|Part of a series on|
Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Āyurveda आयुर्वेद, "life-knowledge"; English pronunciation //) or Ayurvedic medicine is a system of Hindu traditional medicine native to the Indian subcontinent. Practices derived from Ayurvedic traditions are a type of alternative medicine. Ayurveda is a discipline of the upaveda or "auxiliary knowledge" in Vedic tradition. The origins of Ayurveda are also found in the Atharvaveda, which contains 114 hymns and incantations described as magical cures for disease. There are also various legendary accounts of the origin of Ayurveda, e.g., that it was received by Dhanvantari (or Divodasa) from Brahma. Ayurvedic practices include the use of herbal medicines, mineral or metal supplementation (rasa shastra), surgical techniques, opium, and application of oil by massages.
Originated in prehistoric times, some of the concepts of Ayurveda have been discovered since the times of Indus Valley Civilization and earlier. Ayurveda significantly developed during the Vedic period and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism also incorporated in the system. Balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. Ayurveda names three elemental substances, the doshas (called Vata, Pitta and Kapha), and states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. Ayurveda has eight canonical components, which are derived from classical Sanskrit literature. Some of the oldest known Ayurvedic texts include the Suśrutha Saṃhitā and Charaka Saṃhitā, which are written in Sanskrit. Ayurvedic practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures by the medieval period.
Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances in Ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there is no evidence that any are effective in themselves. Concerns have also been raised because up to 20% of Ayurvedic U.S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet contained toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic.
- 1 The eight components of Ayurveda
- 2 Principles and terminology
- 3 Practice
- 4 History
- 5 Current status
- 6 Efficacy
- 7 Use of toxic metals
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The eight components of Ayurveda
The canonical components of Ayurveda are derived from classical Sanskrit literature, in which Ayurveda was called "the science of eight components" (Sanskrit aṣṭāṅga अष्टांग). The components are:
- Kayachikitsa (general medicine): "cure of diseases affecting the body".
- Kaumāra-bhṛtya and Bala Roga: deals with the treatment of children.
- Shalya tantra deals with surgical techniques.
- Śālākya-tantra (ophthalmology) deals with diseases of the teeth, eye, nose, ear etc.
- Bhuta-vidya deals with the causes, which are not directly visible and not directly explained by tridosha, pertaining to micro-organisms or spirits.
- Agada-tantra deals with antidotes to poison.
- Rasayana-tantra (Geriatrics)/(Anti Agings) : deals with rejuvenation.
- Vajikarana tantra (aphrodisiacs) deals with healthy and desired progeny.
Principles and terminology
The central ideas of Ayurveda are primarily derived from Vedic philosophy, although some concepts were later borrowed from similar non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism. Balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. For example, to suppress sneezing is said to potentially give rise to shoulder pain. However, people are also cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure when following nature's urges. For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake, sleep, and sexual intercourse.
Ayurveda names seven basic tissues (dhatu), which are plasma (rasa), blood (rakta), muscles (māmsa), fat (meda), bone (asthi), marrow (majja), and semen (shukra). Like the medicine of classical antiquity, Ayurveda has historically divided bodily substances into five classical elements (Sanskrit [maha]panchabhuta, viz. earth, water, fire, air and ether. There are also twenty gunas (qualities or characteristics) which are considered to be inherent in all substances. These are organized in ten pairs of antonyms: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, and viscous/liquid.
Ayurveda also names three elemental substances, the doshas (called Vata, Pitta and Kapha), and states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. One Ayurvedic view is that a the doshas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behavior or environment to increase or decrease the doshas and maintain their natural state.
Ayurvedic doctors regard physical existence, mental existence, and personality as a unit, with each element being able to influence the others.[clarification needed] This is a holistic approach used during diagnosis and therapy, and is a fundamental aspect of Ayurveda. Another part of Ayurvedic treatment says that there are channels (srotas) which transport fluids, and that the channels can be opened up by massage treatment using oils and Swedana (fomentation). Unhealthy channels are thought to cause disease.
