Quanzhou

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Quanzhou
泉州市
Prefecture-level city
View of Quanzhou from Mt. Qingyuan
View of Quanzhou from Mt. Qingyuan
Location of Quanzhou City in Fujian
Location of Quanzhou City in Fujian
Quanzhou is located in China
Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 24°55′N 118°35′E / 24.917°N 118.583°E / 24.917; 118.583Coordinates: 24°55′N 118°35′E / 24.917°N 118.583°E / 24.917; 118.583
Country People's Republic of China
Province Fujian
Government
 • CPC Secretary Xu Gang
 • Mayor Zhu Ming
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 11,245 km2 (4,342 sq mi)
 • Urban 868 km2 (335 sq mi)
 • Metro 4,233 km2 (1,634 sq mi)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Prefecture-level city 8,128,530
 • Density 720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,398,427
 • Urban density 1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
 • Metro 6,070,717
 • Metro density 1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 362000
Area code(s) 0595
GDP 2009[1]
 - Total CNY 300.229 billion (USD 43.99 billion)
 - Per capita CNY 38,368 (USD 5,622)
 - Growth Increase 12.5%
License Plate Prefixes 闽C
Local Dialect Min Nan: Quanzhou dialect
Website www.quanzhou.gov.cn
Quanzhou
Chinese 泉州
Postal Map Chuanchow

Quanzhou (also called Zayton/Chinchew, Chinese: 泉州; pinyin: Quánzhōu; Wade–Giles: Ch'üan2-chou1; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chôan-chiu) is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two (Ningde and Nanping) and faces the Taiwan Strait. In older English works, its name may appear as Chinchew,Choanchew, Chinchu, or Zayton.

The prefecture-level city of Quanzhou has an area of 11,245 square kilometres (4,342 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, a population of 8,128,530 inhabitants.[2] Its extended metropolitan (built-up area) is home to 6,070,617 inhabitants, encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts, Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities, Hui'an county, and the Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment. Quanzhou is now the 12th largest Chinese extended metropolitan area (as of 2010).

Administrative divisions[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Quanzhou administers four districts, three county-level cities, four counties, and two special economic districts. The People's Republic of China claims Jinmen County, more widely known as Quemoy, as part of Quanzhou, but the territory is currently under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.

English Name Simplified Traditional Pinyin POJ Area Population Density
Licheng District 鲤城区 鯉城區 Lǐchéng Qū Lí-siâⁿ-khu 53 368,059 6,946
Fengze District 丰泽区 豐澤區 Fēngzé Qū Hong-te̍k-khu 127 529,640 4,170
Luojiang District 洛江区 洛江區 Luòjiāng Qū Lo̍k-kang-khu 382 187,189 490
Quangang District 泉港区 泉港區 Quán'gǎng Qū Chôan-káng-khu 306 313,539 1024
Shishi City 石狮市 石獅市 Shíshī Shì Chio̍h-sai-chhī 160 636,700 3,979
Jinjiang City 晋江市 晉江市 Jìnjiāng Shì Chìn-kang-chhī 722 1,986,447 2,751
Nan'an City 南安市 南安市 Nánān Shì Lâm-oaⁿ-chhī 2,011 1,418,451 705
Hui'an County 惠安县 惠安縣 Huì'ān Xiàn Hūi-oaⁿ-kōan 720 716,224 995
Anxi County 安溪县 安溪縣 Ānxī Xiàn An-khoe-kōan 2,983 977,432 328
Yongchun County 永春县 永春縣 Yǒngchūn Xiàn Éng-chhun-kōan 1,452 452,217 311
Dehua County 德化县 德化縣 Déhuà Xiàn Tek-hòe-kōan 2,232 277,867 124
Quanzhou Economic Development District 泉州经济开发区 泉州經濟開發區 Quánzhōu Jīngjì Kāifā Qū Chôan-chiu-keng-chè-khui-hoat-khu 20 36,758 1,838
Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment 泉州台商投资区 泉州台商投資區 Quánzhōu Táishāng Tóuzī Qū Chôan-chiu-Tâi-siong-tâu-chu-khu 58 228,007 3,931

Geography[edit]

Quanzhou is a coastal prefecture bordered by Xiamen, a sub-provincial city to the southwest. It also borders the Zhangzhou and Longyan prefecture-level city towards the west. Putian and Fuzhou form Quanzhou's northeast border and Sanming forms the northwest one.

