Donald Trump accused SDF on Twitter saying "Kurds may be releasing some ISIS fighters to get the United States involved".[45] Turkey stated that SDF released ISIS prisoners before their arrival.[46]

The Turkish action was condemned by the European Union, the Arab League, Iran, Israel, India[47] and the United Kingdom as an assault on the territory of a sovereign and Arab state and an irresponsible destabilizing action with "potentially terrible" humanitarian consequences.[48] The Syrian government initially blamed the Kurdish forces for the Turkish offensive, for their separatism and not reconciling with the government, while at the same time also condemning the foreign invasion of Syrian territory.[49] Nevertheless, a few days later, the SDF reached an agreement with the Syrian Government, in which it would allow the Syrian Army to enter the SDF-held towns of Manbij and Kobanî in an attempt to protect the towns from the Turkish offensive.[50][51][52] Shortly thereafter, Syrian State broadcaster SANA announced that Syrian Army troops had started to deploy to the country's north.[53][54] Turkey and SNA launched an offensive to capture Manbij on the same day.[55]


Turkey and the United States struck a deal in August 2019 after months of Turkish threats to unilaterally invade Northern Syria. The United States viewed the Syrian Democratic Forces as one of its key allies in the military intervention against ISIL in Syria, while Turkey viewed the group as an extention of the Kurdistan Workers Party, which it considers a terrorist group. The agreement established the Northern Syria Buffer Zone, which aimed to dissipate tensions by addressing Turkey's security concerns with monitoring and joint patrols, while still allowing the NES to retain control over the areas that it had under its control at that time.[56][57] The agreement was received favorably by the US and SDF/NES, but Turkey was generally dissatisfied with it. Turkey's dissatisfaction led to numerous Turkish efforts to expand the area covered by the buffer zone, secure Turkish control over parts of it, or relocate millions of refugees into the zone, with all of these efforts failing in the face of firm SDF resistance and American ambivalence.[58]

Despite the official start of US-Turkish ground patrols, the dismantling of SDF fortifications, and the withdrawal of YPG units from parts of the buffer zone, tensions continued to rise as Turkey levied yet more demands on the SDF—all of which the SDF denied, as they felt that they had accepted a harsh compromise by permitting Turkish troops to take part in joint patrols with their American counterparts in Northern Syria.[59] Turkey's dissatisfaction with the status quo of the agreement grew into open hostility, with the Turkish president openly posing an ultimatum against the SDF.[60] The ultimatum was ignored by the group and Turkey declared its "deadline" to have expired at the start of October that same year.[61]


American soldiers greet Turkish troops for a joint patrol in Northern Syria on 4 October 2019.

Preparations for the offensive began in early October, starting with the withdrawal of American forces from positions near the Turkish border, after Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan had a phone call with United States President Donald Trump about plans for a military operation against SDF-held areas east of the Euphrates river.[62][63] While the United States government has stated it does not support the Turkish-led offensive, the White House also announced on 6 October 2019 that it would not interfere, and would withdraw all United States personnel in the area to avoid a potential US-Turkish standoff; US Secretary of State Pompeo denied that this amounted to giving the TAF a green light to attack the SDF while a spokesman for the SDF called the withdrawal a betrayal by the United States.[36] The US also reportedly cutoff aid to the SDF in order not to arm them against a NATO ally.[64]

On 8 October 2019, the Turkish military reportedly bombed a convoy of weapons vehicles heading from Iraq into Syria destined for the SDF. However the SDF did not retaliate for the attack, and no casualties were reported as a result of the air strike.[65] On the same day Russian special forces opened a crossing on the Euphrates river between areas held by the Syrian Government and SDF in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate.[66] While the SDF stated that the Syrian military was preparing to enter the city of Manbij in northeastern Aleppo, the Syrian government responded by saying the build up of the Syrian military near Manbij was being done in order to prevent the Turkish military from entering the city.[67] On the same day, Turkish forces shelled Ras al-Ayn and fired machine guns in the vicinity of the city.[68]

The deputy secretary of defense for the Middle East, Michael Mulroy said at the Council on Foreign Relations that the United States cannot carry out its strategy in Syria without partners such as the mostly Kurdish SDF, who "bore most of the burden in destroying the Islamic State's caliphate". He said that the United States must not leave before stabilizing the area. "And if we don't do that, we will be back there, for sure, doing this again," Mulroy said. "We owe it to the people that live there, who have beared unspeakable burdens, and we owe it to the men and women that are going to come after us at the State Department, at the Defense Department, that we don't just leave this undone." [69]


A daily map of the Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria (green is Turkish forces and yellow is SDF forces).

