List of situation comedies with LGBT characters
itThe following is a listing of sitcoms which include central LGBT characters.
|1972–1973||Corner BarThe Corner Bar||ABC||Peter Panama||Vincent Schiavelli||The first continuing portrayal of a gay person on American television.|
|1972-1985||Are You Being Served?||BBC||Mr. Humphries||John Inman||British sitcom about staff working in the Grace Brothers department store.|
|1975||Hot l Baltimore||ABC||George
|The first gay couple on American network television.|
|1975–1982||Barney Miller||ABC||Marty Morrison
|Marty was a semi-regular on the long-running television series and Darryl made several appearances as Marty's lover. Series creator Danny Arnold worked closely with the National Gay Task Force in developing the characters of Darryl and Marty. Initially both were presented as flamboyantly gay men, but as the series progressed Darryl began acting and dressing more conservatively. Officer Zatelli's coming out, initially to Captain Miller but eventually to the entire squad, was the first gay-themed story arc on American television and Arnold again worked with the NGTF to develop it.|
|1976-1977||Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman||Syndicated||Ed McCullough
|Ed and Howard were introduced as a pair of brothers sharing a house in the Hartmans' neighborhood but were later revealed to be a gay couple hoping to live an open life in Fernwood.|
|1976 (unaired)||Snip||NBC||Michael||Walter Wanderman||He was the owner of the salon where the characters worked.|
|1976||Nancy Walker ShowThe Nancy Walker Show||ABC||Terry Folson||Ken Olfson||Terry was an out-of-work actor and personal assistant to lead character Nancy Kitteridge (Nancy Walker).|
|1976||Ball Four||CBS||Based on the book Ball Four. Featured a gay rookie baseball player.|
|1977||All That Glitters||Syndicated||Linda Murkland||Linda Gray||Linda Murkland was a transgender woman (the first transgender series regular on American television).|
|1977–1981||Soap||ABC||Jodie Dallas||Billy Crystal||By the end of the series, Jodie was romantically involved with a woman.|
|First British sitcom to feature a gay couple in a non-camp fashion.|
|1981–1983||Love, Sidney||NBC||Sidney Shore||Tony Randall||The first prime-time television series to have a gay character as its central lead although the character was in the closet for all 40 episodes.|
|1981||Daily at Dawn||Seven Network||Leslie Windrush||Terry Bader||The first Australian comedy series to feature a regular gay character.|
|1984||Dream Stuffing||Channel 4||Richard||Ray Burdis||British sitcom about two unemployed girls who share a London flat. Their neighbour Richard is gay.|
Philip Charles MacKenzie
|Two heterosexual brothers cope when third brother (Cliff) comes out as gay. Donald is Cliff's gay neighbor.|
|1985||Sara||NBC||Dennis Kemper||Bronson Pinchot||Dennis is an attorney in the law firm at which the series is set.|
|David Marshall Grant
|Two supporting gay characters, one an artist and one working in advertising. Focus of the episode Strangers.|
|1987–1988||Women in Prison||Fox||Bonnie Harper||Antionette Byron|
|1987–1989||Hooperman||ABC||Rick Silardi||Joseph Gian||Uniformed Police Officer Rick Silardi is openly gay, but seems to spend most of his time fending off the affections of his straight female police partner, Officer Mo DeMott (Sydney Walsh), who wants to "save him" from being gay by making passes at him whenever possible.|
|In the final episode, Rosanne Conner revealed that the last season was a story she'd written. Her mother wasn't really gay but her sister was.|
|1989–1991||Doctor Doctor||CBS||Richard Stratford||Tony Carreiro||Richard is the openly gay brother of lead character Mike Stratford (Matt Frewer).|
|1990–1993||You Rang M'Lord?||BBC||Helen Cooper Cecily "Cissy" Meldrum||Catherine Rabett|
|1990–1998||Drop the Dead Donkey||Channel 4||Helen Cooper||Ingrid Lacey|
|1991–1997||Brittas EmpireThe Brittas Empire||BBC||Gavin Featherly
|Tim and Gavin are a couple working at the leisure centre, who, though out, choose not to tell some people due to fear of being fired. Their homophobic boss is innocently oblivious to their relationship for seven years.|
