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Voiced epiglottal affricate

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Voiced epiglottal affricate
IPA Number173 174
Audio sample

The voiced epiglottal affricate ([ʡ͡ʢ] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as an epiglottal stop [ʡ] and released as a voiced epiglottal fricative [ʢ]. For more releases, is initiated as epiglottal stop, voiced epiglottal fricative and a alveolar click. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiced epiglottal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Haida Hydaburg dialect[1] [example needed] May be a stop [ʡ] or voiceless affricate [ʡʜ] instead.[1]
Somali cad [ʡʢaʔ͡t] 'white' Only pronounced as [ʡʢ] when 'c' occurs initially, otherwise realized as [ʡ][2]


  1. ^ a b Mithun (2001), p. 18.
  2. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A.; Esling, John H.; Harris, Jimmy G. Supraglottal cavity shape, linguistic register, and other phonetic features of Somali (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2020-11-21.


  • Mithun, Marianne (2001). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052129875X.