9 October 2019

The operation began on 9 October 2019, with Turkish airstrikes and howitzers targeting the SDF-held towns of Tell Abyad, Ras al-Ayn where thousands of people were reported to have fled the town,[70] Ain Issa and Qamishli. The start of the incursion was symbolic, for it was the 21st anniversary of the PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan's expulsion from Syria in 1998 by the government of Hafez al-Assad.[71][72]

In response to the cross-border shelling, SDF's spokesman stated that Turkey was targeting civilians.[73] Six rockets were later launched at the Turkish city of Nusaybin as a response by the PKK, and two reportedly hit the Turkish town Ceylanpınar.[74][75][76] The SDF also announced in response to the start of the Turkish operation they would be halting anti-ISIL operations,[77] and that two civilians had been killed.[78] In response to the airstrikes, the SDF has called upon the United States to establish a no-fly zone over northern Syria.[79]

Ground Offensive

By the end of the day, the Turkish military announced that the ground phase of the operation had begun from three points including Tell Abyad.[80]

10 October 2019

Before dawn on the morning of 10 October 2019, the Turkish military officially began the ground offensive against the SDF; they also announced that they had hit 181 targets in northern Syria, and 14,000 rebels backed by Turkey are also reportedly taking part in the Turkish-led offensive.[citation needed] The SDF said they repelled a Turkish advance into Tel Abyad.[71] Later during the day, clashes reportedly broke out between the SDF and Turkish-aligned forces near al-Bab.[81] Turkish-led forces made advances around the area of Tell Abyad and captured the villages of Tabatin and Al-Mushrifah.[82][dubious ] By nightfall Turkish Armed Forces declared control of 11 villages. As fighting went on around Tell Abyad, the Syrian National Army announced it captured the villages of Mishrifah, Al-Hawi, Barzan, Haj Ali and a farm east of the city.[83][dubious ][unreliable source?] During Turkish air strikes during the fighting, SDF stated that the Turkish air force hit a prison that was holding captured ISIL fighters.[84][85] Turkish media reported in the late evening that 174 SDF fighters were killed, wounded or captured.[86]

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated that day that 109 SDF fighters had been killed in the operation as well as an unspecified number of fighters wounded and captured. In a speech to lawmakers from Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's AKP, the Turkish president also threatened to flood Europe with 3.6 million refugees if European nations continued to criticize the military operation, in particular if they labelled it an invasion.[87][88]

70,000 people have fled from border towns in the SDF following Turkish bombardment.[89][90]

According to Turkey's Ministry of National Defence, one Turkish soldier was killed by the YPG.[91]

11 October 2019

Two journalists were wounded in Nusaybin, when the building they were filming from came under fire from Qamishli across the border by SDF fighters. The incident was broadcast live on Turkish TV channels, according to Turkish sources.[92]

Three civilians were killed in Suruc by a SDF shelling.[93][94] In response to the attack, Turkey shelled Kobane, a community across the border from Suruc.[95] Eight more civilians were killed later in the day in Nusaybin and 35 were injured by SDF mortar attack, raising the total civilians killed by SDF shelling in Turkey to 18, according to Turkish sources.[96][97][98]

Seven civilians were killed in Syria by Turkish forces in the Tal Abyad area including three killed by Turkish snipers according to SOHR.[99]

As reported on this day, according to the Turkish Ministry of National Defence, a total of 399 SDF fighters were killed, captured or wounded since the start of the Turkish military operation.[100]

The Syrian National Army stated to have taken the village of Halawa which is southeast of Tel Abyad.[101] TAF and SNA announced the capture of Tell Halaf later in the day and released a video from inside the town.[102]

In the city of Qamishli, a suspected ISIL car bomb killed five civilians, while an alleged Turkish artillery strike hit a nearby prison, and five suspected ISIL members, previously detained in SDF custody, escaped.[103]

In the city of Kobanî, a U.S. special forces base reportedly experienced heavy shelling by Turkish artillery; the U.S. troops did not retaliate, but withdrew after the shelling ended. Turkey responded by denying that it targeted the U.S. base, instead asserting that it had fired upon SDF positions.[104] The Pentagon further raised concerns that the Turkish Army deliberately bracketed US Forces stationed in Kobani with artillery fire.[105] According to Turkish Defense Minister, the mortar attack targeting the town of Suruc earlier in the day was deliberately launched 1000 meters from the US base in Kobani by SDF to avoid Turkish retaliation and the attack was in response.[106]

On the same day, Jaysh al-Islam announced it would be joining the offensive on the side of Turkey from their bases in areas in Afrin and Northern Aleppo.[107]

The BBC reported that 100,000 people have fled their homes in northern Syria. The Kurdish Red Crescent (Heyva Sor) said there had been 11 confirmed civilian deaths so far. Turkey's military confirmed a soldier's death, and said three others had been wounded.[108]

Turkey's Ministry of National Defence announced that three more soldiers had been killed by the YPG, two of which were killed in a mortar attack on a Turkish military base in a Turkish-occupied part of Syria. This brought the total amount of Turkish soldiers killed in the operation to four.[91] The SOHR reported that the actual number of Turkish soldiers killed in the operation was six.[109] Later in the day, the SOHR reported that at least 12 Turkish border guards were either killed or wounded in a confrontation with the SDF in Kobanî.[110]