|1992||Terry and Julian||Channel 4||Julian||Julian Clary|
|1992–1998||Larry Sanders ShowThe Larry Sanders Show||HBO||Brian||Scott Thompson|
|1993||Cutters||CBS||Troy King||Julius Carry||Troy was an Olympic gold medalist turned hairdresser.|
|1993-1996||The John Larroquette Show||NBC||Pat||Jazzmun||A drag queen who hangs out at the bus station where the lead character works.|
|1994||Daddy's Girls||CBS||Dennis Sinclair||Harvey Fierstein||Sinclair is a high-strung fashion designer. He was the first gay principal television character played by an openly gay actor.|
|After months of media speculation, Ellen Morgan came out in "The Puppy Episode". Peter and Barrett were Ellen's friends and a couple.|
|1994–1999||Vicar of DibleyThe Vicar of Dibley||BBC||Frank Pickle||John Bluthal|
|Carol is Ross's ex-wife, who realized that she was a lesbian. In 1996, Carol marries Susan, her partner, in network TV's first lesbian wedding.|
|1995||Muscle||The WB||Bronwyn Jones||Amy Pietz||Lead character Bronwyn is a lesbian news anchor.|
|1995||Pursuit of HappinessThe Pursuit of Happiness||NBC||Alex Chosek||Brad Garrett|
|1995||Agony Again||BBC||Michael||Sasha Grunpeter||Short-lived sequel to 1979 sitcom Agony. Jane Lucas's son Michael is gay.|
|1995–1996||High Society||CBS||Stephano||Luigi Amodeo|
|1995–1996||CrewThe Crew||Fox||Paul Steadman||David Burke|
|1996||Public Morals||CBS||John Irvin||Bill Brochtrup|
|1996||Party Girl||Fox||Derrick||John Cameron Mitchell||Short-lived sitcom based on the 1995 theatrical film|
|1996||Lush Life||Fox||Nelson "Margarita" Marquez||John Ortiz|
|1996–2002||Spin City||ABC||Carter Sebastian Heywood||Michael Boatman|
|1997–1998||Fired Up||NBC||Ashley||Mark Davis|
|1997–2000||Veronica's Closet||NBC||Josh Blair||Wallace Langham||Josh's sexuality was obfuscated as a running joke until the 2000 episode "Veronica Helps Josh Out", when he came out as gay.|
|1998–2004||Sex and the City||HBO||Stanford Blatch
|Stanford and Anthony are gay. Samantha is bisexual and has a romance with a woman, Maria (Sônia Braga).|
|1998–2006||Will & Grace||NBC||Will Truman
|Will and Jack are gay. Karen's bisexuality is implied. Vince is Will's partner.|
|1999||Oh, Grow Up||ABC||Ford Lowell
|Ford is a married man who left his wife after realizing he was gay. Sal is lead character Hunter's (Stephen Dunham) boss.|
|1999–2000||Strangers with Candy||Comedy Central||Jerri Blank
|Jerri is bisexual. Jellineck and Noblet carried on a clandestine affair.|
|1999–2001||Beggars and Choosers||Showtime||Malcolm Laffley||Tuc Watkins||Laffley is a television casting director who came out to disprove sexual harassment charges leveled at him by a woman.|
|2000||Normal, Ohio||Fox||William "Butch" Gamble||John Goodman|
|2000–2011||My Family||BBC One||Michael Harper||Gabriel Thompson||On 15 April 2010, MailOnline reported that despite his earlier reputation as a womanizer, Michael would come out as gay to his parents in the tenth series.|
|2001||Ellen ShowThe Ellen Show||CBS||Ellen Richmond||Ellen DeGeneres|
|2001||Some of My Best Friends||CBS||Warren Fairbanks
|Based on the film Kiss Me, Guido|
|2002||That '80s Show||CBS||Sophia||Brittany Daniel||Corey's bisexual ex-girlfriend who has an unreturned crush on Corey's sister Katie.|
|2002-2007||Kath & Kim||ABC/Seven Network||Sharon Strzelecki||Magda Szubanski||Sharon is a sports fanatic, especially around male-oriented games, and has dated guys, but it is later implied in the film Kath & Kimderella that she might have bisexual feelings, even though she is clueless about her own sexual orientation, believes that a shirt with the LGBT rainbow flag colors looks good on her, and later gyrating around a lesbian golfer. (Szubanski is a Lesbian in real-life)|
|2003–2015||Two and a Half Men||CBS||Evelyn Harper
|Evelyn is the bisexual mother of Charlie and Alan Harper (Charlie Sheen and Jon Cryer). For most of the series, Evelyn is portrayed as a heterosexual but there are instances in seasons 8, 9, and 11 where she has lesbian sex with three different women, including actress Lynda Carter.
