Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). This letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Central Valencian[1] poc [ˈpɒ̝kːɘ] 'little' Vocalic release found in final consonants. Typically transcribed in IPA as ə. See Catalan phonology
Dutch Standard[2][3][4] bit About this sound [bɘ̟t]  'bit' Somewhat fronted;[2][3][4] typically transcribed in IPA as ɪ, the way it's pronounced in some dialects.[5] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[6][7] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɜː. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[8] [bɘ˞ːd] Rhotacized.
Cardiff[9] foot [fɘ̠t] 'foot' Somewhat retracted;[9] corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[10] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Southern American[11] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[11] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
German Standard[12] bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtɘ]  'please' Also described as mid [ə].[13][14] See Standard German phonology
Irish Munster[15] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[15] See Irish phonology
Jebero[16] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
Kaingang[17] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[18]
Kazakh тіл [tɘl] 'language'
Kensiu[19] [ɟɘ˞h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA as ɚ.[19]
Korean [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'senior' See Korean phonology.
Lizu[20] [Fkɘ] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[20]
Mapudungun[21] elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[22] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Norman acataer [akatɘ] 'to buy' May be [u ~ o ~ e] depending on the region. In Jèrriais it's spelled aï and pronounced [aɪ].
Northern Qiang Mawo dialect [ɘ ʑu] 'a pile'
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌpʼɒ̀ˑxɘ̄ˈɬɑ̄ːnæ] 'star' Allophone of /ɤ/. See Taos phonology
Paicî  ?? [kɘ̄ɾɘ̄] 'spider'
Polish[23] tymczasowy About this sound [t̪ɘ̟mt͡ʂäˈs̪ɔvɘ̟]  'temporary' Somewhat fronted;[23] typically transcribed in IPA as ɨ. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[24] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[25] солнце About this sound [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' This occurs only for some speakers after /t͡s/.[25] See Russian phonology
Sama Sibutu[26] [miˈwɘːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA as ə.[26]
Shiwiar[27] [example needed]
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I left'
Vietnamese[28] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɤ. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Upper[29] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[29] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[30]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[31] ne [nɘ] 'and'

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]