12 October 2019

Turkish soldiers at the entrance of Ras al-Ayn on 12 October 2019

Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National army stated to have reached the M4 highway, 32 km deep into Syrian territory and effectively cutting the supply line between Manbij and Qamishli.[111] SNA also announced that they have taken 18 villages close to M4 highway, eastern Raqqah.[112] According to Kurdish sources, Kurdish local politician Hevrin Khalaf was executed near Qamishli by Turkish-backed troops, her death was later confirmed by the SOHR.[113] SOHR further reported that at least 9 civilians had been executed by the Turkish-backed troops.[114]

Turkish interior minister Süleyman Soylu announced that nearly 300 mortar shells had been fired at Mardin Province by the SDF since the start of the operation.[115]

Around 12:00 (UTC+03:00), the TAF and SNA said that they had captured Ras al-Ayn,[116][117] but the SDF denied that Turkey had taken control of the city.[118][119]

13 October 2019

Turkish-backed members of Islamist militia Ahrar al-Sharqiya killed Hevrin Khalaf, Secretary General of the Kurdish Future Syria Party. She and at least nine other civilians were executed south of Tal Abyad on the side of the road after their vehicles were stopped by the Ahrar al-Sharqiya fighters on the M4 highway.[120] According to the Washington Post, the killing "almost certainly constitute(d) a war crime, under international law".[121]

Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army announced the capture of the town of Suluk, located in Tell Abyad District, in the early morning.[122] The SOHR confirmed that the Turkish forces and SNA had taken full control of Suluk, and clashes were nearing towards Ain Issa. SOHR also reported that the pro Turkish forces had targeted an ambulance in the Tel Abyad area which remains missing.[123][124]

The SOHR also reported that the SDF was able to regain almost all control over the contested city of Ras-al Ayn after a counterattack.[125]

Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army announced in the afternoon that they had captured the center of Tell Abyad.[126] Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army also cut the M4 highway according to SOHR.[8][127] Turkish sources also reported that SDF shelling towards Jarablus had killed 2 Syrian civilians.[128]

In light of the pro-Turkish forces advance on Ain Issa, the SDF stated that 785 ISIL-linked people had escaped from a detention camp in the area, SDF also stated the escapees received assistance of the pro-Turkish forces and Turkish airstrikes.[129] US troops evacuated the town of Ain Issa according to Washington Post.[130]

United States Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said that US was planning to evacuate all 1,000 remaining soldiers from northern Syria.[131] US also informed SDF of its intention to withdraw from military bases in Manbij and Kobani and had already evacuated Ain Issa according to SOHR.

Capture of Tall Abyad

Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army fully captured Tall Abyad late afternoon according to SOHR.[132][failed verification][8]

Syrian government-SDF deal

Shortly after the capture of Tall Abyad by Turkey and SNA, a deal between the Syrian government and SDF was reached whereby the Syrian army would be allowed to enter the towns of Kobanî and Manbij in order to deter a possible Turkish military offensive in those areas.[51]

On the night of 13 October, Syrian troops were reported to have entered Manbij, and are due to enter Kobanî the following day.[133][better source needed] Later an advisor to Turkish President Erdoğan, Yasin Aktay, said there could be conflict between the two armies, if the Syrian government tries to enter northeastern Syria.[134]

SDF commander in chief Mazloum Abdi said he was willing to ally with the Syrian government for the sake of saving the Kurdish population in Northern Syria from genocide.[135]

14 October 2019

Russian and Syrian Government forces were reported to have been deployed at the front line between areas controlled by the Manbij Military Council and Euphrates Shield groups respectively, with further deployments to take place along the Syrian-Turkish border. In addition, the SOHR reported that the US forces in the region are attempting to hinder the deployments in the region.[136]

The SOHR reported that violent clashes had continued in Ras Al-Ayn and its countryside at the border strip, where the Turkish forces were attempting to encircle the city completely and to cut off the road between Ras Al-Ayn and Tal Tamr, under a cover of artillery shelling and airstrikes with the purpose of taking control of the city by the 15th of October.[137][138][139] Turkish aerial and ground bombardment were reported to have occurred in the border town Al-Darbasiyyah targeting civilian houses which caused 4 reported injuries of medical personnel as per the SOHR.[140]

Turkish President Erdoğan told a press conference that Turkey had received a positive response from Russia on Kobani and that Turkey was at the execution phase of its Manbij decision.[141] Turkish Armed forces deployed additional troops to Manbij frontline as of the previous night according to Turkish sources.[142] Turkish minister of defence Hulusi Akar said that Tal Abyad and Ras al-Ayn were under Turkish control and that works were ongoing for the whole region.[143]

Turkish commandos on the way to Manbij frontline, 14 October 2019

The Syrian Army was reported to have deployed to the town of Al-Thawrah,[144] as well as Ain Issa, Tell Tamer and as close as 6km from the Syria–Turkey border according to SOHR.[11] It also took over the 93rd Brigade Headquarters just south of Ain Issa, as well as Al-Jarniyaht to the east of the Euphrates.[145][146] The Syrian Army further reported taking control of the Tabqa Dam.[147] The Syrian flag was reportedly raised for the first time in years in several towns and villages in the Al-Hasakah Governorate, such as the city of Al-Yaarubiyah.[148][149][150]

Manbij Offensive

Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army launched a military operation to capture Manbij in the late afternoon.[151] Turkish Armed Forces and Syrian National Army captured 3 villages in the Manbij countryside shortly after the launch of the operation according to Turkish sources.[152] At the same time, Syrian state media stated that the Syrian Army had started entering the town.[153]


A map depicting International reactions to Turkey's 2019 operation in northern Syria.
International reactions to Turkey's 2019 operation in northern Syria at a glance. See Reactions to the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria for citations or more information.