Jenny joins the cast in season 11, the previously unknown daughter of Charlie. She engages in several one-night stands with various women.
|2003–2009||Reno 911!||Comedy Central||Lieutenant Dangle
|2003–2006||Aquí no hay quien viva||Antena 3||Mauri Hidalgo
|Stable gay relationship between main characters Mauri and Fernando. During a time they were broken up, Mauri had a relationship with Diego, who left him for another man and later regretted it. But by then Mauri and Fernando were together again.
Mauri also has a son by artificial insemination with lesbian best friend Bea, who had a relationship with a lawyer, Rosa, for a while. Afterwards, she had a wild night with Ana, who became lesbian for her and became a stable couple.
|2003–2006, 2013—||Arrested Development||Fox (season 1—3)
Netflix (season 4— )
|It is a running joke that Barry Zuckercorn is a closeted gay man who is frequently thinking of outlandish excuses to conceal his true activities.
In the show's fourth season, Gob becomes romantically involved with fellow magician Tony Wonder.
|2003–2004||It's All Relative||ABC||Simon Banks
John Benjamin Hickey
|2003-2015||Peep Show||Channel 4||Jeremy 'Jez' Usborne||Robert Webb||Jez is implied to be bisexual a few times throughout the series. In the series 9 episode 'Threeism' he sleeps with Megan's boyfriend Joe and then enters into a relationship with both of them.|
|2005–2013||OfficeThe Office||NBC||Oscar Martinez||Oscar Nuñez|
|2005–2009||My Name is Earl||NBC||Kenny James
|2005–2008||South of Nowhere||The N||Spencer Carlin
|Ashley Davies is an out lesbian with a reputation for being easy. Spencer Carlin is still coming to terms with her sexuality and later starts a relationship with Ashley. Kelly an out lesbian tries to seduce Spencer but is rejected. Spencer begins dating Carmen after breaking up with Ashley.|
|2005–2007||War at HomeThe War At Home||Fox||Khaleel "Kenny" Al-Bahir||Rami Malek||Kenny is a 16-year-old boy who harbors a secret crush on his best friend Larry and is subsequently kicked out of his house when his parents find out he's gay.|
|2005–2006||Out of Practice||CBS||Regina Barnes||Paula Marshall|
|2005–2006||Twins||The WB||Neil||Christopher Fitzgerald|
|2005–2006||Seven Periods with Mr Gormsby||TVNZ 1||Alisdair Morton
|2005-||It's Always Sunny In Philadelphia||FXX||Mac (Ronald MacDonald)
|In the episode "Hero or Hate Crime" (season 12, episode 6), Mac comes out of the closet after denying his sexuality, even coming out and going back in the closet in the two part episode "The Gang Goes to Hell" (season 11, episodes 9 and 10). Mac came out again in "Hero or Hate Crime" (season 12, episode 6), this time remaining out of the closet.
Dennis was confirmed as bisexual by the actor, mentioning multiple times in the show that he would be willing to have sex with men if the situation came up.
