Paul Franklin Watson (born December 2, 1950) is a Canadian-American conservation and environmental activist, who founded the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, an anti-poaching and direct action group focused on marine conservation activism. The tactics used by Sea Shepherd have attracted opposition, with the group accused of eco-terrorism by both the Japanese government and Greenpeace. Watson is a citizen of Canada and the United States.
The Toronto native joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing in 1969. He was a co-founder of Greenpeace in 1972. Because Watson argued for a strategy of direct action that conflicted with the Greenpeace interpretation of nonviolence, he was ousted from the board in 1977. That same year, he formed the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. The group was the subject of a reality show named Whale Wars.
Watson's activities have led to legal action from authorities in countries including the United States, Canada, Norway, Costa Rica and Japan. He was detained in Germany on an extradition request by Costa Rica in May 2012. The Interpol red notice was issued on September 14, 2012, at the request of Japan and Costa Rica.
After staying at sea for 15 months following his escape from Germany, where he was released on bail, he returned to Los Angeles late October 2013, going through customs and "was not arrested". He appeared before a US appeals court on November 6, 2013, stating that neither he nor Sea Shepherd violated a 2012 order requiring them to leave whaling vessels alone. Although the United States is a signatory member of Interpol, Watson has not been detained for extradition to Japan or Costa Rica. He is living in Vermont, writing books.  He was in Paris since July 1, 2014 but has since returned to USA.
In March 2019, Costa Rica dropped all charges against Watson and has removed the Interpol red notice.
Early and personal life
According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, Paul Watson was born in Toronto to Anthony Joseph Watson and Annamarie Larsen, and grew up in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, along with two sisters and three brothers. As a child he was a member of the Kindness Club, which he has credited with teaching him to "respect and defend animals". After working as a tour guide at Expo 67, the World's Fair that took place in Montreal in 1967, Watson moved to Vancouver.
According to the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, in 1968 and the early 1970s, he joined the Canadian Coast Guard, where he served aboard weatherships, search and rescue hovercraft, and buoy tenders. He signed up as a merchant seaman in 1969 with the Norwegian Consulate in Vancouver and shipped out on the 30,000 ton bulk carrier Bris as a deckhand. The Bris was registered in Oslo, Norway and manifested for the Indian Ocean and Pacific trade. In 1972 he shipped out of San Francisco on the 35,000 ton bulk Swedish carrier Jarl R. Trapp and manifested for the Indian Ocean and Pacific trade
Watson has one daughter Lilliolani (born 1980) with his first wife, Starlet Lum, who was a founding director of Greenpeace Quebec, Earthforce!, Project Wolf, and Sea Shepherd. His second wife, Lisa Distefano, a former Playboy model, was Sea Shepherd's Director of Operations during the Makah anti-whaling campaigns in Friday Harbor. His third wife, Allison Lance, is an animal rights activist and a volunteer crew member of Sea Shepherd. Watson has two grandchildren. Watson married his fourth wife Yana Rusinovich on February 14, 2015, in Paris, France. Watson and Rusinovich had a son, Tiger, on September 29, 2016. He ran for parliament in Canada's federal elections twice.
In October 1969, Watson joined a Sierra Club protest against nuclear testing at Amchitka Island. The group which formed as a result of that protest was the Don't Make a Wave Committee, which evolved into the group known today as Greenpeace. In the early 1970s, Watson was also active with the Vancouver Liberation Front and the Vancouver Yippies. Watson sailed as a crew member aboard the Greenpeace Too! ship in 1971 and skippered the Greenpeace boat Astral in 1972. Paul Watson continued as a crew member, skipper, and officer aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s.
According to The New Yorker, The New York Times, and other sources, Watson was a founding member of Greenpeace, but the organization denies this stating he "was an influential early member but not, as he sometimes claims, a founder." Greenpeace claims that Watson joined Greenpeace on its Amchitka expedition, which they claim to be their second expedition, but Paul Watson claims that this was Greenpeace's first meeting.