Arrests in Turkey

Turkish police detained more than 120 online critics of the Turkish invasion for spreading "terrorist propaganda".[154][155] Turkish prosecutor opened an investigation into "terrorist propaganda" against MPs Sezai Temelli and Pervin Buldan, co-leaders of the pro-Kurdish HDP party.[156] Turkish authorities have detained web editor of opposition BirGün newspaper and managing editor of the online news portal Diken.[157]

ISIL prisoners

There are concerns about a possible resurgence of the Islamic State (ISIL) in the region, as the Syrian Democratic Forces—who conducted counter-terrorism operations against ISIL and held the ISIL captives in the region—fight against the Turkish-Syrian National Army offensive and thus could lose control.[158][159] When asked about the situation after the withdrawal of US forces in northeastern Syria, US President Donald Trump dismissed the threat of ISIL, remarking that "they're going to be escaping to Europe".[160][161]

Ilham Ahmed, a Kurdish Syrian official, stated that the SDF felt betrayed by their American allies for "exposing us to an invasion by Turkish troops who aim to destroy us", remarking that they do not have the resources to both defend against the Turkish attacks and maintain security over the ISIL captives.[162]

US President Donald Trump accused SDF on Twitter saying "Kurds may be releasing some ISIS fighters to get the United States involved".[163] Turkish soldiers captured a prison in Tal Abyad housing ISIL fighters, according to Turkish sources the prison was fully emptied by the SDF, before Turkish forces arrived. Turkey claimed that SDF released ISIL prisoners before their arrival.[164]

