EF English Proficiency Index

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World map
World map representing different levels of English proficiency in the world in 2021.[1]
  •   Very High Proficiency
  •   High Proficiency
  •   Moderate Proficiency
  •   Low Proficiency
  •   Very Low Proficiency
  •   Not included in the report

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the equity of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.[2] It is the product of EF Education First, an international education company, and draws its conclusions from data collected via English tests available for free over the internet.[3][4] The index is an online survey first published in 2011[5] based on test data from 1.7 million test takers.[6] The most recent edition was released in November 2021.[7][8]

Methodology[edit]

The EF EPI 2021 edition was calculated using test data from 2 million test takers in 2020. The test takers were self-selected. 112 countries and territories appear in this edition of the index. In order to be included, a country was required to have at least 400 test takers.[9]

Report[edit]

The report is composed of a country ranking table, several pages of analysis with graphs correlating other economic and social factors with English proficiency, and analysis of each region or continent. The 2021 report includes English proficiency levels by gender, age group, and region, within countries, and some English proficiency scores by city. The website displays portions of the report and has analysis of English skills in many countries and territories.[9]

Primary conclusions[edit]

  1. Exports per capita, Gross National Income per capita and innovation all correlate positively with English proficiency.[10]
  2. English proficiency levels are evolving at different rates in different countries, including a few countries with declining English skills.[11]
  3. Europe has the highest proficiency in English, while the Middle East averages the lowest.[12]

2021 rankings[edit]

Below are the latest country scores, proficiency bands, and rankings as published in 2021.[1]

2021 Rank Country 2021 Score 2021 Proficiency Band
1  Netherlands 663 Very High Proficiency
2  Austria 641 Very High Proficiency
3  Denmark 636 Very High Proficiency
4  Singapore 635 Very High Proficiency
5  Norway 632 Very High Proficiency
6  Belgium 629 Very High Proficiency
7  Portugal 625 Very High Proficiency
8  Sweden 623 Very High Proficiency
9  Finland 618 Very High Proficiency
10  Croatia 617 Very High Proficiency
11  Germany 616 Very High Proficiency
12  South Africa 606 Very High Proficiency
13  Luxembourg 604 Very High Proficiency
14  Serbia 599 High Proficiency
15  Romania 598 High Proficiency
16  Poland 597 High Proficiency
17  Hungary 593 High Proficiency
18  Philippines 592 High Proficiency
19  Greece 591 High Proficiency
20  Slovakia 590 High Proficiency
21  Kenya 587 High Proficiency
22  Estonia 581 High Proficiency
23  Bulgaria 580 High Proficiency
24  Lithuania 579 High Proficiency
25   Switzerland 575 High Proficiency
26  Latvia 569 High Proficiency
