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Voiced velar affricate

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Voiced velar affricate
IPA Number110 141
Audio sample

The voiced velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in very few spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ɡ͡ɣ⟩ and ⟨ɡ͜ɣ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g_G. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨ɡɣ⟩ in the IPA and gG in X-SAMPA.

The voiced velar affricate has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language, but it is reported as an allophone of /g/ (usually realized as a voiced velar plosive) in some dialects of Anglo-English.


Features of the voiced velar affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Broad Cockney[1] good [ˈɡ͡ɣʊˑd̥] 'good' Occasional allophone of /ɡ/.[2][3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3]
Scouse[4] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /ɡ/.[4] See English phonology
Slovene sikh gre [ˈs̪îːɡ͡ɣ ˈɡɾěː] 'Sikh goes' Allophone of /k͡x/ before voiced obstruents. See Slovene phonology


  1. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  2. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  3. ^ a b Cruttenden (2014), p. 172.
  4. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.


  • Cruttenden, Alan (2014), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X.

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