US sanctions

US President Donald Trump said he was working with congressional leaders, including opposition Democrats, to impose "powerful" economic sanctions against Turkey for its cross-border attacks in north-eastern Syria.[165] Donald Trump also Tweeted the next day that big sanctions were coming on Turkey.[166]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Turkish military, rebels to cross Syrian border 'shortly'". Al-Jazeera. 9 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Turkey Syria offensive: Dozens killed as assault continues". BBC News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Syria's army to deploy along Turkey border as Kurds strike deal". Al-Jazeera. 14 October 2019.
  5. ^ "Syrian army to deploy along Turkish border in deal with Kurdish-led forces". Reuters. 13 October 2019.
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c "القوات التركية والفصائل الموالية لها تقضم مزيد من المواقع في رأس العين وتل ابيض وترفع إلى نحو 50 تعداد المناطق التي سيطرت عليها منذ انطلاق عملية "نبع السلام" • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 14 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "القوات التركية والفصائل الموالية لها تسيطر على مساحة نحو 220 كلم مربع عند الشريط الحدودي منذ انطلاق العملية العسكرية شرق الفرات • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 13 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Turkish forces capture centre of key Syrian border town | CTV News".
  10. ^ "U.S. to pull last troops from north Syria; Syrian army to redeploy on border". 14 October 2019 – via
  11. ^ a b "بعد أكثر من 5 أعوام على فقدانه السيطرة هناك... قوات النظام تنتشر في اللواء 93 بمنطقة عين عيسى شمال الرقة • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 14 October 2019.
  12. ^ "Harekat ile ilgili çalışmalarımız devam ediyor" [Minister of National Defense Akar: Operations are continuing]. (in Turkish). 9 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Kritik Barış Pınarı toplantısı!".
  14. ^ "Free Syrian Army ready for potential new operation". Yeni Şafak.
  15. ^ ÇAKSU, ERSİN (11 October 2019). "Not a single house captured by the enemy in Serekaniye". ANF News. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  16. ^ "TÜRK ORDUSU'NDAN 80 BİN ASKER İLE OPERASYON HAZIRLIĞI!". Parlamento Haber | Korku yok!. 9 July 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Turkey begins ground offensive in northeastern Syria". Al Jazeera. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Explained: Why Turkey wants a military assault on Syrian Kurds". DW. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference reuters9oct was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Erdogan says Turkish-led offensive to extend further along Syrian border". 13 October 2019 – via
  22. ^
  23. ^ Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Monitor: 104 SDF fighters killed battling Turkish attack".
  24. ^,BbVjAdb5yUqKiONmUznf2g
  25. ^ "Turkey 'neutralizes' 550 terrorists in Syria operation".
  26. ^ "Erdoğan harekatın ne zaman biteceğini açıkladı". Haber7.
  27. ^ "المزيد من الخسائر البشرية يرفع إلى نحو 20 تعداد الذين استشهدوا وقضوا جراء مجزرة نفذتها طائرات تركية بقصفها قافلة الدعم الإنساني في مدينة رأس العين • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 14 October 2019.
  28. ^ "About 10 citizens were killed or injured due to rocket shelling carried out by the forces of "Jarabulus Military Council" on the city of Jarabulus north-east of Aleppo". 10 October 2019.
  29. ^ "Turkey Says It Captured a Key Syrian Border Town". Time. 12 October 2019.
  30. ^ "Suriye operasyonu – Harekatın başladığı günden bu yana en az 18 sivil ve dört asker hayatını kaybetti". Medyascope. 12 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  31. ^ ""نبع السلام" تواصل حصد أرواح المدنيين وتشريدهم ليرتفع إلى 52 تعداد الشهداء الذين قتلوا بقصف جوي وبري تركي وعلى يد الفصائل منذ بدء العملية • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 13 October 2019.
  32. ^ "100,000 flee as Turkey steps up Syria offensive". BBC News. 11 October 2019 – via
  33. ^ "Two Turkish soldiers killed in Kurdish militant attack in Syria: ministry". 11 October 2019 – via
  34. ^ Cite error: The named reference syriahr342020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  35. ^ Fraser, Suzan (9 October 2019). "Invasion of northeast Syria carries gain and risk for Turkey". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Trump makes way for Turkey operation against Kurds in Syria". BBC News. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  37. ^ Bethan McKernan (9 October 2019). "Turkey launches military operation in northern Syria". The Guardian.
  38. ^
  39. ^ Candar, Cengiz (30 September 2019). "Erdogan's Syria plan: Resettling the Syrian refugees or ousting Kurds from their land?". Al-Monitor.
  40. ^ "Syria is witnessing a violent demographic re-engineering". Financial Times.
  41. ^ a b "Turkey's plan to settle refugees in northeast Syria alarms allies". Reuters. 8 October 2019 – via
  42. ^ Dockery, Wesley (9 October 2019). "Turkey Begins Military Operation Against Kurds After Trump Pulls Troops In Northern Syria". International Business Times.
  43. ^ "After US green light, Turkey prepares military operation in Syria". Arab News. 7 October 2019.
  44. ^
  45. ^ "Son dakika... Trump'tan yeni açıklama: Türkiye ile savaşacağımızı düşünen mi var?". Hurriyet.
  46. ^ "PKK/YPG'li teröristler DEAŞ'lıları serbest bıraktı: İşte o hapishane".