|2005||All About George||ITV
|2005||ComebackThe Comeback||HBO||Mickey Deane||Robert Michael Morris||Mickey is a hairdresser and confidant to lead character Valerie Cherish (Lisa Kudrow) who, despite being obviously gay, believes he is closeted.|
|2005||It's Me...Gerald||Showcase||Gerald||Gerald L'Ecuyer|
|2006–2013||30 Rock||NBC||Devon Banks
|Devon Banks is Jack Donaghy's nemesis, an executive who constantly tries to foil Jack's attempts to advance professionally. At first Devon is closeted but in the fifth season, it is revealed he has moved to Brooklyn and had children with an African-American dancer, Cashmere. Jonathan is Jack's assistant, who is smitten with his boss. J.D. Lutz is a TGS writer, whose sexual orientation was a mystery throughout the series. It was revealed in the series finale that he is bisexual. Randy is Liz Lemon's nephew.|
|2006–2007||BusinessThe Business||IFC||Terrence von Holtzen
|Terrence is an intern who in season 2 is promoted to Associate Co-head of the Animation and Historical Adaptation Department. Wendell is the company's accountant. In a sexually charged second season episode Terrence admits his repressed homosexuality and he and Wendell hook up.|
|René Richard Cyr
|Series focuses on four drag queens.|
|2006–2007||ClassThe Class||CBS||Kyle Lendo
Cristian de la Fuente
|Kyle is in a relationship with Aaron. He is a second grade teacher at an elite private school.|
|2006||Crumbs||ABC||Mitch Crumb||Fred Savage|
|2006||So NoTORIous||VH1||Sasan||Zachary Quinto||Sasan is based on Tori Spelling's friend Mehran Farhat.|
|Layla is a Muslim-Australian who lives with her conservative family and is unenthusiastically engaged to be married to a man named Sharif. But when she falls in love with fellow fencer Jackie, she has to choose between following her heart or making her family happy.|
|2007–2010||Sarah Silverman ProgramThe Sarah Silverman Program||Comedy Central||Brian
|2007–||Benidorm||ITV||Kenneth du Beke||Tony Maudsley||Hairdresser in the Solana hotel.|
|Matt is an OB/GYN and lead character Sophie's best friend. Verner is his partner. Bernard is a waiter at the café where Matt and Sophie hang out, with whom Matt has an affair.|
|2008||Sordid Lives: The Series||Logo||Earl "Brother Boy" Ingram
|Brother Boy likes to perform as Tammy Wynette and tries to escape from treatments to dehomosexualize him. Ty is an actor in Los Angeles coming to terms with his homosexuality.|
|2009–||Nurse Jackie||Showtime||Mohammed "Mo-Mo" de la Cruz
Dr. Eleanor O'Hara
|Mohammed and Thor are nurses at All Saints' Hospital. Mohammed was dropped after the first season, the producers' stated reason being "the character’s storyline ran its course".
Dr. O'Hara is in a relationship with a woman journalist in season 2 but has had sex on the show with at least one man.
Brian Stokes Mitchell
|Kurt is a member of the glee club. He comes out to his father in the episode "Preggers".
Sandy, a self-described "predatory gay", was the glee club director until being fired for inappropriate contact with a student. He then turned to dealing in medical marijuana to make a living.
Blaine was introduced in "Never Been Kissed", and soon becomes Kurt's boyfriend.
Dave was introduced as a football player and a bully in season one. In season two, he begins targeting Kurt for being gay. In "Never Been Kissed", Kurt confronts Dave and Dave kisses him.
Sebastian is introduced in "The First Time" as a new Warbler who sets his sights on Blaine.
Brittany lets slip in "Sectionals" that she and Santana have had sex. Initially meant as a throw away line to jokingly make reference to the closeness of the two then minor characters, the writers began taking the relationship seriously due to pressure from fans and both Morris and Rivera. The storyline saw great advances in the second season once the actresses were promoted to the main cast. They are seen making out on Brittany's bed in "Duets" and also make reference to the lesbian sex act of scissoring. In "Sexy" Santana finally professes her love for Brittany and later admits that she is a lesbian. Brittany is thought to be bisexual or pansexual.
Hiram and LeRoy Berry are Rachel's fathers.
Unique is a transgender member of the rival Vocal Adrenaline show choir who identifies as female. She joins New Directions in season 4.
|2009–||Modern Family||ABC||Mitchell Pritchett
|Jesse Tyler Ferguson
|As of the series opener, Mitchell and Cameron have been together for five years and have an adopted Vietnamese-born daughter, Lilly.|
|2009—2013||Go Girls||TVNZ 2||Levi Hirsh
|Levi is a sassy gay Jewish man whose Go Girls pledge is to get revenge.
Levi's ex-boyfriend and first love since high school.
|2010-2015||Hot in Cleveland||TV Land||Rejoyla "Joy" Scruggs
|Laura San Giacomo||Melanie Moretti's (Valerie Bertinelli) estranged sister Caroline is a lesbian and her girlfriend was trying to hit on Melanie.|
|2010–2012||Grandma's House||BBC Two||Simon
|Lead character Simon is a fictionalized version of gay comedian and TV host Simon Amstell. Over the course of the series he develops a relationship with actor Ben Theodore.|
|2010–2011||Hard Times of RJ BergerThe Hard Times of RJ Berger||MTV||Max Owens||Jayson Blair||Lead character RJ (Paul Iacono) discovers Max is gay when he espies him making out in the high school locker room showers with Guillermo in the season 2 episode "Steamy Surprise".|
|2010—2011||Blue Mountain State||Spike||Denise Roy
Mary Jo Cacciatore
|Denise was bisexual, acknowledging having had sex with several people of both sexes.
