Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a reversed letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). This letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard[1][2][3] bit About this sound [bɘ̟t]  'bit' Somewhat fronted;[1][2][3] typically transcribed with ɪ, the way it's pronounced in some dialects.[4] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed as /ɜː/. See Australian English phonology
Cardiff[7] foot [fɘ̠t] 'foot' Somewhat retracted;[7] corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[8] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Southern American[9] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[9] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Irish Munster[10] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[10] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[11] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[12]
Kazakh тіл [tɘl] 'language'
Korean [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'senior' See Korean phonology.
Mongolian[13] үсрэ [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Norman acataer [akatɘ] 'to buy' May be [u ~ o ~ e] depending by the region. In Jèrriais it's spelled aï and pronounced [aɪ].
Paicî  ?? [kɘ̄ɾɘ̄] 'spider'
Polish[14] mysz About this sound [mɘ̟ʂ]  'mouse' Somewhat fronted;[14] typically transcribed as /ɨ/. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[15] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[16] солнце About this sound [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' This occurs only for some speakers after /t͡s/. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[17] [example needed]
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I left'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[18] ne [nɘ] 'and'

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]