  47. ^ "India slams Turkey for its 'unilateral military offensive' in northeast Syria | India News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  48. ^ "World reacts to Turkey's military operation in northeast Syria". Al Jazeera.
  49. ^ "Syria blames Kurdish forces for Turkish military offensive". Xinhua Net. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  50. ^ "Syrian army to enter SDF-held Kobani, Manbij: Monitor". Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  51. ^ a b "Report: Syrian army to enter SDF-held Kobani, Manbij". Reuters. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  52. ^ "Syrian government forces set to enter Kobani and Manbij after SDF deal". The Defense Post. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  53. ^ "Syrian troops sent north to 'confront' Turkey over incursion, says state media". The National. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  54. ^ "Syrian regime sends troops toward area of Turkey's anti-terror op". DailySabah. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  55. ^
  56. ^ "Safe Zone: Existing Project But Deferred Details". Enab Baladi. 29 August 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  57. ^ Kurdistan24. "SDF command reveals details about buffer zone in northeast Syria". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  58. ^ "Turkey says U.S. stalling on Syria 'safe zone', will act alone if needed". Reuters. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  59. ^ "Erdoğan cites U.S.-Turkey disagreement over safe zone as joint patrols begin in Syria". Ahval. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  60. ^ "Turkey to initiate own plans if safe zone deal fails". TRT World. 18 September 2019.
  61. ^ "Turkey's Syria 'safe zone' deadline expires". Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  62. ^ Simkins, J. D. (8 October 2019). "Trump on pulling US troops out of Syria: 'We're not a police force'". Military Times.
  63. ^ Crowley, Michael; Gall, Carlotta (8 October 2019). "In Trump, Turkey's Erdogan Keeps Finding a Sympathetic Ear". The New York Times.
  64. ^ Hubbard, Ben; Gall, Carlotta (9 October 2019). "Turkey Launches Offensive Against U.S.-Backed Syrian Militia". The New York Times.
  65. ^ "Report: Turkish warplanes bombing Kurdish targets in northeast Syria". Ynetnews. 10 July 2019.
  66. ^ "Russian Special Forces open new Euphrates crossing between SDF, SAA lines: photos". Al-Masdar News. 7 October 2019.
  67. ^ "Kurdish-led SDF claim Syrian Army is preparing to capture Manbij". Al-Masdar News. 8 October 2019.
  68. ^ "The Turkish forces target the vicinity of Ras Al-Ayn area by shells and heavy machineguns, in conjunction with the arrival of new batches of factions loyal to Turkey to the latter's territory in the frame of the anticipated military operation • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 8 October 2019.
  69. ^
  70. ^ "Civilians flee Syrian border towns as Turkish warplanes, artillery kick off offensive". Reuters. 9 October 2019 – via
  71. ^ a b "Turkey-Syria border: All the latest updates". 10 October 2019.
  72. ^ McKernan, Bethan (9 October 2019). "Turkey launches military operation in northern Syria". The Guardian – via
  73. ^ "Turkey begins military offensive in Syria: Live updates". 9 October 2019.
  74. ^ "YPG/PKK'lı teröristlerin attığı roket Nusaybin'e düştü | STAR".
  75. ^ "Nusaybin ve Ceylanpınar'a havan mermisi düştü!".
  76. ^ "Turkey launches assault on Syrian Kurdish forces".
  77. ^ "EXCLUSIVE-US-backed Syrian forces halt counter-Islamic State operations -sources".
  78. ^ "Turkey launches Syria offensive with air strikes". BBC News. 9 October 2019 – via
  79. ^ "'Panic' as Turkish Ground Troops Push into Northeast Syria, 'Humanitarian Catastrophe' Feared by Kurdish Civilians". 9 October 2019.
  80. ^ "Barış Pınarı'nda kara harekatı da başladı".
  81. ^ "Renewed clashes between the Kurdish forces and pro-Turkey factions in the north-eastern parts of Aleppo countryside • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". 10 October 2019.
  82. ^ "- TSK, Tel Erkam Köyüne Yakın Bağlantı Yolunu Kontrol Altına Aldı- Tabatin ve Al-mushrifah Köyleri..."
  83. ^ @BarisKaynagi_sy (10 October 2019). قوات الجيش الوطني تحرر قريتي مشرفة الحاوي و برزان ومزرعتي حاج علي وبني مشهور شرق مدينة تل ابيض بعد دحر عصابات PKK/PYD الإرهابية ضمن عملية نبع السلام. [The National Army forces liberate the villages of Mishrifah Al-Hawi, Barzan and Haj Ali and Bani Mashhour farms east of Tall Abyad city after the PKK / PYD terrorist gangs were defeated in Operation Spring of Peace.] (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  84. ^ "Trump says jihadists 'will be escaping to Europe' in potential jailbreak". 10 October 2019.
  85. ^ "Hain saldırı... Bir acı haber daha: 7 şehit, 85 yaralı".
  86. ^ "228 YPG terrorists neutralized in Turkey's Operation Peace Spring". DailySabah.
  87. ^ "Erdogan threatens to flood Europe with 3.6 million refugees if EU calls Turkish operation in Syria an 'invasion'". 10 October 2019.
  88. ^ "109 'terrorists' killed in Turkish offensive in Syria, says Erdogan". The Irish Times. 10 October 2019.
  89. ^ Gall, Carlotta; Kingsley, Patrick (10 October 2019). "Shells Fired into Turkey as Syria Offensive Extends into 2nd Day". The New York Times.
  90. ^ "Turkey presses Syrian assault as thousands flee the fighting". 10 October 2019.
  91. ^ a b "The Latest". The Washington Post. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  92. ^ Şafak, Yeni (11 October 2019). "YPG/PKK gazetecilerin olduğu restorana ateş açtı: 2 gazeteci yaralandı". Yeni Şafak.
  93. ^ "YPG'nin Suruç'a saldırısında sivil şehit sayısı 3'e yükseldi".