27  Czech Republic 563 High Proficiency
28  Malaysia 562 High Proficiency
29  Nigeria 560 High Proficiency
30  Argentina 556 High Proficiency
31  France 551 High Proficiency
32  Hong Kong 545 Moderate Proficiency
33  Spain 540 Moderate Proficiency
34  Lebanon 536 Moderate Proficiency
35  Italy 535 Moderate Proficiency
36  Moldova 532 Moderate Proficiency
37  South Korea 529 Moderate Proficiency
38  Belarus 528 Moderate Proficiency
39  Albania 527 Moderate Proficiency
40  Ukraine 525 Moderate Proficiency
41  Bolivia 524 Moderate Proficiency
42  Ghana 523 Moderate Proficiency
43  Cuba 521 Moderate Proficiency
44  Costa Rica 520 Moderate Proficiency
44  Dominican Republic 520 Moderate Proficiency
44  Paraguay 520 Moderate Proficiency
47  Chile 516 Moderate Proficiency
48  India 515 Moderate Proficiency
49  Mainland China 513 Moderate Proficiency
50  Georgia 512 Moderate Proficiency
51  Russia 511 Moderate Proficiency
52  Tunisia 510 Moderate Proficiency
53  Uruguay 509 Moderate Proficiency
54  El Salvador 508 Moderate Proficiency
55  Honduras 506 Moderate Proficiency
56  Peru 505 Moderate Proficiency
57  Macau 504 Moderate Proficiency
58  Iran 501 Moderate Proficiency
59  Armenia 499 Low Proficiency
60  Brazil 497 Low Proficiency
61  Guatemala 493 Low Proficiency
62    Nepal 492 Low Proficiency
63  Ethiopia 491 Low Proficiency
63  Pakistan 491 Low Proficiency
65  Bangladesh 490 Low Proficiency
66  Vietnam 486 Low Proficiency
67  Tanzania 485 Low Proficiency
68  Mozambique 482 Low Proficiency
69  United Arab Emirates 480 Low Proficiency
70  Turkey 478 Low Proficiency
71  Morocco 477 Low Proficiency
72  Bahrain 476 Low Proficiency
73  Panama 475 Low Proficiency
73  Venezuela 475 Low Proficiency
75  Algeria 474 Low Proficiency
76  Nicaragua 470 Low Proficiency
77  Madagascar 469 Low Proficiency
78  Japan 468 Low Proficiency
79  Qatar 467 Low Proficiency
80  Indonesia 466 Low Proficiency
81  Colombia 465 Low Proficiency
82  Sri Lanka 464 Low Proficiency
83  Mongolia 461 Low Proficiency
84  Kuwait 458 Low Proficiency
85  Egypt 455 Low Proficiency
86  Azerbaijan 451 Low Proficiency
87  Afghanistan 448 Very Low Proficiency
88  Uzbekistan 447 Very Low Proficiency
89  Syria 445 Very Low Proficiency
90  Ecuador 440 Very Low Proficiency
90  Jordan 440 Very Low Proficiency
92  Mexico 436 Very Low Proficiency
93  Myanmar 429 Very Low Proficiency
94  Angola 428 Very Low Proficiency
94  Cameroon 428 Very Low Proficiency
96  Kazakhstan 426 Very Low Proficiency
97  Cambodia 423 Very Low Proficiency
98  Sudan 421 Very Low Proficiency
99  Ivory Coast 420 Very Low Proficiency
100  Thailand 419 Very Low Proficiency
101  Kyrgyzstan 418 Very Low Proficiency
102  Oman 417 Very Low Proficiency
103  Tajikistan 405 Very Low Proficiency
104  Saudi Arabia 404 Very Low Proficiency
105  Haiti 403 Very Low Proficiency
106  Somalia 401 Very Low Proficiency
107  Iraq 399 Very Low Proficiency
108  Libya 390 Very Low Proficiency
109  Rwanda 389 Very Low Proficiency
110  Democratic Republic of Congo 386 Very Low Proficiency
111  South Sudan 363 Very Low Proficiency
112  Yemen 360 Very Low Proficiency