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
The first Sea Shepherd vessel, the Sea Shepherd, was purchased in December 1978 with assistance from the Fund for Animals and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Sea Shepherd soon established itself as one of the more controversial environmental groups, known for provocative direct action tactics. These tactics have included throwing objects onto the decks of whaling ships, the use of "prop foulers" in an attempt to sabotage the ships, boarding whaling vessels, and the scuttling of two ships in an Icelandic harbor. In January 2013, Watson relinquished captaincy of the Steve Irwin. The organization and its activities to halt whaling are the focus of a reality TV series, Whale Wars, airing on Animal Planet.
In 2010, Watson personally received more than $120,000 from Sea Shepherd.
Because of mounting legal complications, Watson has stepped down as head of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society in 2013, to abide by an injunction barring him from proximity with Japanese whaling ships. After the resolution of legal issues involving the Japanese Institute for Cetacean Research, Watson returned as President of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and Commander of the Sea Shepherd fleet.
Other environmental activities
Watson was a field correspondent for Defenders of Wildlife from 1976 to 1980 and a field representative for the Fund for Animals from 1978 to 1981. Watson also was a co-founder of Friends of the Wolf and Earthforce Environmental Society.
During the 1980s, Watson declared his support for Earth First! and cultivated friendships with David Foreman and Edward Abbey. He proclaimed Sea Shepherd to be the "navy" of Earth First! According to The New Yorker, Watson revived the 19th-century practice of tree spiking.
In April 2003, Watson was elected to the board of directors of the Sierra Club for a three-year term. In 2006, he did not seek re-election. He resigned from the board a month before his term ended, in protest against the organization's sponsorship of a "Why I Hunt" essay contest.
Writings on activism
Watson published Earthforce!, a guide to strategy for environmental activists in 1993. In it, he specifically endorsed the tactics of "monkeywrenching" previously described by Dave Foreman and Edward Abbey. According to Foreman in Eco-Defense—The Field Guide to Monkey-Wrenching— these are tactics of sabotage, covert activity, and direct action. Watson says he incorporated his own personal experience in writing the book.
In Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy, Watson expressed disdain for the truthfulness of mainstream media:
The nature of the mass media today is such that the truth is irrelevant. What is true and what is right to the general public is what is defined as true and right by the mass media. Ronald Reagan understood that the facts are not relevant. The media reported what he said as fact. Follow-up investigation was "old news." A headline comment on Monday's newspaper far outweighs the revelation of inaccuracy revealed in a small box inside the paper on Tuesday or Wednesday.
Watson was explicit about what he perceived to be the lack of truthfulness in mass media: "If you do not know an answer, a fact, or a statistic, then simply follow the example of an American President and do as Ronald Reagan did—make it up on the spot and deliver the information confidently and without hesitation." In a subsequent book, Ocean Warrior, Watson expanded on this view, saying: "Survival in a media culture meant developing the skills to understand and manipulate media to achieve strategic objectives."
In 2007 Watson explained his view of needed population control and the future for humans given their role in the Holocene extinction, which he refers to as the "Holocenic hominid collective suicide event":
Today, escalating human populations have vastly exceeded global carrying capacity and now produce massive quantities of solid, liquid, and gaseous waste [...] No human community should be larger than 20,000 people and separated from other communities by wilderness areas [...] We need to radically and intelligently reduce human populations to fewer than one billion [...] Curing a body of cancer requires radical and invasive therapy, and therefore, curing the biosphere of the human virus will also require a radical and invasive approach [...] Who should have children? Those who are responsible and completely dedicated to the responsibility which is actually a very small percentage of humans.
Separation from Greenpeace
Paul Watson continued as a crew member, officer, and skipper (in 1972) aboard several Greenpeace voyages throughout the mid-1970s. He considers himself a founding member of Greenpeace and Greenpeace International, a claim Greenpeace disputes despite being pointed out in the documentary, How to Change the World which shows that Watson was indeed one of the original founding members of Greenpeace. Watson has since accused Greenpeace of rewriting their history.