  94. ^ "Son dakika... Terör örgütü YPG'den sivillere alçak saldırı: İki ilçemizde şehit ve yaralılar var". CNN Türk.
  95. ^ "Barış Pınarı Harekatı'nda Ayn El Arab'daki terör hedefleri, top atışları ile vuruldu". Mynet Haber.
  96. ^ "Nusaybin'e havan saldırısı: 2 şehit". 11 October 2019.
  97. ^ "Nusaybin'de sivillere havanlı saldırı: 8 şehit".
  98. ^ "Eight killed in Turkish border town in YPG attack: Governor's office". Reuters. 11 October 2019.
  99. ^ "Turkish Forces killed 7 civilians as they try to escape the fire, and continued their attacks on Tal Abyad and Ras al-Ayn with large land and air support • the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights". 11 October 2019.
  100. ^ "399 terrorists neutralized by Turkey's anti-terror op".
  101. ^ @BarisKaynagi_sy (11 October 2019). قوات الجيش الوطني تحرر قرية حلاوة جنوب شرق مدينة تل ابيض بعد دحر عصابات PKK/PYD الإرهابية ضمن عملية نبع السلام. [The National Army forces liberate the village of Halawa, southeast of the city of Tal Abyad, after the PKK / PYD terrorist gangs were defeated in Operation Spring of Peace.] (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  102. ^ "Suriye Milli Ordusu Tel Halef köyündeki terör örgütü paçavralarını indirdi" [Syrian National Army lowered the rags of terrorist organization in Tel Khalef village]. TRT Haber (in Turkish). 11 October 2019.
  103. ^ Sanchez, Raf (11 October 2019). "Dispatch: Anger on Turkish border as conflict reveals contradiction at the heart of Western Syria policy". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  104. ^ O'Connor, Tom; LaPorta, James; Jamali, Naveed (11 October 2019). "EXCLUSIVE: TURKEY ATTACKS US SPECIAL FORCES IN SYRIA, APPARENTLY BY MISTAKE". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  105. ^ Lamothe, Dan (12 October 2019). "U.S. forces say Turkey was deliberately 'bracketing' American troops with artillery fire in Syria". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  106. ^ "TSK ABD gözlem noktasını vurdu mu".
  107. ^ Jaysh al-Islam [@jaishalislam] (11 October 2019). لقاءات جمعت قادة #جيش_الإسلام مع المقاتلين في قطاعي #درع_الفرات و #غصن_الزيتون، تخللها توجيهات وإرشادات عسكرية وشرعية والتذكير بالانضباط وغير ذلك، بالتزامن مع التجهيزات لانطلاق مقاتلينا إلى محاورهم في عملية #نبع_السلام. [Meetings of the #Islamic Army leaders with the fighters in the sectors of the #Euphrates shield and #Gusun_alzaytoon, including military and legal guidance and reminders of discipline and others, in conjunction with the preparations for the departure of our fighters to their axes in the process of #Nab_Salam.] (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  108. ^ "Turkey Syria offensive: 100,000 flee homes as assault continues". BBC News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  109. ^ "The areas of Ras Al-Ayn, Tal Abyad, Al-Darbasiyyah and Al-Qamishli witness violent clashes and intense ground shelling". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  110. ^ "Information about the killing and injury of 12 members of the Turkish Border Guard Forces in clashes against the SDF at the border strip in the area of Ayn Al-Arab (Kobani)". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  111. ^ "SON DAKİKA! Barış Pınarı Harekatı'nda çok önemli gelişme! Stratejik noktaya ulaşıldı". Sabah.
  112. ^ "Son dakika haberi: MSB duyurdu! Rasulayn kontrol altına alındı".
  113. ^ Bergløff, Charlotte Berrefjord (12 October 2019). "Kurdisk politiker skal være drept i Syria". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  114. ^ France-Presse, Agence (13 October 2019). "Female Kurdish politician among nine civilians killed by pro-Turkey forces in Syria, observers say". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  115. ^ "Bakan Soylu açıkladı! 'Mardin'e 300'e yakın havan mermisi düştü' - Akşam".
  116. ^ "Suriye Milli Ordusu, Resulayn'ı kontrol altına aldı".
  117. ^ "Resulayn'da kontrol ele geçirildi! İşte YPG'nin elindeki ABD zırhlıları!".
  118. ^ ERSİN ÇAKSU; RUKEN CEMAL (12 October 2019). "SDF Serêkaniyê commander Amude: The city is under our control". ANF News. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  119. ^ Editorial Staff (12 October 2019). "Syrian Kurds deny Turkey has taken battleground border Serêkaniyê town". Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  120. ^ Duncan, Conrad (13 October 2019). "Female Kurdish politician 'executed' by pro-Turkish militants as civilian death toll rises to 38 in Syria offensive". Independent. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  121. ^ Sly, Liz (13 October 2019). "Turkish-led forces film themselves executing a Kurdish captive in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  122. ^ "Tel Abyad'ın Suluk beldesi teröristlerden kurtarıldı".
  123. ^ "The Turkish forces and factions loyal to them achieve a new advancement in Al-Raqqah countryside and take the control of large spaces of Sluk town under a cover of heavy firepower • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  124. ^ "مع اقتراب الاشتباكات من مخيم عين عيسى.. مخاوف كبيرة لدى آلاف النازحين في المخيم.. وعوائل من تنظيم "الدولة الإسلامية" تفر منه .. والطائرات التركية تقصف قرى واقعة في محيطه • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 13 October 2019.
  125. ^ "The SDF regain the control of Ras Al-Ayn city almost completely after a counter attack in which 17 members of the pro-Turkey factions were killed • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  126. ^