Quanzhou
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
34
 
15
10
 
 
74
 
14
10
 
 
105
 
16
11
 
 
133
 
21
15
 
 
152
 
24
20
 
 
197
 
28
24
 
 
91
 
30
25
 
 
130
 
30
25
 
 
83
 
29
24
 
 
44
 
26
21
 
 
33
 
22
17
 
 
28
 
17
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The Public Weather Service Center of CMA 1981–2010 normals

Quanzhou is mountainous and has many rivers and tributaries originating from the interior. The prefecture's two major rivers (Jinjiang and Luojiang) flow into Quanzhou Bay from the west and north, respectively, forming wide estuaries.

Quanzhou has four distinct seasons. Its moderate temperature ranges from 0 to 38 degree Celsius. In summer there are typhoons that bring rain and some damage to the city. It is called the "Coastal Yale" for its fantastic living environment.

History[edit]

Trading port[edit]

Zayton imagined by a 15th-century European illustrator of The Travels of Marco Polo

Quanzhou was established in 718 during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). In those days, Guangzhou was China's greatest seaport, but this status would be surpassed later by Quanzhou. During the Song Dynasty (960–1279) and Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), Quanzhou was one of the world's largest seaports, hosting a large community of foreign-born inhabitants from across the Eurasian world. Today, a number of relics related to that era are preserved and exhibited in the Quanzhou Overseas Relations Museum. A particularly important exhibit is the so-called Quanzhou ship, a seagoing junk that sunk some time after 1272, and was recovered in 1973–74.[3]

Due to its reputation, Quanzhou has been called the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road. From the Arabic name of the city, Zayton (alternately spelt Zaitun or Zaytun), the word satin would be coined.[4] Zayton is also the word for olive and the symbol of peace in the Arabic and Persian languages. Quanzhou may have been given this title by the Muslims in honour of fact that it was a cultural melting pot at the time due to the trade culture.

Zhao Rugua was a customs inspector at Quanzhou. He wrote the Zhufan Zhi (諸蕃志, Chu-fan-chi), which was about foreign places and items which were traded. Zhao wrote on the origin of the frankincense trade into China:

"Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat (Maloba), Shihr (Shihe), and Dhofar (Nufa), from the depths of the remotest mountains.[5] The tree which yields this drug may generally be compared to the pine tree. Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, and, when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Dashi (on the coast), who then load it upon their ships to exchange it for other commodities in Sanfoqi. This is the reason why it is commonly collected at and known as a product of Sanfoqi."[6]

In The Travels of Marco Polo, Quanzhou (called Zayton, T'swan-Chau, or Chin-Cheu) was listed as the departure point for Marco Polo's expedition to escort the 17-year-old Mongol princess bride Kököchin to her new husband in the Persian Ilkhanate. In 1357 however a military revolt by the local Muslim militia against the Yuan dynasty led to the Ispah Rebellion that resulted in large civilian casualties in Quanzhou, with the Yuan loyalist commander Chen Youding massacring the Muslim community.

Of the Chinese Li family in Quanzhou, Li Nu, the son of Li Lu, visited Hormuz in Persia in 1376, converted to Islam, married a Persian girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. Li Nu was the ancestor of the Ming Dynasty reformer Li Chih.[7][8][9]

Quanzhou was an important port in Yuan dynasty. For example, the Mongol invasion of Java during the reign of Kubilai Khan sailed from this port.[10]

Tomb of the two worthies, who were among the earliest Islamic missionaries in China.

