Srikakulam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chicacole)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a city in India. For its namesake district, see Srikakulam district.
For a village in Ghantasala mandal of Krishna district, see Srikakulam, Krishna district.
Arasavalli Sri suryanarayana swamy temple
Srikakulam
శ్రీకాకుళం
City
Nickname(s): Chicacole
Srikakulam is located in Andhra Pradesh
Srikakulam
Srikakulam
Coordinates: 18°18′N 83°54′E / 18.3°N 83.9°E / 18.3; 83.9Coordinates: 18°18′N 83°54′E / 18.3°N 83.9°E / 18.3; 83.9
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Srikakulam
Founded by Balarama
Government
 • Type Municipal council
 • Body Srikakulam Municipal Corporation
Area[1]
 • City 20.89 km2 (8.07 sq mi)
Area rank 24th
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 146,988
 • Density 7,000/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[3] 147,015
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 532001
Vehicle registration AP–30
Website Srikakulam Municipality

Srikakulam is a city and the district headquarters of Srikakulam district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and also the mandal headquarters of Srikakulam mandal in Srikakulam revenue division.[4][5] As of 2011 census, it was most populous city of Srikaulam district and 24th populous city of the state with a population of 146,988. The city is believed to have been founded by Balarama.

Etymology[edit]

The city was known as Chicacole before Indian Independence.[6]

History[edit]

Stone carved ceiling at Srikurmam Temple

This region of Andhra Pradesh was part of Kalinga region at first, and later a part of Gajapati kingdom of Odisha up to the medieval period. Srikakulam was integral part of the domain of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi during the rule of Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624- 641). During his rule the Vengi kingdom had expanded from Srikakulam in the north to Nellore in the south. They patronised Telugu.[7] It was under the rule of Kakatiya Dynasty of Warangal during the rule of Ganapati Deva in 13th century CE. Srikakulam was under the rule of illustrious Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara Empire too. It was in the 'Bendi Shilpa' ruling in 1687 Srikakulam (Gulshanabad) was a village and formed as fauzdhari-center for their money transactions for the areas of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Vishakhapatnam, and some parts of Odisha. The word Gulshanabad derives from Persian words Shilpa that means Rose garden and Bendi (Bending). It was developed as a town in the Muslim ruling; today you can find more than 10,000 Muslims living in this town following their culture, tradition and values. Srikakulam has been a headquarters for revenue collection under Nizam state of Hyderabad since 1707. Nizams of Hyderabad assigned Gulshanabad (Srikakulam), Rajahmundry, Eluru and Mustafanagar (Kondapalli) districts to French India in 1753. French imperialists were driven out from these districts by British imperialists in 1756 during Anglo-French wars. Srikakulam was under the rule of Nizam state of Hyderabad for only a brief period, namely from 1707 to 1753. It was the headquarters for revenue collection of Rajahmundry, Eluru and Kondapalli as well as Srikakulam district itself. The French defeated and ended the brief rule of Nizam in 1753, these all districts were thereafter part of French India in 1753. However French imperialists too could not hold their sway over here for a long time, and were soon driven out from here by British imperialists, during 1756 in Anglo-French wars. Thereafter Srikakulam was under was soon a part of BritishNorthern Circars.

Buddha statue in Nagavali river, Srikakulam

In 1759 the Fauzdhari ruling was ended and British ruling started, and Srikakulam town has been made part of Ganjam district and Palakonda and Rajam areas were included in Vizag district in the undivided Madras province. In 1936 the combined Madras-Odisha state was divided to Madras and Odisha and Parlakimidi Taluk was separated from combined Madras state. Srikakulam was renamed as Srikakulam taluk, Srikakulam town as Srikakulam municipality since 1857 under British rule. In 1947 after Indian independence, many including Potti Sriramulu fought for separate Andhra State. In 1948 many demanded for Srikakulam district as it was in combined vizag district. First 'chintada' village was proposed as district headquarters by some central leaders. On 17 July 1950, a representation was given by Challa Narasimhu naidu, an eminent leader, Pullela Vemkataramanayya (P.V. Ramanayya), who was an eminent advocate, public prosecutor, and freedom fighter, to the then revenue minister H. Sitaramareddy on his visit to this area and requested to select Srikakulam as district headquarters at his camp office in Vizianagaram. Sitaramareddy personally saw some places in Srikakulam for selection.