Mary Jo joined the series in season 2 and began identifying as lesbian in season 3.
|2010–2011||$h*! My Dad Says||CBS||Tim||Tim Bagley|
|2010||Running Wilde||Fox||Mr. Lunt||Robert Michael Morris||Mr. Lunt is the personal assistant to lead character Steve Wilde (Will Arnett).|
|2011–||Mrs. Brown's Boys||RTÉ One||Rory Brown
|2011–2014||Suburgatory||ABC||Mr. Wolfe||Rex Lee|
|Clark is outed by the school bully in the season one finale. He becomes a confidant to lead character Jenna (Ashley Rickards) and eventually identifies himself as the anonymous poster who has been commenting on her blog. Clark is caught making out with Ricky in the final episode of season two.|
|2011–2013||Happily Divorced||TV Land||Peter Lovett||John Michael Higgins||Peter, a realtor, comes out to his wife Fran (Fran Drescher) after 18 years of marriage. The series is based on the real story of Drescher and her ex-husband, Peter Marc Jacobson.|
|2011–2013||Happy Endings||ABC||Max Blum
|Max, a bearish slacker who constantly schemes ridiculous ideas to take advantage of his tendency toward laziness, is one of the show's central characters. Derrick, a recurring character, is a friend of his from the gym. Jane can be classified as bisexual. In season 3, her husband found out that she was in love with several women during college. Grant is Max's ex-boyfriend.|
|2011||Death Valley||MTV||Officer Carla Rinaldi||Tania Raymonde|
|2011||Sirens||Channel 4||Ashley Greenwick||Richard Madden||Ashley is a gay EMT.|
|2012—||Ima ve'abaz||HOT 3||Erez
|Erez and Sammy are an Israeli gay couple raising a child with their best friend Talia (Maya Dagan).|
|2012–||The Girl's Guide to Depravity||Cinemax||Tyler||Joe Komara||Tyler is the wise-cracking bartender at the club frequented by several of the other characters.|
|2012–||House Husbands||Nine Network||Kane
|2012–||Anger Management||FX||Patrick||Michael Arden|
|2012–||House of Lies||Showtime||Roscoe Kaan
|Donis Leonard, Jr.
|Roscoe is the pre-teen son of lead character Marty Kaan (Don Cheadle). He exhibits gender-variant behaviour, including cross-dressing, and has expressed interest in both boys and girls.
Principal Gita is the principal of Roscoe's school; she was formerly married to a man before finding her "life partner Deandra".
April is a former stripper turned law student who has a self-described "weakness for pretty girls".
|2012–2013||Malibu Country||ABC||Geoffrey||Jai Rodriguez|
|2012–2013||Go On||NBC||Anne||Julie White||Anne is a member of the show's central support group, a lesbian mother whose wife recently died.|
|2012–2013||New Normal, TheThe New Normal||NBC||David Sawyer
|David and Bryan are a gay couple who have hired a surrogate mother.
Gary is a counselor at the surrogacy agency.
|2012–2013||Whitney||NBC||Neal||Maulik Pancholy||Neal comes out as bisexual after his friends catch him on a date with a man.|
|Louis is an architect who is business partners with his heterosexual childhood friend Charlie.
Wyatt is a nurse and Louis's boyfriend.
