Voiceless uvular affricate
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|Voiceless uvular affricate|
The voiceless uvular affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨q͡ꭓ⟩ and ⟨q͜ꭓ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
q_X. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨qꭓ⟩ in the IPA and
qX in X-SAMPA.
There is also the voiceless pre-uvular affricate in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar affricate. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟͡ꭓ̟⟩ or ⟨q͡ꭓ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q͡ꭓ⟩) or ⟨k̠͡x̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k͡x⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
Features of the voiceless uvular affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Alemannic||Most High and Highest Alemannic dialects||Gschänk||[ˈkʃæŋq͡ꭓ]||'present'||Velar [k͡x] in other dialects.|
|Adyghe||Natukhai||кхъэ||[q͡ꭓa] (help·info)||'grave'||Dialectal. Corresponds to [qʰ] in other dialects.|
|Avar||хъарахъ||[q͡ꭓʰːaˈraq͡ꭓʰː] (help·info)||'bush'||Contrasts with the ejective [q͡ꭓʼː].|
|English||Scouse||clock||[kl̥ɒq͡ꭓ]||'clock'||Possible word-final realization of /k/.|
|Persian||Some dialects||ﻗﻔل||[q͡ꭓofl]||'lock'||Fortition of word-initial /q/.|
|Uzbek||quruq||[q̟uɾ̪uq̟͡ꭓ̟]||'dry'||Allophone of /q/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.|
- ^ Instead of "pre-uvular", it can be called "advanced uvular", "fronted uvular", "post-velar", "retracted velar" or "backed velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "pre-uvular".
- ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
- ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
- Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X