2021 rankings cities[edit]

City 2021 Score 2021 Proficiency Band
Amsterdam 682 Very High Proficiency
Copenhagen 668 Very High Proficiency
Helsinki 659 Very High Proficiency
Vienna 658 Very High Proficiency
Stockholm 646 Very High Proficiency
Porto 643 Very High Proficiency
Johannesburg 641 Very High Proficiency
Lisbon 638 Very High Proficiency
Zagreb 635 Very High Proficiency
Oslo 633 Very High Proficiency
Budapest 628 Very High Proficiency
Berlin 622 Very High Proficiency
Hamburg 622 Very High Proficiency
Warsaw 621 Very High Proficiency
Athens 616 Very High Proficiency
Bucharest 612 Very High Proficiency
Belgrade 604 Very High Proficiency
Nairobi 601 Very High Proficiency
Brussels 598 High Proficiency
Davao City 597 High Proficiency
Kuala Lumpur 596 High Proficiency
Manila 595 High Proficiency
Paris 595 High Proficiency
Bratislava 594 High Proficiency
Sofia 591 High Proficiency
Prague 590 High Proficiency
Chennai 586 High Proficiency
Mumbai 586 High Proficiency
Lyon 580 High Proficiency
Bangalore 579 High Proficiency
Lagos 576 High Proficiency
Milan 571 High Proficiency
Seoul 571 High Proficiency
Barcelona 569 High Proficiency
Madrid 569 High Proficiency
Buenos Aires 567 High Proficiency
Córdoba 561 High Proficiency
San José 553 High Proficiency
Rome 552 High Proficiency
Santiago 552 High Proficiency
Hanoi 548 Moderate Proficiency
Hyderabad 548 Moderate Proficiency
São Paulo 546 Moderate Proficiency
Hong Kong 545 Moderate Proficiency
Shanghai 543 Moderate Proficiency
Minsk 538 Moderate Proficiency
Saint Petersburg 537 Moderate Proficiency
Moscow 535 Moderate Proficiency
Santo Domingo 535 Moderate Proficiency
Accra 534 Moderate Proficiency
Lima 532 Moderate Proficiency
Kyiv 531 Moderate Proficiency
Guadalajara 528 Moderate Proficiency
Havana 534 Moderate Proficiency
Delhi 524 Moderate Proficiency
Beijing 523 Moderate Proficiency
Tbilisi 523 Moderate Proficiency
Dar Es Salaam 522 Moderate Proficiency
Surabaya 522 Moderate Proficiency
Addis Ababa 521 Moderate Proficiency
Taipei 521 Moderate Proficiency
Tirana 520 Moderate Proficiency
Brasília 517 Moderate Proficiency
Tokyo 516 Moderate Proficiency
Montevideo 515 Moderate Proficiency
Shenzen 515 Moderate Proficiency
Tunis 515 Moderate Proficiency
Tehran 514 Moderate Proficiency
Rio de Janeiro 512 Moderate Proficiency
Bandung 512 Moderate Proficiency
Dhaka 512 Moderate Proficiency
Monterrey 512 Moderate Proficiency
Dubai 511 Moderate Proficiency
Karachi 511 Moderate Proficiency
Kazan 511 Moderate Proficiency
San Salvador 510 Moderate Proficiency
Jakarta 506 Moderate Proficiency
Chengdu 505 Moderate Proficiency
Panama City 505 Moderate Proficiency
Caracas 504 Moderate Proficiency
Macau 504 Moderate Proficiency
Guangzhou 498 Low Proficiency
Wuhan 498 Low Proficiency
Guatemala City 497 Low Proficiency
Maputo 493 Low Proficiency
Algiers 492 Low Proficiency
Ankara 489 Low Proficiency
Medellín 489 Low Proficiency
Bogotá 486 Low Proficiency
Casablanca 482 Low Proficiency
Istanbul 482 Low Proficiency
Cairo 480 Low Proficiency
Ho Chi Minh City 480 Low Proficiency
Quito 480 Low Proficiency
Managua 475 Low Proficiency
Mexico City 475 Low Proficiency
Doha 472 Low Proficiency
Bangkok 471 Low Proficiency
Nur-Sultan 470 Low Proficiency
Almaty 466 Low Proficiency
Tijuana 464 Low Proficiency
Amman 460 Low Proficiency
Baku 459 Low Proficiency
Cali 458 Low Proficiency
Ulaanbaatar 454 Low Proficiency
Damascus 451 Low Proficiency
Tashkent 446 Very Low Proficiency
Khartoum 441 Very Low Proficiency
Yangon 441 Very Low Proficiency
Kabul 440 Very Low Proficiency
Bishkek 437 Very Low Proficiency
Luanda 436 Very Low Proficiency
Riyadh 432 Very Low Proficiency
Baghdad 431 Very Low Proficiency
Jeddah 424 Very Low Proficiency
Mogadishu 423 Very Low Proficiency
Abidjan 421 Very Low Proficiency
Tripoli 421 Very Low Proficiency
Yaoundé 420 Very Low Proficiency
Dushanbe 412 Very Low Proficiency
Kigali 405 Very Low Proficiency
Kinshasa 403 Very Low Proficiency
Juba 375 Very Low Proficiency

Similar reports[edit]

The European Commission performed a language survey, SurveyLang, which tested a representative sample of 15-year-old European students on their foreign language skills. The report and data sets were released for 13 European countries in June 2012.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "EF EPI 2021 - EF English Proficiency Index". 2021.
  2. ^ English: Who speaks English?. The Economist. Retrieved on 2011-05-29.
  3. ^ Study Offers Snapshot of Global English-Language-Learner Trends. Education Week. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  4. ^ The EF SET powers the EF EPI. EF SET. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  5. ^ The EF EPI. ef.com. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  6. ^ Low English Levels Can Hurt Countries' Progress. New York Times. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  7. ^ https://www.ef.com/assetscdn/WIBIwq6RdJvcD9bc8RMd/legacy/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v10/ef-epi-2020-english.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ Women and managers are better at speaking English, study on proficiency finds. Business Insider. Retrieved on 2018-11-09
  9. ^ a b EF English Proficiency Index – Comparing English skills between countries – EF EPI. Ef.com. Retrieved on 2018-11-09.
  10. ^ Minh Tran: Countries with High English Proficiency Are More Innovative. Harvard Business Review. "Minh Tran is Director of Research and Partnerships for EF Education First and a member of the team that launched the EF Standard English Test." Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  11. ^ How Well Does Your Country Speak English?. Voice of America. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  12. ^ Which countries are best at English as a second language?. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  13. ^ SurveyLang project. European Commission. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.

External links[edit]