Mid front rounded vowel

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Mid front rounded vowel
ø̞
œ̝
IPA number 310 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø​̞
Unicode (hex) U+00F8 U+031E
X-SAMPA 2_o or 9_r
Braille ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)

The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid front-central rounded vowel.[1]

Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ], ⟨ø⟩ is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ø̞⟩ or ⟨œ̝⟩.

Mid front compressed vowel[edit]

The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ø̞⟩ or ⟨œ̝⟩. This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨e̞͡β̞⟩ / ⟨ɛ̝͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [e̞] / [ɛ̝] and labial compression) or ⟨e̞ᵝ⟩ / ⟨ɛ̝ᵝ⟩ ([e̞] / [ɛ̝] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letters ⟨ø͍˕⟩ / ⟨œ͍˔⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Features[edit]

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed] Near-front; contrasts close-mid /ø/, true-mid /ø̞/ and open-mid /œ/ front rounded vowels.[2]
Catalan Northern[3] fulles [ˈfø̞jəs] 'leaves' Found in Occitan and French loanwords and interferences. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[4][5] høne [ˈhœ̝̈ːnə] 'hen' Near-front.[4][5] Most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[6] mùl [mœ̝̈ɫ] 'well' Near-front;[6] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad South African[7] bird [bø̞̈ːd] 'bird' Near-front; may be close-mid [ø̠ː] instead. Realized as mid central unrounded [əː] in the Cultivated variety.[7] See South African English phonology
General South African[7]
New Zealand[8] Near-front.[8] May be [ɵ̟ː] or [œ̠ː] instead. See New Zealand English phonology
Southeastern Welsh[9][10] Near-front;[9][10] also described as open-mid [œ̠].[11]
West Midlands[12] Near-front.[12]
Finnish[13][14] rölli [ˈrø̞̈lːi] 'Common bent' Near-front.[14] See Finnish phonology
German Standard[15] schön About this sound [ʃø̞̈ːn]  'beautiful' Near-front;[15] also described as close-mid [ø̠ː].[16][17] See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialect[18] schöön [ʃœ̝ːn] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Greek Tyrnavos[19] κοριός / koreos [ko̞ˈɾø̞s] 'bedbug' Corresponds to /jo/ and /eo/ in Standard Modern Greek.[19]
Vevendos[19]
Hungarian[20] öl [ø̞̈l] 'kill' Near-front.[20] See Hungarian phonology
Korean[21] soe [sø̞̈ː] 'iron' Near-front;[21] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩. Diphthongized to [we] in modern standard Korean. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[22] bös [bœ̝̈s] 'bus' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩.[22]
Romanian[23] bleu [blø̞] 'light blue' Found only in loanwords.[23] See Romanian phonology
Turkish[24][25] göz [ɟø̞̈z̪] 'eye' Near-front;[24] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Turkish phonology
Võro [example needed]

Mid front protruded vowel[edit]

Mid front protruded vowel
ø̫˕
œ̫˔
ø̞ʷ
œ̝ʷ
e̞ʷ
ɛ̝ʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, ⟨ø̞ʷ⟩ (a mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded mid front vowels.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed mid front vowel [ø̞] and the unrounded mid front vowel [].

Features[edit]

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Urban East[26] nøtt [nø̞ʷtː] 'nut' Ranges from mid near-front [ø̽] to open-mid near-front [œ̠].[26] Also described as open-mid near-front [œ̠][27][28] and mid central [ə].[29] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[30][31] nött About this sound [n̪œ̝ʷt̪ː]  'worn' (past part. s.) Near-front,[30] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Swedish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Recasens (1996), pp. 80–81.
  4. ^ a b Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  5. ^ a b Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  6. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 241.
  7. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 116.
  8. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  9. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  10. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 381.
  11. ^ Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  12. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 299.
  13. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  14. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  15. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 235.
  16. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  17. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 95, 107.
  18. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  19. ^ a b c Trudgill (2009), pp. 86–87.
  20. ^ a b Szende (1994), p. 92.
  21. ^ a b Lee (1999), p. 121.
  22. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  23. ^ a b Romanian Academy (2005), p. ?.
  24. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  25. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  26. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979), p. 23.
  27. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  28. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 35-36.
  29. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16-17.
  30. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  31. ^ Elmquist (1915), p. 33.

Bibliography[edit]