Open front rounded vowel
|Open front rounded vowel|
Legend: unrounded • rounded
The (near) open front rounded vowel, or (near) low front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that has not been confirmed to be phonemic in any spoken language. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɶ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
&. The letter ⟨ɶ⟩ is a small caps rendition of ⟨Œ⟩. ⟨œ⟩, the lowercase version of the ligature, is used for the open-mid front rounded vowel.
While the IPA chart lists it as a fully open vowel, the rounded equivalent of [a], Ladefoged characterizes it as near-open, the rounded equivalent of [æ].
In Maastrichtian Limburgish, the vowel transcribed with ⟨ɶː⟩ in the Mestreechter Taol dictionary is phonetically near-open central [ɐ̹ː]. It is a phonological open-mid front rounded vowel, the long counterpart of /œ/.
Riad (2014) reports that [ɶː] in Stockholm Swedish is sometimes difficult to distinguish from [ɒː], which is the main realization of the /ɑː/ phoneme, a sign that both vowels are phonetically very close.
- Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned far from the roof of the mouth – that is, low in the mouth.
- Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
- It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|Danish||Some speakers||grøn||[ˈkʁɶ̝nˀ]||'green'||Near-open; allophone of /ø/ between /ʁ/ and /v/ as well as an allophone of /œ/ between /ʁ/ and a nasal. Other speakers pronounce it the same as [œ]. See Danish phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||bùj||[bɶj]||'shower'||Allophone of /œ/ before /j/. See Weert dialect phonology|
|Swedish||Stockholm||öra||[ˈɶ̂ːra̠]||'ear'||Pre-/r/ allophone of /øː/ (sometimes also /œ/) for younger speakers. Open-mid [œː, œ] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology|
- While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
- Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
- Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
- Basbøll (2005:46)
- Riad (2014:38)
- Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159, 161–162, 164)
- Grønnum (1998:100)
- Grønnum (2005:288)
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1–2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1–2): 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
- Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
- Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2: 289–333