The Ding family of Chendai in Quanzhou claims descent from the Muslim leader Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar through his son Nasr al-Din (Nasruddin or Na-su-la-ding in Chinese).[11] The Ding family has branches in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia among the diaspora Chinese communities there, no longer practicing Islam but still maintaining a Hui identity. The deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Muslim Association on Taiwan, Ishag Ma (馬孝棋), has claimed "Sayyid is an honorable title given to descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, hence Sayyid Shamsuddin must be connected to Prophet Mohammed". The Ding (Ting) family in Taisi Township in Yunlin County of Taiwan, traces descent from him through the Ding of Quanzhou in Fujian.[12]

Nasruddin was appointed governor in Karadjang, and retained his position in Yunnan till his death, which Rashid, writing about 1300, says occurred five or six years before (according to the Yüan shi, Na-su-la ding died in 1292). Nasr-uddin's son Abubeker, who had the surname Bayan Fenchan (evidently the Boyen ch'a-r of the Yüan shi), was governor in Zaitun at the time Rashid wrote. He bore also his grandfather's title of Sayid Edjell, and was minister of Finance under Kubilai's successor (D'Ohsson, torn, ii, pp. 476, 507, 508). Nasr-uddin is mentioned by M. Polo, who styles him Nescradin (vol. ii, p. 66).[13][14][15]

Quanzhou is a city with a long history and rich culture. It also has many religions, people believe in different religions from various countries came to Quanzhou in ancient time, especially during Song and Yuan Dynasty. Religions like Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism etc. can be seen here, you can visit different places of interest about these religion in Quanzhou city. It was elected as "Ten Most Charm City in China" in 2004 by CCTV China's first charm city selected activities.

Massacre of Portuguese community[edit]

Quanzhou's restored Quanshan Gate, flanked by two stele-carrying turtles

A massacre of the Portuguese at Quanzhou resulted in the Portuguese settlement of Macau. After the Portuguese bribed their way into obtaining a trade mission in Ch' uanchou (Quanzhou), they inflicted savage behaviour against the Chinese. In retaliation, in 1549 the entire Portuguese community of Quanzhou was exterminated by Chinese forces.[16][17][18][19][20] The Emperor had ruled that all Portuguese encountered everywhere should be killed on the spot. The result of this massacre in addition to another at Ch'uanchow resulted in the Portuguese survivors fleeing to Macao, where they were allowed by China to start a colony to build sheds for drying goods in 1557.[21][22][22] The Portuguese were ultimately considered responsible for the massacre by the Chinese, since it was they who provoked the Chinese through "rapaciousness".[23] The Portuguese considered it permissible to attack and pillage "Eastern peoples", and not treat them according to the law. The historian Kenneth Scott Latourette said that "the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank" for the massacres the Chinese committed against them.[24][25] The Portuguese commander Albuquerque once stated "a Chinese junk man knew more about courtesy and humanity than a European knight". The Chinese had massacred them after the Portuguese engaged in pillaging and murder in Chinese villages. "A Lesson" was delivered to the Portuguese in this manner from the Chinese.[26] The section of Macao they settled on was San Chuan island. They had to pay rent to China.[27] They later built some rudimentary stone-houses around the area now called Nam Van. But not until 1557 did the Portuguese establish a permanent settlement in Macau, at an annual rent of 500 taels ( 20 kilograms/44 pounds ) of silver.[28]

Immigration[edit]

New developments east of the city center

Quanzhou is also a migration source of many Overseas Chinese living in South East Asia and to Taiwan during the last couple of centuries. About 6 million people whose ancestors were from Quanzhou now live abroad. Most of them live in Southeast Asian countries like Singapore, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar (Burma), or Thailand. One tenth (0,6) of overseas Quanzhounese now live in Hong Kong.

Minnan dialect[edit]

Locals speak the Quanzhou variety of Min Nan similar to Amoy (spoken in Xiamen), similar to South East Asian Hokkien and Taiwanese. It is essentially the same as the dialect spoken in Xiamen, and is unintelligible with Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Many overseas Chinese whose ancestors came from the Quanzhou area, especially those in Southeast Asia, often speak mainly Hokkien at home. In Taiwan, the locals speak a version of the Minnan language which is called Taiwanese. Around the "triangle area," which includes Quanzhou, Xiamen and Zhangzhou, locals all speak Minnan languages. The dialects they speak are similar but have different intonations. It is analogous to the differences between American English and British English.