In 1977, Watson was expelled from the Greenpeace's board of directors by a vote of 11 to 1 (Watson himself cast the single vote against it). The group felt his strong, "front and center" personality and frequently voiced opposition to Greenpeace's interpretation of "nonviolence" were too divisive. Watson subsequently left the group. The group has since labeled his actions at the time as those of a "mutineer" within their ranks. That same year, he founded his own group, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society.
During an interview in 1978 with CBC Radio, Watson spoke out against Greenpeace (as well as other organizations) and their role and motives for the anti-sealing campaigns. Watson accused these organizations of campaigning against the Canadian seal hunt because it is an easy way to raise money and it is a profit maker for the organizations.
Greenpeace has called Watson a violent extremist and will no longer comment on his activities.
Charges and prosecutions
Watson was sentenced to 10 days in prison and fined $8,000 for his actions during a Canadian seal hunt protest in 1980. He was convicted of assaulting a fisheries officer. He was also found guilty under the Seal Protection Act for painting harp seal pups with red dye to devalue their pelts. Watson was arrested in 1993 in Canada on charges stemming from actions against Cuban and Spanish fishing boats off the coast of Newfoundland. In 1997, Watson was convicted in absentia and sentenced to serve 120 days in jail by a court in Lofoten, Norway on charges of attempting to sink the small scale Norwegian fishing and whaling vessel Nybrænna on December 26, 1992. Dutch authorities refused to hand him over to Norwegian authorities although he did spend 80 days in detention in the Netherlands pending a ruling on extradition before being released.
There have not been any successful attempts at prosecuting Watson for his activities with Sea Shepherd since the trial in Newfoundland. Watson defends his actions as falling within international law, in particular Sea Shepherd's right to enforce maritime regulations against illegal whalers and sealers.
Sea Shepherd activists Rod Coronado and David Howitt went to Iceland in 1986 and scuttled two whaling ships in port at Reykjavík and also damaged a whale meat processing factory. Watson took responsibility for the operation, abiding by published Sea Shepherd principles. He went to Iceland saying, "I am responsible for all activities undertaken in the name of Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. I give the orders." He was deported without being charged and is considered a persona non grata by Iceland
In April 2010 the Japanese Coast Guard obtained an arrest warrant for Watson "...on suspicion of ordering sabotage activities against Japan's whaling fleet", and Interpol has listed him as wanted at the request of Japan. The red notice has the charges issued by Japan as, "Breaking into the Vessel, Damage to Property, Forcible Obstruction of Business, Injury". In March 2012 Interpol issued a "written statement to all 190 member countries making it clear that it would not publish a Red Notice" for the detention of Watson, but reversed that position in September 2012. In both statements Interpol stated that a "Red Notice is not an international arrest warrant" that it is "a request for any country to identify or locate an individual with a view to their provisional arrest and extradition in accordance with the country's national laws".
In May 2012 Watson was detained by German authorities at the Frankfurt Airport because of a request from the government of Costa Rica. The charge stemmed from an altercation at sea in 2002 in which Sea Shepherd said that the other vessel was illegally shark finning in Guatemalan waters. Crew members of the other ship accused Sea Shepherd of trying to kill them. Watson was charged with violating navigational regulations with the Interpol alert stating the charge as, "peligro de naufragio" (danger of shipwreck). The conflict took place during filming for the documentary Sharkwater and the charges were dropped by prosecutors after video of the incident made by the documentary film makers was shown. On May 21, Watson was released on bail of €250,000 but required to report to police in Frankfurt on a daily basis. In June, Costa Rica formally requested Watson's extradition from Germany. On July 19, 2012, Japan applied for an extradition order and Watson left Germany, resulting in a German court ordering his immediate re-arrest. It is understood the statute of limitations on his Costa Rican charges was set to expire in June 2013. On August 7, 2012 Interpol renewed the Red Notice for Watson on the charges of "causing a danger of drowning or of an air disaster" laid by Costa Rica. It was reported that Watson would come out of hiding to join Sea Shepherd in the 2012–13 campaign against Japanese whaling. Watson rejoined the crew of the Steve Irwin in the South Pacific in late November 2012. In March 2019, Costa Rica dropped all charges against Watson and has removed the Interpol red notice.