The MLA of this area, Garemalla Kumaraswami, gave a speech on the dias of the meeting arranged on honour of the minister indicating that many important towns and capitals in the world were on the banks of rivers like England (Thames River), Srirangam (Kaveri), Agra (Yamuna), Kashi (Ganga), Rajamundry (Godavari), Vijayawada (Krishan), etc., and for Srikakulam it is Nagavali, convincing Sitaramareddy. Along with Rokkam Ramamurty, Pullela Venkataramanyya (P.V. Ramanayya), Pasagada Suryanarayana, Baratam Venkataramanayya, Mangu Raghavarao followed Garemella Kumaraswami as group to convince and represent the request memorandum. The minister decided and selected Srikakulam as headquarters after reaching Madras, then state capital. Kimidi Kalavenkatarao, ex-revenue minister in the combined Madras state, had done a lot for formation of this district; he was the grandfather of present Vunukuru MLA Kalavenkatarao. On 15 August 1950, at about 4.00 p.m. the district was announced with Srikakulam town as headquarters and with three revenue divisions: Palakonda, Srikakulam and Tekkali. At first, Parvatipuram revenue division was part of Srikakulam district and later transferred to Vizianagaram district. Mr. Night[who?] was the then collector in the combined Vizag Srikakulam and Janab Shek Ahammadh appointed as first district collector for separated Srikakulam. On 3 January 1951, the first District Board was formed and Rokkam Laxmi Narasimha Dora was elected as president.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 146,988. The total population constitute, 73,077 males and 73,911 females —a sex ratio of 1011 females per 1000 males. 11,607 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 84.62% 96,744 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[8][9]

The Urban agglomeration had a population of 147,015, of which males constitute 73,077, females constitute 73,911 —a sex ratio of 931 females per 1000 males and 12,741 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 115,061 literates with an average literacy rate of 85.71%.[3]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
31.0
(87.8)
33.3
(91.9)
35.5
(95.9)
37.9
(100.2)
36.9
(98.4)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
31.3
(88.3)
29.7
(85.5)
28.6
(83.5)
32.56
(90.59)
Average low °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
20.5
(68.9)
22.8
(73)
25.8
(78.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.4
(81.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.5
(77.9)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
21.7
(71.1)
19.6
(67.3)
23.88
(74.97)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0
(0)
5
(0.2)
4
(0.16)
10
(0.39)
53
(2.09)
126
(4.96)
204
(8.03)
204
(8.03)
162
(6.38)
228
(8.98)
66
(2.6)
13
(0.51)
1,075
(42.33)
Source: en.climate-data.org

Governance[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Srikakulam Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality in the year 1856 and was upgraded to corporation on 9 December 2015.[10] Its jurisdictional area has an extent of 20.89 km2 (8.07 sq mi) with 36 wards. In 2012–13, the total income generated per annum by the municipality was 50.55 crore (US$7.5 million) and the total expenditure spent during the same year was 49.86 crore (US$7.4 million).[1]

The Srikakulam urban agglomeration constituents of the city include, Srikakulam municipality, census town of Balaga, fully out growths of Arasavalli, partly outgrowths of Kusulapuram, Thotapalem, Patrunivalasa and Patha Srikakulam (rural). While, Ponugutivalasa of Santhakavati mandal is now a part of Rajam Nagar Panchayat.[11]

Judicial Information[edit]

Of 19 courts in the District, only two are present in the town: a District court and a Municipal Bench court. About 75 lawyers and one law college are present in the municipal area.

Police Stations[edit]

There are five police stations in the city: 1-Town, 2-Town, Women, Crime, Traffic. There is one rural police-station at Peddapadu, which serves rural mandalam. All the district police officers reside in the city.