  127. ^ "بغطاء جوي وبري مكثف.. القوات التركية والفصائل تحرز تقدمات جديدة في محوري رأس العين وتل أبيض ومعارك عنيفة يشهدها اتستراد الـ (M4) • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 13 October 2019.
  128. ^ "YPG sivillere füzeyle saldırdı: 2 şehit!".
  129. ^ "Almost all suspected ISIS militants' escape Syria camp: SDF". 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  130. ^ "U. S.-allied Kurds strike deal to bring Assad's Syrian troops back into Kurdish areas - The Washington Post".
  131. ^ "U.S. "preparing to evacuate" remaining troops from northern Syria, defense secretary says".
  132. ^ "Turkish army, Syrian allies enter Tel Abyad, situation calm - Breaking News - Jerusalem Post".
  133. ^ "Syrian army moving to face 'Turkish aggression' in country's north – state media". RT International. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  134. ^ "Yasin Aktay: Suriye ordusu ile çatışma çıkabilir". Gazeteduvar. 13 October 2019.
  135. ^ Abdi, Mazloum. "If We Have to Choose Between Compromise and Genocide, We Will Choose Our People". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  136. ^ "U.S. forces try to hinder the deployment of the Russian force and regime forces in the area separating between Manbij Military Council and the factions of "Euphrates Shield" • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  137. ^ "The Turkish forces try to encircle Ras Al-Ayn city and to cut off the road to Tal Tamr in order to impose their control over the city in the incoming few hours amid intense shelling and fierce battles against the SDF • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  138. ^ "More casualties raise to about 15, the number of people who were killed due to the Turkish airstrikes which targeted the "humanitarian support" convoy in Ras Al-Ayn city • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  139. ^ "Violent battles continue in areas in Ras Al-Ayn city and its countryside and in the vicinity of Tal Abyad city in conjunction with heavy ground shelling witnessed in the area • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  140. ^ "Turkish bombardment targets Al-Darbasiyyah city in conjunction with ongoing airstrikes and violent battles witnessed in Ras Al-Ayn city • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  141. ^ "Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: 'Münbiç konusunda kararımızı verdiğimiz gibi uygulama aşamasındayız'".
  142. ^ "Münbiç sınırına takviye güç (Bordo bereliler ve komandolar ilerlemeye başladı)". NTV.
  143. ^ [1] Milli Savunma Bakanı Akar açıkladı: Resulayn ve Tel Abyad kontrolümüz altında
  144. ^ "Syrian army deploys to town near Raqqa-state media". 14 October 2019 – via
  145. ^ "120 ساعة من "نبع السلام": قوات النظام تبدأ الانتشار في الشمال السوري.. و250 ألف نازح.. والطائرات التركية تقصف قافلة مدنية وتخلف عشرات الشهداء والجرحى.. وارتفاع حصيلة قتلى المقاتلين إلى نحو 250 • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان (in Arabic). 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  146. ^ Desk, News (14 October 2019). "Syrian Army takes control of Brigade 93 base in northern Raqqa". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  147. ^ Yuseef, Yusha (14 October 2019). "الجيش السوري يؤمن سد الفرات وينتشر في محيطه". @MIG29_ (in Arabic). Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  148. ^ Sanchez, Raf (14 October 2019). "Assad troops enter north-east Syria after Russia-backed deal with Kurds". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  149. ^ Network, Rojava (14 October 2019). "+++Breaking: Syrian flag has been risen over the city "Al-Ya'rubiyah" city near the Iraq borders.#Twitterkurds #Rojava #SAA #Syria #Turkey". @RojavaNetwork. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  150. ^ "Picture of the day: A Syrian soldier waves the national flag". The Week UK. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  151. ^ "Münbiç'e operasyon başladı!". yeniakit.
  152. ^
  153. ^ "Syrian state media says army enters town of Manbij in northern Syria". Reuters. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  154. ^ "Turkish public, politicians voice support for Syria military push". Al-Jazeera. 10 October 2019.
  155. ^ "Turkey's military operation in Syria: All the latest updates". Al-Jazeera. 11 October 2019.
  156. ^ "Turkish police investigate Kurdish leaders, fire water cannon at protesters". Reuters. 10 October 2019.
  157. ^ "Turkish authorities launch legal action against 78 people". Hürriyet Daily News. 10 October 2019.
  158. ^ Gall, Carlotta; Kingsley, Patrick (11 October 2019). "ISIS Rears Its Head, Adding to Chaos as Turkey Battles Kurds". The New York Times.
  159. ^ Sly, Liz; Ryan, Missy (11 October 2019). "Turkey's invasion of Syria puts Islamic State fight on hold at a critical time". Washington Post.
  160. ^ Cooper, Charlie (10 October 2019). "Trump shrugs off ISIS fighters fleeing Syria: They'll 'be escaping to Europe'". POLITICO.
  161. ^ Choi, David (9 October 2019). "Trump brushes off worries that freed ISIS prisoners will be a threat: 'They're going to be escaping to Europe.'". Business Insider.
  162. ^ Ahmed, Ilham (9 October 2019). "We fought ISIS side by side with the Americans. Now they're leaving us to our fate". Washington Post.
  163. ^ "Son dakika... Trump'tan yeni açıklama: Türkiye ile savaşacağımızı düşünen mi var?". Hurriyet.
  164. ^ "PKK/YPG'li teröristler DEAŞ'lıları serbest bıraktı: İşte o hapishane".
  165. ^ "Trump Pulls out Remaining Troops from N. Syria; Warns of 'Powerful Sanctions' on Turkey". VoaNews.
  166. ^ "Son dakika: Trump'tan bir küstah tehdit daha: Türkiye'ye büyük yaptırımlar geliyor".