Sierra Club immigration stance
In 1999, Watson ran unsuccessfully for election to the national Sierra Club Board of Directors, with the backing of the anti-immigration faction Sierrans for US Population Stabilization (SUSPS). After his election to the board in 2003, Watson supported an unsuccessful slate of candidates supporting strict immigration controls as an element of a population stabilization policy. This effort was denounced by another candidate in the election, Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center, as a "hostile takeover" attempt by "radical anti-immigrant activists." Watson responded by saying that the only change he was seeking in the organization's immigration stance was to restore the position it had held before its 1996 "neutrality policy." Watson left the Sierra Club board in 2006.
In April 2008, Watson stated that, while the deaths of three Canadian seal hunters (a fourth one is still missing) in a marine accident involving a Canadian Coast Guard vessel and a fishing boat during the 2008 Canadian Commercial Seal Hunt were a tragedy, he felt that the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of seals is an even greater tragedy. Canadian Federal Fisheries Minister Loyola Hearn accused Watson of trivializing the memory of the lost sealers. Watson replied that Hearn was trying to distract attention from his government's incompetence as the boat the men were on capsized while under tow by a Canadian Coast Guard vessel, while his political ambitions continued to support and subsidize an industry that had no place in the 21st century. In 1978, Watson expressed opposition to seal hunt protest organization, suggesting in an interview with CBC's Barbara Frum that saving seals is a cheap and easy fundraiser and that seals do not deserve special status over other species. Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Danny Williams was quoted as saying, "I think what a lot of people don't realize is that this man is a terrorist."
Australian visa issues
In October 2009, Watson, who carries a US passport, complained to media outlets about having his request for an Australian visa denied. He states that the Australian government was attempting to sabotage the upcoming 2010 Sea Shepherd campaign by denying him entry into the country. Watson and several other shipmates were also unable to join the Steve Irwin on its promotional tour of Australia until they were able to provide documentation from the governments of the United States, Canada and Norway, exonerating them from previously claimed acts of violence, specifically claims by Sea Shepherd of intentionally sinking a ship in Norway. In January 2013, Paul Watson was presented with an Aboriginal passport by the Krautungalung people of the Gunnai Nation.
On March 17, 2008, Paul Watson said that he was shot by the Japanese crew or coast guard personnel during the Operation Migaloo anti-whaling campaign in the Southern Ocean. The incident is documented during the season finale of season 1 of the Whale Wars TV reality show, and the first six episodes are covered as a buildup to what is portrayed as the major incident during the campaign. The Japanese respond by throwing stun grenades, one crew member is injured from a grenade detonating close behind him and another injured trying to escape the explosions. Watson is then shown reaching inside his jacket and body armour and remarking "I've been hit." Back inside the bridge of the Steve Irwin, a metal fragment is found inside the vest.
The Japanese Institute of Cetacean Research disputes Sea Shepherd's statements. The Institute and Coast Guard said that they used seven stun grenades designed to temporarily debilitate a target by rendering them blind and deaf for a period of time. The Japanese government also alleged that the whalers launched "noise balls", described as "loud explosive deterrent devices". Neither of the two conflicting accounts have been independently verified. The Australian Foreign Affairs Department had condemned "actions by crew members of any vessel that cause injury". Two media releases were made on the same day from the office. One said that the Australian Embassy in Tokyo had been informed by the Japanese that the whalers had "fired warning shots" while the updated version used the phrase "'warning balls' – also known as 'flashbangs' – had been fired".