Economy[edit]

Quanzhou's Sunwu Creek

Historically, Quanzhou exported black tea, camphor, sugar, indigo, tobacco, ceramics, cloth made of grass, and some minerals. They imported, primarily from Guangzhou, wool cloth, wine, and watches, as of 1832. As of that time, the East India Company was exporting an estimated ₤150,000 a year in black tea from Quanzhou.[29]

Quanzhou is a major exporter of agricultural products such as tea, banana, lychee and rice. It is also a major producer of quarry granite and ceramics. Other industries include textiles, footwear, fashion and apparel, packaging, machinery, paper and petrochemicals.[30]

Quanzhou is the biggest automotive market in Fujian; it has the highest rate of private automobile possession.[31]

Its GDP ranked first in Fujian Province for 20 years, from 1991 to 2010.In 2008, Quanzhou's textile and apparel production accounted for 10% of China's overall apparel production, the production of sport and tourism shoes accounts for 80% of Chinese, and 20% of world production, stone exports account for 50% of Chinese stone exports, resin handicraft exports account for 70% of the country's total, ceramic exports account for 67% of the country's total, and candy production accounts for 20%.

Different districts and counties in Quanzhou have their own special industries which are known to the rest of China. Jinjiang and Shishi are famous for apparel and textiles, Huian is famous for its stone, Quangang is famous for petrifaction, Dehua for Ceramics, Yongchun for Citrus, Anxi for wulong tea, Nan An for building materials, and Fengze for resin.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Street in Quanzhou
Quanzhou Railway Station

Quanzhou is an important transport hub within south eastern Fujian province. Many export industries in the Fujian interior cities will transport goods to Quanzhou ports. Quanzhou Port was one of the most prosperous port in Tang Dynasty while now still an important one for exporting. Quanzhou is also connected by major roads from Fuzhou to the north and Xiamen to the south.

There is a passenger ferry terminal in Shijing, Nan'an, Fujian, with regular service to the Shuitou Port in the ROC-controlled Kinmen Island.

Air[edit]

Jinjiang Domestic Airport is Quanzhou region's airport, served by passenger flights within Fujian province and other destinations throughout the country.

Railway[edit]

Quanzhou has two kinds of railway service. The Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo Railway, a "conventional" rail line, connects several cargo stations within Quanzhou Prefecture with the interior of Fujian and the rest of the country. Passenger trains from Beijing, Wuhan, and other places throughout the country terminate at the Quanzhou East Railway Station, a few kilometers northeast of the center of the city.

Quanzhou is also served by the high-speed Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, opened in 2010, which runs along Fujian's sea coast. High-speed trains on this line stop at Quanzhou Railway Station (in Beifeng Subdistrict of Fengze District, some 10 miles north of Quanzhou city center) and Jinjiang Railway Station. Trains to Xiamen take under 45 minutes, making it a convenient weekend or day trip.

Bus[edit]

Long-distance bus services also run daily/nightly to Shenzhen and other major cities.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Culture[edit]

Kaiyuan Temple, Renshou Pagoda

Quanzhou is one of the twenty-four famous historic cultural cities first approved by the Chinese government.

Notable Historical and cultural sites (the 18 views of Quanzhou as recommended by the Fujian tourism board) include:

  • Qing Yuan mountain (清源山) - The tallest hill within the city limits, which hosts a great view of West lake.
  • East Lake Park (东湖) - Located in the city center. It is home to a small zoo.
  • West lake Park (西湖公园) - The largest body of fresh water within the city limits.
  • Kaiyuan Temple (开元寺) - A very old and famous pair of giant stone pagodas surrounded by temples and wonderful gardens and trees.
  • Ashab Mosque (涂门街) - Said to date to 1009, it is thought to be one of the oldest Mosques in the world and the only one build in that century in China.
  • Scholar Street (状元街) - Champion street about 500 meters long, elegant environment, mainly engaged in tourism and cultural crafts.