Politics[edit]

Srikakulam is a part of Srikakulam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Gunda Lakshmi Devi is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[12] It is also a part of Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Rammohan Naidu Kinjarapu of Telugu Desam Party.[13][14]

Culture and tourism[edit]

Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Temple, Arasavalli
Arasavilli Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Temple, Srikakulam. Andhrapradesh (3).JPG

The Arasavalli temple is the abode of Sun god and was constructed by Kalinga king. Kalingapatnam also has an old lighthouse. Vamsadhara River empties into the sea. in village Sri Kurmam.

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[15][16] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

Transport[edit]

Srikakulam bus station entrance

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Srikakulam bus station.[17] NH 16 (formerly NH 5) gives a very good connectivity to Srikakulam on either sides of the town. APSRTC bus station has two depots which provide service to almost all villages around the town. It has a very good connectivity to Visakhapatnam by non-stop services at every 10 minutes with a travel time of around 1 hour 50 minutes. The nearest airport at Visakhapatnam is just 2 hours away by cab. Srikakulam Road railway station is just 15 minutes from the town by road. The nearest railway station is Amudalavalasa, which is 10 km away from Srikakulam.

Banks[edit]

State Bank of India Andhra Bank IDBI Bank UCO Bank Karur Vysya Bank HDFC Bank Axis Bank Bank of Baroda Syndicate Bank City Union Bank Union Bank of India ING Vysya Bank Corporation Bank Bank of India Vijaya Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce ICICI Bank Canara Bank Central Bank of India Punjab National Bank State Bank of Hyderabad Indian Overseas Bank Indian Bank

Recreation[edit]

Srikakulam has 12 parks, namely Gandhi Park (Palakonda Road), Santhinagar Park (Santhinagar), River View Park (Gudiveedhi), Indira Gandhi Park (Goonapalem), Housing Board Colony Park (Old Srikakulam), Chinnabaratam Veedhi Park (Chinnabaratam Veedhi), PSN Colony Park, Hudco Colony Park, Diamond Park (New Colony), LBS Park (LBS Colony), Vijayaditya Park (Seepannaidu Peta) and Kargil Victory Park (APHB Colony).

Sports[edit]

International athletes like Karnam Malleswari (weightlifting) and Korada Mrudula (running, 400m) are from Srikakulam. Kodi Ram Murthy Stadium near Govt. Degree College is a multi-purpose sporting facility in the town. In 1991, an unofficial cricket match was played between Sunil Gavaskar XI and Kapil Dev XI with both the legends being a part of the game as well. The only swimming pool (maintained by SAAP) is located in Santhinagar.

Tourism[edit]

The Temple of Sun God is located at Arasavilli (old name Harshavalli) which was a few kilometers away from the town is now merged with the town due to the geographic growth of Srikakulam. Dating back to 7th century, the temple is the only Sun God temple in Southern India and was constructed by a Kalinga dynasty king. The Sun God "Sri Suryanarayana Swami" is most worshiped in Andhra Pradesh, and tourists from all over the world visits the temple every year. The historic temple at Arasavilli, built 3000 years ago, where the Lord Sri Suryanarayana temple is, resembles the rich cultural heritage Srikakulam holds. It is popularly called the God of Health.

Mukhalingam: SriMukhalingam is another temple in Srikakulam which is believed to have been built in the 9th century. This holy place is on the left bank of Vamsadhara. This is a group of three temples built by the Eastern Ganga dynasty kings in the 10th century AD. The deities are Mukhalingeswara, Bhimeswara and Someswara. All show evidence of the Odisha style of architecture (Indo - Aryan style). The Mukhalinga temple is a veritable art gallery. The temple entrances are marvels in themselves. There is a plethora of sculptural work and perforated windows. The Bhimeswara temple lacks such grand splendour. Someswara temple is rich in sculptural work. Srikurmam is 15 km from Srikakulam town. It is in the Gara mandalam on northeast. The only one temple of Srikurmanatha temple in the country is here. The sculpture of the temple is wonderful. The Vishnu temple is architecturally unique. Here the rock edicts of 11 AD. are available. Sri Simhachalam Devasthanam adopted this temple for improvement.