Accusations of terrorism
At an animal rights convention in 2002, Paul Watson was also quoted as saying, "There's nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win. Then you write the history." In 2010, Fox News commentator Glenn Beck also discussed the comment, criticizing Watson's views. Watson responded to Beck's comments on the official Sea Shepherd website by stating that he had said that but that it was taken out of context, quoting Gerald Seymour's "One man's terrorist is another's freedom fighter."
Comments following 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami
Watson was criticized for his poem published immediately following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami which suggested the disaster was Neptune's anger.[non-primary source needed] Watson responded to critics with a commentary on the Sea Shepherd website expressing "deepest concern and sympathy for the people of Japan who are suffering through one of the worst natural disasters in the history of civilization".
Criticism of New Zealand
In 2013, three Sea Shepherd Conservation Society ships docked in New Zealand, and were searched by New Zealand authorities to see if Watson was aboard. He was not, having transferred to another ship in international waters, aware New Zealand was required to notify Interpol if he entered the country. Watson criticised the search, accusing New Zealand of siding with Japan on the issue of whaling in the Southern Ocean.
Reactions to activism and leadership
Watson has stated that he does not consider himself a 'protester', but an 'interventionist', as he considers protesting as too submissive. He often takes the attitude that he represents (or stands in for) law enforcement which is either unwilling or unable to enforce existing laws.
His leadership style has variously been called arrogant, as well as pushing himself too much "front and center", which was cited as one of the reasons for expulsion from Greenpeace. The atmosphere aboard his vessels has been compared to an "anarchy run by God".
The former member of Sea Shepherd and captain of the MY Ady Gil Pete Bethune described Watson as "morally bankrupt" who would order the intentional sinking of his own ships like the Ady Gil as a means to "garner sympathy with the public and to create better TV". Watson denied this, saying "No one ordered him to scuttle it. Pete Bethune was captain of the Ady Gil; all decisions on the Ady Gil were his."
Paul Watson received the Jules Verne Award on October 10, 2012. He was the second person after Captain Jacques Cousteau to be honored with a Jules Verne Award dedicated to environmentalists and adventurers. On June 28, 2010 Paul received the Asociación de Amigos del Museo de Anclas Philippe Cousteau: Defense of Marine Life Award, in recognition of his merits achieved by the work done in defense of marine life. In 2002, Paul was inducted into the US Animal Rights Hall of Fame for his outstanding contributions to animal liberation. Paul received the George H. W. Bush Daily Points of Light Award in 1999  and in 2000, he was named one of Time Magazine's Top 20 Environmental Heroes of the 20th Century. On May 23rd, 2019, Captain Paul Watson received an official commendation by Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont stating that the "State of Connecticut conveyed both honor and recognition to Captain Paul Watson." In 2007 Captain Watson received the Amazon Peace Prize presented by the Vice President of Ecuador Lenin Moreno. 
A biographical documentary on Paul Watson's early life and background entitled Pirate for the Sea was produced by Ron Colby in 2008. The 2008 documentary At the Edge of the World chronicled the efforts of Watson and 45 volunteers to hinder the Japanese whaling fleet in the waters around Antarctica. In 2010, long time friend and filmmaker Peter Brown released the documentary Confessions of an Eco-Terrorist, a satirical look back at the last 30 years of actions. The documentary Eco-Pirate: The Story of Paul Watson from 2011 features interviews and footage with early Greenpeace members Rex Weyler and Patrick Moore.
Watson, Whale Wars, and the Japanese whaling industry were satirized in the South Park episode "Whale Whores". In its fictional Larry King show, Watson himself was called "An unorganized incompetent media whore who thought lying to everyone was OK as long as it served his cause" and "A smug, narcoleptic liar with no credibility". Watson responded to the South Park episode by stating; "My understanding is that the Japanese Prime Minister was not amused and the whalers and dolphin killers are enraged at the way they were portrayed," Watson said. "That's music to my ears. If the humorless whale killers and the bank rollers of the dolphin killers did not like the show, then that's all I need to applaud it."