Notable Modern cultural sites include:

  • Fengze Square - Located in the city center and acts as a venue for shows and events.
  • Da Ping Shan - The second tallest hill within the city limits, crowned with an enormous equestrian statue of Zheng Chenggong.
  • The Embassy Lounge - Situated in the "1916 Cultural Ideas Zone" which acts as a platform for mixing traditional Chinese art with modern building techniques and designs. It also acts as the unofficial headquarters for the expats of Quanzhou.

Notable products[edit]

The city hosted the Sixth National Peasants' Games in 2008.

Quanzhou is also the birthplace of the actress Yao Chen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "泉州市2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报" (in Simplified Chinese). Quanzhou Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  2. ^ (Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  3. ^ Quanzhou Overseas-relations History Museum
  4. ^ Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. Presses de l'Université du Québec. p. 221. ISBN 978-2-7605-1588-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  5. ^ Ralph Kauz (2010). Ralph Kauz, ed. Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea. Volume 10 of East Asian Economic and Socio-cultural Studies - East Asian Maritime History. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 130. ISBN 3-447-06103-0. Retrieved December 26, 2011. "The frankincense was first collected in the Hadhramaut ports of Mirbat, Shihr, and Zufar whence Arab merchant vessels shipped it to Srivijaya, before it was then reexported to China. The term "xunluxiang" is derived from the Arab word "kundur". . . According to Li Xun, frankincense originally came from Persia.92 Laufer refers to the Xiangpu fftff by Hong Chu %Ws (? . . . Zhao Rugua notes: Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat (Maloba), Shihr (Shihe), and Dhofar (Nufa), from the depths of the remotest mountains. The tree which yields this drug may generally be compared to the pine tree. Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the" 
  6. ^ Ralph Kauz (2010). Ralph Kauz, ed. Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea. Volume 10 of East Asian Economic and Socio-cultural Studies - East Asian Maritime History. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 131. ISBN 3-447-06103-0. Retrieved December 26, 2011. "resin flows out, and, when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Dashi (on the coast), who then load it upon their ships to exchange it for other commodities in Sanfoqi. This is the reason why it is commonly collected at and known as a product of Sanfoqi.94" 
  7. ^ Association for Asian studies (Ann Arbor; Michigan) (1976). A-L, Volumes 1-2. Columbia University Press. p. 1022. ISBN 9780231038010. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  8. ^ Chen, Da-Sheng. "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Joseph Needham (1971). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 2120. ISBN 9780521070607. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  10. ^ Sen, Tan Ta; Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 186. ISBN 9789812308375. 
  11. ^ Angela Schottenhammer (2008). Angela Schottenhammer, ed. The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce and Human Migration. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 123. ISBN 3-447-05809-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Loa Iok-Sin / STAFF REPORTER (Aug 31, 2008). "FEATURE : Taisi Township re-engages its Muslim roots". Taipei Times. p. 4. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  13. ^ (Original from Harvard University)Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch (1876). Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10. NEW SERIES No. X. SHANGHAI: Printed At The "CELESTIAL EMPIBE" Office 10-HANKOW BOAD—10.: The Branch. p. 122. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  14. ^ (Original from Harvard University )E. Bretschneider (1876). Notices of the mediæval geography and history of central and western Asia. LONDON : TRÜBNER & CO., 57 AND 59, LUDGATE HILL: Trübner & co. p. 48. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  15. ^ (Original from the University of Michigan )Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch, Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society (1876). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 10. NEW SERIES No. X. SHANGHAI: Printed At The "CELESTIAL EMPIBE" Office 10-HANKOW BOAD—10.: Kelly & Walsh. p. 122. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 
