Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
ɤ̈
IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwaə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[1] transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacriticɘ̞⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

To type this symbol on most keyboards, press and hold the ALT key while typing "600" using the number pad keys.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cotabato Manobo[2] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Dinka Luanyjang[3] [orthographic
form needed
]
[ŋɘ́ŋ] "jawbone" Short allophone of /e/.[3]
English Australian[4][5] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[6] [bɘ˞ːd] Rhotacized.
Cardiff[7] foot [fɘt] 'foot' Less often rounded [ɵ];[8] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[9] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[10] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[10] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
German Standard[11] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtɘ]  'please' Also described as mid [ə].[12][13] See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[14] Irrtum [ˈɘːtuːm] "error" Common alternative to the centering diphthong [ɪɐ̯].[14] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨː⟩. See Standard German phonology
Irish Munster[15] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[15] See Irish phonology
Jebero[16] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
Kaingang[17] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[18]
Kalagan Kaagan[19] [miˈwɘːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[19]
Kensiu[20] [ɟɘ˞h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.[20]
Kera[21] [t͡ʃɘ̄wā̠a̠] 'fire' Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[21]
Korean[22] [ɘːɾɯ̽n] 'senior' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See Korean phonology
Lizu[23] [Fkɘ] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[23]
Mapudungun[24] elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[25] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Mono[26] dœ [dɘ] 'be (equative)' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[26]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[27] sterkeste [²stæɾkɘstɘ] 'the strongest' Also described as mid [ə];[28] occurs only in unstressed syllables. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. Some dialects (e.g. Trondheimsk) lack this sound.[29] See Norwegian phonology
Polish[30] tymczasowy About this sound [t̪ɘ̟mt͡ʂäˈs̪ɔvɘ̟]  'temporary' Somewhat fronted;[30] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[31] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Some speakers[32] солнце About this sound [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' Unstressed allophone of /ɨ/ after /t͡s/; other speakers realize it as near-close [ɨ̞].[32] See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[33] [example needed]
Temne[34] pər [pɘ́r] 'incite' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[34]
Vietnamese[35] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Upper[36] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[36] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[37]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[38] ne [nɘ] 'and' Most common realization of /e/.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  2. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  3. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  4. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  5. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  6. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  9. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  10. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  11. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  12. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  13. ^ Lodge (2009:87)
  14. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 52). The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ⟨ɨː⟩, but describes it as a strongly centralized (not "raised and centralized") [ɪ], which it describes as close-mid.
  15. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  16. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  17. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  18. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  19. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  20. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  21. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  22. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  23. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  24. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  25. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  26. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  27. ^ Popperwell (2010), p. 16, 31–32.
  28. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  29. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105)
  31. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  32. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  33. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  34. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  35. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  36. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  37. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  38. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)

Bibliography[edit]