Watson was portrayed (along with whale biologist, Nan Hauser), during a 60 Minutes episode that aired in 2013, as contributing to the return of the Humpback whale populations in the South Pacific.
List of works
- Sea Shepherd: My Fight for Whales and Seals (1981) (ISBN 0-393-01499-1)
- Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy (1993) (ISBN 0-9616019-5-7)
- Ocean Warrior: My Battle to End the Illegal Slaughter on the High Seas (1994) (ISBN 1-55013-599-6)
- Seal Wars: Twenty-Five Years on the Front Lines With the Harp Seals (2002) (ISBN 1-55297-751-X)
- Contributor to Terrorists or Freedom Fighters?: Reflections on the Liberations of Animals (2004) (ISBN 1-59056-054-X)
- Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy 2nd Edition (2012) ISBN 978-1-61419-016-5
- The War That Saved the Whales (2019) ISBN 978-09600391-1-1
- Songs from the Southern Ocean (2020) ISBN 979-8625175999
- The Haunted Mariner (2020) ISBN 978-1089213710
- Dealing with Climate Change and Stress (2020) ISBN 979-8629972723
- Orcapedia (2020) ISBN 978-1570678264
- Desperate Mythologies: Theology, Ecology and the General Insanity of Humanity (2020) ISBN 979-8643376071
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- "Hardline warrior in war to save the whale". The New Zealand Herald. The Observer. January 11, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- "Williams assails anti-sealing activist Watson as 'terrorist'". Canada: CBC. April 14, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "A Very Inconvenient Truth // Animals Australia". Animalsaustralia.org. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "About the Authors". Ecospherics.net. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Dwyer, Molly (December 17, 2012). "Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington Richard A. Jones, District Judge, Presiding" (PDF). United States Court of Appeals. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
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- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Founder, Disembarks In U.S. For First Time In Months". Huffingtonpost.com. October 31, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society Founder, Testifies in U.S. Court". Huffington Post. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 16, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "Anti-whaling group explains settlement". Burlington Free Press. August 24, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "'Whale Wars' returns without captain Paul Watson". USA Today. December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- "Canada says environmentalist Paul Watson can reapply for passport". Reuters. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Watson, Paul (March 14, 2007). "How real Conservatives view the Canadian seal slaughter". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Paul Watson Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Archived from the original on July 27, 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
- "Captain Watson's Biography". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
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'It's all about extreme political correctness,' said Paul Watson, a founding director of Greenpeace who is now the head of Sea Shepherd
- "Prosecutor Agrees to Release Allison and Alex jailed 22 days ... but Fines Sea Shepherd 800,000 Yen ($8,000 US) for freeing dolphins!" December 3, 2003. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved February 23, 2009.
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- Shukovsky, Paul. "No perjury charges vs. animal activist." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 9, 2004.
- Lopez, Jaime (February 14, 2015). "Sea Shepherd's Paul Watson Gets Married on Valentine's Day". The Costa Rica Star. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- "Whale Wars' Captain Paul Watson Welcomes Son Tiger". Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "Paul Watson: the man behind Sea Shepherd". ABC News. May 15, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Weyler, Rex. "Waves of Compassion". Utne Reader. Ogden Publications. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- Larry Gambone, No Regrets, page 97. Black Cat Press, 2015.