  16. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  17. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  18. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  19. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co. p. 102. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  20. ^ Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-08-021806-7. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Af fonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch' uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1 549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch' iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  21. ^ Grover Clark (1971). The great wall crumbles (illustrated, reprint ed.). Ayer Publishing. p. 180. ISBN 0-8369-6609-0. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Nevertheless, the Portuguese succeeded in establishing settlement up the coast at Ningpo and Ch'uanchow, which prospered for a time. But the Portuguese, by outrageous exactions and killings, brought Chinese indignation down on their heads again. In 1545, the settlement at Ningpo was wiped out by the Chinese, 12,000 Christians, including 800 Portuguese being killed in the process, it is said. This was after the Chinese emperor issued a decree ordering the extermination of the Portuguese wherever they were found, because of their cruel and lawless conduct. The Portuguese settlement at Ch'uanchow was not destroyed by the Chinese until 1549. A few Portuguese survived. They went to a small island near Macao, fifty odd miles from Canton. Somewhat later, they helped the Chinese put down some pirates and in return got permission, in 1557, to build a few drying sheds at Macao itself. The camel had his head in the tent." 
  22. ^ a b Grover Clark (1935). The great wall crumbles. The Macmillan Company. p. 180. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "But the Portuguese, by outrageous exactions and killings, brought Chinese indignation down on their heads again. In 1545, the settlement at Ningpo was wiped out by the Chinese, 12000 Christians, including 800 Portuguese being killed in" 
  23. ^ Herbert Henry Gowen (1936). Asia: a short history from the earliest times to the present day (revised ed.). Little, Brown, and Company. p. 112. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "But much of the trouble which came to these first Portuguese arrivals in China they brought upon themselves. Their rapaciousness was such that in 1545 the entire colony at Ningpo was wiped out by massacre. The survivors assembled on a small island near Macao, and in 1557 obtained permission to use the latter place for drying-sheds;" (the University of Michigan)
  24. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1934). The Chinese: their history and culture, Volume 1 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545) and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time they retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton. For this ill fortune the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank. Truculent and lawless regarding all Eastern peoples as legitimate prey, they were little if any better than the" (the University of Michigan)
  25. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1946). The Chinese, their history and culture (3 ed.). the Macmillan Company. p. 296. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545) and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time they retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton. For this ill fortune the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank. Truculent and lawless regarding all Eastern peoples as" (the University of Michigan)
  26. ^ Alexandra Etheldred Grantham (1927). Hills of Blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Ch'ien Lung, A.D. 1799, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd. p. 465. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Chekiang near Ningpo, another in Fukien near Amoy. For a time they prospered, but though their own great Albuquerque had said a Chinese junk man knew more about courtesy and humanity than a European knight, they treated the native population so abominably they won the unenviable epithet of foreign devils...At last when they suddenly swooped down on a village looting, burning, murdering , Chinese patience came to an equally sudden end. Both settlements, the Chekiang one in 1545, the other in 1543, were wiped out. This seems to have taught the Portuguese a lesson." (the University of Michigan)
  27. ^ Herbert Henry Gowen (1936). Asia: a short history from the earliest times to the present day (revised ed.). Little, Brown, and Company. p. 112. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Learning that the Malays were appealing to the Emperor of China as their suzerain lord, Raphael Perestrello went on a prospecting expedition toward the east...But much of the trouble which came to these first Portuguese arrivals in China they brought upon themselves. Their rapaciousness was such that in 1545 the entire colony at Ningpo was wiped out by massacre. The survivors assembled on a small island near Macao, and in 1557 obtained permission to use the latter place for drying-sheds ; so Macao,...so Macao, part of the island of San Chuan, became a Portuguese settlement, for which, however, rent continued to be paid till 1848" (the University of Michigan)
  28. ^ Fung, Bong Yin (1999). Macau: a General Introduction (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co. Ltd. ISBN 962-04-1642-2. 
  29. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 122. 
  30. ^ Quanzhou, Fujian. InJ. R. Logan (Ed.), The new Chinese city: Globalization and market reform (pp. 227-245). Oxford: Blackwell
  31. ^ KFC, McDonald's to Open Drive-in Restaurants in Quanzhou SinoCast China Business Daily News. London (UK): Aug 23, 2007. pg. 1

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