Ayurveda has eight ways to diagnose illness, called Nadi (pulse), Mootra (urine), Mala (stool), Jihva (tongue), Shabda (speech), Sparsha (touch), Druk (vision), and Aakruti (appearance). Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses. For example, hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance.
Treatment and prevention
Two of the eight branches of classical Ayurveda deal with surgery (Śalya-cikitsā and Śālākya-tantra), but contemporary Ayurveda tends to emphasise attaining vitality by building a healthy metabolic system and maintaining good digestion and excretion. Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation. One type of prescription is a Sattvic diet.
Ayurveda follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) are important for health. Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning of teeth, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice.
Plant-based treatments in Ayurveda may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. In the 19th century, William Dymock and co-authors summarized hundreds of plant-derived medicines along with the uses, microscopic structure, chemical composition, toxicology, prevalent myths and stories, and relation to commerce in British India. Animal products used in Ayurveda include milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are prescribed both for consumption and for external use. Consumption of minerals, including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold, are also prescribed. The addition of minerals to herbal medicine is called rasa shastra.
Ayurveda uses alcoholic beverages called Madya, which are said to adjust the doshas by increasing Pitta and reducing Vatta and Kapha. Madya are classified by the raw material and fermentation process, and the categories include: sugar-based, fruit-based, cereal-based, cereal-based with herbs, fermentated with vinegar, and tonic wines. The intended outcomes can include causing purgation, improving digestion or taste, creating dryness, or loosening joints. Ayurvedic texts describe Madya as non-viscid and fast-acting, and say that it enters and cleans minute pores in the body.
Purified opium is used in eight Ayurvedic preparations and is said to balance the Vata and Kapha doshas and increase the Pitta dosha. It is prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery, for increasing the sexual and muscular ability, and for affecting the brain. The sedative and pain-relieving properties of opium are not considered in Ayurveda. The use of opium is not found in the ancient Ayurvedic texts, and is first mentioned in the Sarngadhara Samhita (1300-1400 CE), a book on pharmacy used in Rajasthan in Western India, as an ingredient of an aphrodisiac to delay male ejaculation. It is possible that that opium was brought to India along with or before the Mohammedan conquest. The book Yoga Ratnakara (1700-1800 CE, unknown author), which is popular in Maharashtra, uses opium in a herbo-mineral composition prescribed for diarrhea. In the Bhaisajya Ratnavali, opium and camphor are used for acute gastro-enteritis. In this drug, the respiratory depressant action of opium is counteracted by the respiratory stimulant property of Camphor. Later books have included the narcotic property for use as analgesic pain reliever.
Cannabis indica is also absent from the ancient Ayurvedic books, and is first mentioned in the Sarngadhara Samhita as a treatment for diarrhea. In the Bhaisajya Ratnavali it is named as an ingredient in an aphrodisiac.
Ayurveda says that both oil and tar can be used to stop bleeding, and that traumatic bleeding can be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel, cauterisation by heat, use of preparations to facilitate clotting, and use of preparations to constrict the blood vessels. Oils are also used in a number of ways, including regular consumption, anointing, smearing, head massage, application to affected areas,[not in citation given] and oil pulling. Liquids may also be poured on the patient's forehead, a technique called shirodhara.
According to Ayurveda, the technique of panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म)) eliminates toxic elements from the body. Panchakarma includes Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya and Raktamokshana. It is preceded by Poorvakarma as a preparatory step, and is followed by Paschatkarma and Peyadikarma.
The origins of Ayurveda have been traced back to 5,000 BCE and earlier, when they originated as an oral tradition. Some of the concepts of Ayurveda have been discovered since the times of Indus Valley Civilization. The first recorded forms of Ayurveda as medical texts evolved from the Vedas. Ayurveda is a discipline of the upaveda or "auxiliary knowledge" in Vedic tradition. The origins of Ayurveda are also found in Atharvaveda, which contains 114 hymns and incantations described as magical cures for disease. There are various legendary accounts of the origin of Ayurveda, e.g. that it was received by Dhanvantari (or Divodasa) from Brahma. Tradition also holds that the writings of Ayurveda were influenced by a lost text by the sage Agnivesa.
