This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008)
|Voiced bilabial trill|
The voiced bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ʙ⟩, a small capital version of the Latin letter b, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
Features of the voiced bilabial trill:
- Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates. In most instances, it is only found as the trilled release of a prenasalized stop.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.
|ʙ||Voiced bilabial trill|
|ᵐʙ||Prenasalized voiced bilabial trill|
|Ngwe||Lebang dialect||[àʙɨ́ ́]||'ash'|
|Mura||Pirahã||kaoáíbogi||[kàò̯áí̯ʙòˈɡì]||'evil spirit'||Allophone of /b/ before /o/|
|Uralic||Komi-Permyak||Бунгаг||[ʙuŋɡaɡ]||'dung beetle'||Generally paralinguistic. This is the only true word it is found in.|
|Senu River||Kwomtari||[example needed]|
The Knorkator song "[Buchstabe]" (the actual title is a glyph) on the 1999 album Hasenchartbreaker uses a similar sound (though linguolabial instead of bilabial) to replace "br" in a number of German words (e.g. [ˈʙaːtkaɐ̯tɔfəln] for Bratkartoffeln).
|Oceanic||Kele||[ᵐʙulim]||'face'||And other languages of the Admiralty Islands|
|Ahamb||[nãᵐʙwas]||'pig'||Phonemic; contrasts between /ᵐʙ/ and /ʙ̥/.|
Prestopped trills and stops with trill release
|Naga||Sangtam||[t͡ʙàŋ]||'needle'||Phonemic as /t͡ʙ/, contrasts with /t͡ʙ̥ʰ/.|
|Qiangic||Lizu||TU,||[tʙ̩˥˩]||'bean'||Syllabic; allophone of /u/ after initial /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.|
|Namuyi||tbĭh||[t͡ʙ̩˨]||'to slaughter'||Phonemic according to Pavlík (2017) occurring before /u/ or as a syllabic consonant.|
[ʙ] is classified as an allophone of /u/ following a /p/, /b/, /t/ or /d/ in the phonemic analysis of Huáng (1992:673–674), and Yǐn (2016).
No bilabial trills are present in the phonemic analysis of Nishida (2013).
|Pumi||biiv||[pʙ̩˥]||'to dig'||Syllabic; allophone of /ə/ after /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.|
In many of the languages in which the bilabial trill occurs, it occurs only as part of a prenasalized bilabial stop with trilled release, [mbʙ]. That developed historically from a prenasalized stop before a relatively high back vowel like [mbu]. In such instances, the sounds are usually still limited to the environment of a following [u]. However, the trills in Mangbetu may precede any vowel and are sometimes preceded by only a nasal.
- Wichmann, Yrjö; Uotila, T. E. (1942). Syrjänischer Wortschatz nebst Hauptzügen der Formenlehre. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Ladefoged (2005:165)
- Bowern, Claire (2012). Sivisa Titan. University of Hawai'i Press.
- Dimock (2005:19)
- Rangelov, Tihomir (2019), The bilabial trills of Ahamb (Vanuatu): acoustic and articulatory properties, University of Waikato
- Coupe, Alexander (2016), "Prestopped bilabial trills in Sangtam", Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, 10-14 August 2015.
- Chirkova & Chen (2013:78)
- Chirkova, Katia (2012). "The Qiangic Subgroup from an Areal Perspective: A Case Study of Languages of Muli" (Archive). In Languages and Linguistics 13(1):133-170. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
- Pavlík (2017)
- Pavlík (2017:32)
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Lizu" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242[permanent dead link]
- Dimock, Laura (2005). "The Bilabial Trill in Unua" (PDF). Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics. 17: 17–33. ISSN 1170-1978.
- Huáng, Bùfán, ed. (1992), 藏緬語族語言詞彙 [Tibeto-Burman language vocabulary] (in Chinese), Beijing: Minzu University Press
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.
- Nishida, Fuminobu (2013). "Phonetics and Phonology of Dzolo Dialect of Namuyi". Arutesu Riberaresu / Artes Liberales. 92: 21–54. doi:10.15113/00013130.
- Pavlík, Štěpán (2017). The Description of Namuzi Language (Ph.D. thesis). Charles University. hdl:20.500.11956/95965.
- Yǐn, Wèibīn (2016), 納木茲語語法標註文本 [Grammar of Namuzi with Annotated Texts] (in Chinese), Beijing: Social Science Literature Press