Mid front rounded vowel

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Mid front rounded vowel
ø̞
œ̝
IPA number 310 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø​̞
Unicode (hex) U+00F8 U+031E
X-SAMPA 2_o or 9_r
Braille ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)

The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid front-central rounded vowel.[1]

Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ], 〈ø〉 is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as 〈ø̞〉 or 〈œ̝〉.

Mid front compressed vowel[edit]

The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as 〈ø̞〉 or 〈œ̝〉. This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter 〈β̞〉 as 〈e̞͡β̞〉 / 〈ɛ̝͡β̞〉 (simultaneous [e̞] / [ɛ̝] and labial compression) or 〈e̞ᵝ〉 / 〈ɛ̝ᵝ〉 ([e̞] / [ɛ̝] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic 〈  ͍ 〉 may also be used with a rounded vowel letters 〈ø͍˕〉 / 〈œ͍˔〉 as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed] Near-front.[2]
Catalan Northern[3] fulles [ˈfø̞jəs] 'leaves' Found in Occitan and French loanwords and interferences. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[4][5] høne [ˈhø̞̈ːnə] 'hen' Near-front.[4][5] Most often, it is transcribed in IPA with 〈œː〉. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[6] mùl [mø̞̈ɫ] 'well' Near-front;[6] typically transcribed in IPA with 〈œ〉. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
Southern[7] mul 'dry' Near-front;[7] typically transcribed in IPA with 〈ʏ〉 or, more rarely, with 〈ʉ〉, 〈ɵ〉 or 〈œ〉. It corresponds to [ø̠][8][9] (also described as [ɵ][10] and [ʊ̈])[11] in Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
English Broad South African[12] bird [bø̞̈ːd] 'bird' Near-front; may be close-mid [ø̠ː] instead. Realized as mid central unrounded [əː] in the Cultivated variety.[12] See English phonology
General South African[12]
New Zealand[13] Near-front.[13] May be [ɵ̟ː] or [œ̈ː] instead. See English phonology
Southeastern Welsh[14][15] Near-front.[14][15][16]
West Midlands[16]
Estonian[17] köök [kø̞̈ːk] 'kitchen' Near-front.[17] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[18][19] rölli [ˈrø̞̈lːi] 'Common bent' Near-front.[19] See Finnish phonology
German Standard[20] schön About this sound [ʃø̞̈ːn]  'beautiful' Near-front;[20] also described as close-mid [ø̈ː].[21][22] See German phonology
Bernese dialect[23] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈œ〉. See Bernese German phonology
Hungarian[24] öl [ø̞̈l] 'kill' Near-front.[24] See Hungarian phonology
Korean[25] soe [sø̞̈ː] 'iron' Near-front;[25] Typically transcribed in IPA with 〈ø〉. Diphthongized to [we] in modern standard Korean. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[26] bös [bø̞̈s] 'bus' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with 〈œ〉.[26]
Weert dialect[27] bluts [blø̞̈ts] 'bump' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with 〈ʏ〉.[27]
Romanian bleu [blø̞] 'light blue' Found only in loanwords. See Romanian phonology
Slovak Standard[28] Göteborg [ˈjø̞t̻e̞bo̞rk] 'Gothenburg' Only in loanwords; may be closer to [] or [] instead. Reported only by one source from 1988.[28] See Slovak phonology
Turkish[29][30] göz [ɟø̞̈z̪] 'eye' Near-front;[29] may be transcribed in IPA with 〈œ〉. See Turkish phonology
Võro [example needed]

Mid front protruded vowel[edit]

Mid front protruded vowel
ø̫˕
œ̫˔
ø̞ʷ
œ̝ʷ
e̞ʷ
ɛ̝ʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, 〈ø̞ʷ〉 (a mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded mid front vowels.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed mid front vowel [ø̞] and the unrounded mid front vowel [].

Features[edit]

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Standard Eastern[31] søt [sø̞ʷːt̻] 'sweet' Near-front;[31] typically transcribed in IPA with 〈øː〉. Also described as ranging from mid near-front [ø̽ː] to open-mid near-front [œ̠ː],[32] close-mid near-front [ø̠ː][33] and close-mid central [ɵː].[34] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[35][36] nött About this sound [n̪ø̞ʷt̪ː]  'worn' (past part. s.) Near-front,[35] typically transcribed in IPA with 〈œ〉. See Swedish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Recasens (1996), pp. 80–81.
  4. ^ a b Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  5. ^ a b Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  6. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 241.
  7. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 128.
  9. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  10. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 116.
  13. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  14. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  15. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 381.
  16. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 299.
  17. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  18. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  19. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  20. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  21. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  22. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 87.
  23. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  24. ^ a b Szende (1994), p. 92.
  25. ^ a b Lee (1999), p. 121.
  26. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  27. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  28. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 64.
  29. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  30. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  31. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 35.
  32. ^ Strandskogen (1979), p. 23.
  33. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  34. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  35. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  36. ^ Elmquist (1915), p. 33.

Bibliography[edit]