|2013—||Getting On||HBO||Patsy De La Serta||Mel Rodriguez|
|2013—||Brooklyn Nine-Nine||Fox||Captain Ray Holt||Andre Braugher||Holt is the new captain of the 99th Precinct.|
|2013—||Please Like Me||ABC2||Josh
|The series begins with Josh realizing that he is gay after breaking up with Claire and getting hit on by Geoffrey.|
|2013—2014||Sean Saves the World||NBC||Sean||Sean Hayes||Sean is a divorced gay father with a successful, yet demanding, career.|
|2014—||Broad City||Comedy Central||Ilana Wexler
|Main character Ilana is bisexual. Her roommate, Jaime, is gay.|
|2014—2016||Faking It||MTV||Shane Harvey
Bailey de Young
|Shane Harvey the most popular boy in school is openly gay. Amy Raudenfeld harbours secret feelings for her best friend Karma Ashcroft. Lauren Cooper is the first intersex main character on a television show; she has complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.|
Richie Donado Ventura
Frankie J. Alvarez
O. T. Fagbenle
|About three gay men living in San Francisco, their love lives, professional lives and gay encounters.|
|2014—||Mystery Girls||ABC Family||Nick Diaz||Miguel Pinzon|
|2014—2015||Sirens||USA Network||Hank St. Clare
Valentina 'Voodoo' Dunacci
|Based on the 2011 series of the same name. Hank is a gay, Voodoo is an asexual EMT. Nick is Hank's on-again, off-again boyfriend.|
|2014—||Young & Hungry||ABC Family||Elliot Park||Rex Lee|
|2014—2015||McCarthys, TheThe McCarthys||CBS||Ronny McCarthy||Tyler Ritter|
|2015—||Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt||Netflix||Titus Andromedon||Tituss Burgess|
|2015—||The Switch||OutTV||Sü||Nyla Rose||Trans woman played by trans actress.|
|2015–||Other Space||Yahoo! Screen||Stewart Lipinski
|Karen and Tina are revealed to have had a one night stand in college. Stewart mentions having had a boyfriend.|
|2015–||Crazy Ex-Girlfriend||The CW||White Josh
|2016–||The Real O'Neals||ABC||Kenny O'Neal||Noah Galvin||Kenny is the middle child of a Catholic family living in Chicago.|
|2016–||American Housewife||ABC||Angela||Carly Hughes|
|2016–||The Great Indoors||CBS||Mason||Shaun Brown||Mason is bisexual.|
|2017–||Trial & Error||NBC||Larry Henderson
|Larry and Summer are bisexual.|
- List of situation comedies without laugh tracks
- Lists of television programs with LGBT characters
- List of LGBT characters in television and radio
- List of animated television programs with LGBT characters
- List of comedy and variety television programs with LGBT cast members
- List of dramatic television series with LGBT characters
- List of made-for-television films with LGBT characters
- List of news and information television programs featuring LGBT subjects
- List of reality television programs with LGBT cast members
- List of soap operas with LGBT characters
- Sparta, Christine (2002-03-11). "Emergence from the closet". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- Capsuto, Steven. "U.S. Television: 1970–1975 (click on link Barney Miller)". Retrieved 2009-02-02.
- Frutkin, Alan; Gerry Kroll (1996-08-20). "Gays on the tube". The Advocate. p. 12. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
- Tropiano, p. 270
- Dudley Do Wrong: 'Daddy's Girls' A Sitcom Dud
- Becker, p. 184
- Danuta Walters, p. 100
- Tropiano, p. 292
- Nathan, Sara (2010-04-15). "Son Michael has a surprise in store for TV's My Family by revealing he is gay". MailOnline. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- 'Two and a Half Men': Amber Tamblyn to Play Charlie's Daughter
- Juergens, Brian (February 15, 2007). "The War at Home: The reunion". TheBacklot.com. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- Ausiello, Michael (December 22, 2009). "Exclusive: Nurse Jackie drops Mo-Mo!". EW.com. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- Fran Drescher's 'Happily Divorced' Close To TV Land Pickup
- Tania Raymonde Talks MTV’s DEATH VALLEY and THE TEXAS CHAINSAW MASSACRE 3D
- 'Sirens': Q&A with Richard Madden
- Joe Komara On “The Girl’s Guide To Depravity” And His Nude Audition
- Grantley brings down house in new role
- Meet Matthew Perry's Lesbian Sidekick
- Andre Braugher Plays Gay On Andy Samberg’s “Brooklyn Nine-Nine”
- Becker, Ron (2006). Gay TV and Straight America. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3689-8.
- Danuta Walters, Suzanna (2001), "All gay, all the time?", in Danuta Walters, Suzanna, All the rage: the story of gay visibility in America, Chicago: Chicago University Press, p. 100, ISBN 9780226872322. Preview.
- Tropiano, Stephen (2002). The Prime Time Closet: A History of Gays and Lesbians on TV. New York, Applause Theatre and Cinema Books. ISBN 1-55783-557-8.