Voiced epiglottal trill

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Voiced pharyngeal trill
(voiced epiglottal fricative)
IPA Number174
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʢ
Unicode (hex)U+02A2
Braille⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)

The voiced epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiced epiglottal fricative,[1] is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʢ.

Few languages distinguish between pharyngeal and epiglottal fricatives/trills, and in fact the fricatives in Arabic are routinely described as "pharyngeal". However, according to Peter Ladefoged, the Aghul spoken in the village of Burkikhan, Dagestan has both (as well as an epiglottal stop), as presented in these audio files.


Features of the voiced epiglottal trill/fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aghul Richa dialect[2] [ʢakʷ] 'light'
Arabic[3] Iraqi[4] عَاف [ʢaːf] 'he left' Corresponds to /ʕ/ () in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Siwa[5] [arˤbˤəʢa] 'four'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p 695.
  2. ^ Kodzasov, S. V. (August 1–7, 1987). "Pharyngeal Features in the Daghestan Languages". Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Tallinn, Estonia. pp. 142–144.
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  4. ^ Hassan, Zeki; Esling, John; Moisik, Scott; Crevier-Buchman, Lise (2011). "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /ʕ, ħ/ in Iraqi Arabic". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Hong Kong. pp. 831–834.
  5. ^ Naumann, Christfried (June 26, 2009). "Siwa". Leipzig, Germany: Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12.


External links[edit]