Salihundam: On the right bank of the river Vamsadhara, about 16 km from Srikakulam town, there are a number of Buddhist stupas and a huge monastic complex on a hillock amidst scenic surroundings. You can see a mahastupa, votive stupas, platforms and viharas. There is distinct evidence of the presence of the Vajrayana cult. The statues of Tara and Marichi were discovered at this site. From here, Buddhism spread to Sumatra and other East Asian countries. Salipataka and Salipetaka appear to be the early forms of the name of modern Salihundam. The shrine of a famous Sufi saint lies in Kalingapatnam. It has an old lighthouse. At present weather research center, Cyclone warning center are working here. The confluence of Vamsadhara is an attractive site. Kalingapatnam is 25 km from Srikakulam.

Ravi Valasa is about 5 km from Tekkali. Sri Endala Mallikarjuna Swamy is the deity. On Maha Sivaratri and Kartika Mondays large gathering devotees worship this deity. It is believed that the linga is growing an inch every year. According to scripts it was about a foot when it was first seen and went on growing. Now the height of the linga is around 12 ft (3.7 m).

Teli Nilapuram is in Tekkali division, 65 km from Srikakulam. There is a bird sanctuary here. Winter migration birds from Russia, Siberian cranes, flock here. They build nest on the tamarind trees and migrate to Russia in summer. Sangam is 56 km from Srikakulam. Nagavali, Swarnam Mukhi and Vegavati confluence is place here. So it is called Sangam. One of the five lingas Sangameswara is here. On Maha Sivaratri thousands of devotees throng.

Industries[edit]

Ponduru is a small village in Srikakulam, known as the land where the finest khadi is woven. Khadi from Ponduru is famous among khadi lovers of the entire country. Mahatma Gandhi is said to have been surprised at the finesse of the khadi produced here and he preferred khadi from this village. Khadi from this region is exported to countries like US, Denmark, Japan and Sweden. It is about 20 km from Srikakulam town.

Rajam is 40 km from Srikakulam. The king of Bobbili Tandrapapa Rayudu at one time stage here. This place is linked with name of the valiant. The famous GMR group started their business here. Palasa is famous for cashew nuts. The cashews are exported to different parts of the country and abroad. It is located towards the north of the district, close to Odisha. Baruva is 109 km from Srikakulam town. Baruva, a fishing and coastal port, is set amidst lush coconut groves and paddy fields. The famous temples are of Sri Kotilingeswara Swamy and Janardanaswamy. There is a century-old ship that capsized near the beach, whose masts are still visible 1 km into the sea. Kaviti is 13 km from Ichapuram and Sompet. The coastal belt around Kaviti has extensive plantations of coconut, cashew and jack. The area is delightfully scenic. Here are the deities of Chintamani Ammavaru and Sri Sita Rama Swamy. Mandasa 180 km distant from Srikakulam, is a historical place. 700 years old Vasudeva Swamy temple here is worth seeing. Mandasa Fort is also an additional attraction.

Notable people from Srikakulam[edit]

Vaddadi Papaiah (artist) Lokanadham Nandikeswararao (mimic) V.P.Srinivas (mimic) Karanam Malliswari (Olympic bronze medalist)

Politicians[edit]

Members of Parliament: 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967, 1972 and 1977 - Boddepalli Rajagopala Rao 1995, 1999 and 2004 - Yerrannaidu Kinjarapu 2009 Killi kruparani 2014 Rammohan Naidu Kinjarapu

Members of Legislative Assembly: 1983 - Tangi Satyanarayana 1985, 1989, 1994 and 1999 - Gunda Appalasuryanarayana 2004 and 2009 - Dharmana Prasada Rao 2014 - Gunda Lakshmi Devi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Basic Information of Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  3. ^ a b "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  4. ^ "Srikakulam District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 202, 219. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook – Srikakulam" (PDF). Census of India. p. 27. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  6. ^ "Srikakulam Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "Site is Down". 
  8. ^ "Srikakulam City Population Census 2011 - Andhra Pradesh". 
  9. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Masula, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram upgraded into corporations". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 10 December 2015. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook – Srikakulam" (PDF). Census of India. p. 27. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  12. ^ "MLA". AP State Portal. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "MP (Lok Sabha)". Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 22,31. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  16. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  17. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 

External links[edit]