- "Paul Watson bio". Tribute.ca. Tribute Entertainment Media Group. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- "Greenpeace Attempts to Make Captain Paul Watson "Disappear"". seashepherd.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- "On the Frontlines: With Captain Paul Watson and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society", (Fall 2009), Resistance: Journal of the Earth Liberation Movement
- Battle Against Whaling, Groups Split on Strategy The New York Times " The shift infuriates Paul Watson, the Sea Shepherd founder and the captain of the Steve Irwin. One of the original founders of Greenpeace in the early 1970s, he parted ways with the group in 1978 because he wanted it to be more aggressive." November 23, 2008
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd and Greenpeace: some facts". Greenpeace.org. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
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- "A Reporter at Large – Neptune's Navy". The New Yorker. November 5, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Govt to keep up pressure on whalers". Yahoo!7. Yahoo!7 Pty Limited. January 22, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "Whaling Ships Refloated in Iceland". The New York Times. November 20, 1986. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
- Andrew Darby (January 8, 2013). "Sea Shepherd founder steps down". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Proussalidis, Daniel (August 3, 2012). "Germans search for Watson". Tillsonburg News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- CBC News (January 8, 2013). "Paul Watson quits Sea Shepherd over U.S. court order – World – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "33rd Parliament Election Results". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "1996 Local General Election Results- Mayor". City of Vancouver. 1996. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "Paul Watson is elected to the Sierra Club Board of Directors in April, 2003". SUPS.org. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "Sierra Club Director Paul Watson Resigns to Protest Hunting Prize". Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. April 17, 2006. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Vidal, John; Adam, David; Watts, Jonathan; Hickman, Leo; Sample, Ian (January 4, 2008). "50 people who could save the planet". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press.
- Foreman, Dave, and Bill Haywood, eds. Ecodefense: A field guide to monkeywrenching. Tucson, AZ: Ned Ludd Book, 1987.
- Abbey, Ed. The monkeywrench gang. Salt Lake City: Dream Garden Press, 1985.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 61.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 10.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 42.
- Paul Watson. 1993. Earthforce! An Earth Warrior's Guide to Strategy. La Caňada, CA: Chaco Press, p. 43.
- Militants sink two of Iceland's Whaling Vessels. New York Times, November 10, 1986.
- Watson, Paul. Ocean Warrior. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1994, pp. 23–24.
- The Beginning of the End for Life as We Know it on Planet Earth? - There is a Biocentric Solution, Paul Watson, seashepherd.org/archive.org, 05/04/2007
- Watson, Paul. "The Beginning of the End for Life as We Know it on Planet Earth? There is a Biocentric Solution". Sea Shepherd UK. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "Sea Shepherd Conservation Society: Greenpeace Attempts to Make Captain Paul Watson 'Disappear'". Seashepherd.org. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
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- "Interview with Paul Watson". Village Voice. Thepeoplesvoice.org. December 25, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- "History of Paul Watson". Greenpeace. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Large, Joey (January 29, 2009). "SBIFF '09: Saving the Seas Documentary Follows Paul Watson on Marine Crusades". The Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd and Greenpeace: some facts". Greenpeace. December 21, 2008. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Hunter, Robert (1979). Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement. Henry Holt & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-03-043741-0.
- "Watson to whalers: We will never surrender". The Japan Times. February 9, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
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- "Hunt disrupter gets 10 days in Quebec jail". The Montreal Gazette. March 11, 1980. p. 14. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- Campbell, Duncan (June 3, 2002). "Champion of seas faces attempted murder case". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
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- "Hvalsabotør går fri". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). December 14, 1997.
- "Reine – a Norwegian Fishing and Whaling Community". Highnorth.no. May 14, 1993. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Taylor, Jerome (November 20, 2007). "The saviours of the whale". The Independent. London. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "Firebrand: Rod Coronado's Flame War » CounterPunch: Tells the Facts, Names the Names". CounterPunch. June 19, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Derr, Patrick George; McNamara, Edward M. (2003). Case Studies in Environmental Ethics – Patrick George Derr, Edward M. McNamara – Google Books. ISBN 9780742531376. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "The Reykjavik Grapevine – Life, Travel and Entertainment in Iceland / WATSON THE VICTOR Does terrorism pay off in Iceland?" (in Icelandic). Grapevine.is. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Kuipers, Dean (July 2009). Operation Bite Back: Rod Coronado's War to Save American Wilderness – Dean Kuipers – Google Books. ISBN 9781608191420. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
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South Park had its usual tartly sarcastic way (by which I mean "delightfully savage ridicule") with save-the-whales conservationists, cable-TV nature shows, Lady Gaga, and, yes, Entertainment Weekly in the episode titled "Whale Whores."
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