There are three principal early texts on Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, the Sushruta Samhita and the Bhela Samhita. The Sushruta Samhita is based on an original from the 6th century BCE, and was updated by the Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna in the 2nd century CE. The Charaka Samhita, written by Charaka, and the Bhela Samhita, attributed to Atreya Punarvasu, are also dated to the 6th century BCE. The Charaka Samhita was also updated by Dridhabala during the early centuries of the Common Era.
The Bower Manuscript is also of special interest to historians due to its inclusion of excerpts from the Bheda Samhita and its description of concepts in Central Asian Buddhism. In 1987, A. F. R. Hoernle identified the scribe of the medical portions of the manuscript to be a native of India using a northern variant of the Gupta script, who had migrated and become a Buddhist monk in a monastery in Kucha. The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (c. 337–422 AD) wrote about the healthcare system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine. This is also visible in the works of Charaka, who describes about hospital and how it should be equipped.
Other early texts are the Agnivesha Samhita, Kasyapa Samhita and Harita Samhita. The original edition of the Agnivesha Samhita, by Agnivesa, is dated to 1500 BCE, and it was later modified by Charaka. Kasyapa Samhita includes the treatise of Jivaka Kumar Bhaccha and is dated to the 6th century BCE. While Harita Samhita is dated to an earlier period, it is attributed to Harita, who was a disciple of Punarvasu Atreya. Some later texts are Astanga nighantu (8th Century) by Vagbhata, Paryaya ratnamala (9th century) by Madhava, Siddhasara nighantu (9th century) by Ravi Gupta, Dravyavali (10th Century), and Dravyaguna sangraha (11th century) by Cakrapanidatta, among others.
Underwood and Rhodes state that the early forms of traditional Indian medicine identified fever, cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and leprosy, and that treatments included plastic surgery, couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign bodies, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread. During this period, treatments were also prescribed for complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones.
Further development and spread
Ayurveda flourished throughout the Indian Middle Ages. Dalhana (fl. 1200), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300) and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were also translated into the Chinese language in the 5th century, and during the 8th century, they were translated into the Arabic and Persian language. The 9th-century Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi was familiar with the text. The Arabic works derived from the Ayurvedic texts eventually also reached Europe by the 12th century. In Renaissance Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) were influenced by the Arabic reception of the Sushruta's surgical techniques.
British physicians traveled to India to observe rhinoplasty being performed using native methods, and reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in Europe. Joseph Constantine Carpue studied plastic surgery methods in India for 20 years and, in 1815, was able to perform the first major rhinoplasty surgery in the western world, using the "Indian" method of nose reconstruction. In 1840 Brett published an article about this technique.
During the period of colonial British rule of India, the practice of Ayurveda was neglected by the British Indian Government, in favor of modern medicine. After Indian independence, there was more focus on Ayurveda and other traditional medical systems. Ayurveda became a part of the Indian National health care system, with state hospitals for Ayurveda established across the country. However, the treatments of traditional medicines were not always well integrated with others, especially in allopathic hospitals.
In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aimed to standardise qualifications for Ayurveda practitioners and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India. In 1971, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) was established under the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, to monitor higher education in Ayurveda in India. The Indian government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalise traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) is designed to do research on Ayurveda. Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes. As of 2013, India has over 180 training centers offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.
To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, in 2001 the government of India set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a repository for formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The formulations come from over 100 traditional Ayurveda books.
Other countries in the Indian subcontinent
The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda is similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka refer to Sanskrit texts which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used.
In 1980, the Sri Lankan government established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine to revive and regulate Ayurveda. The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo) offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine. In the public system, there are currently 62 Ayurvedic hospitals and 208 central dispensaries, which served about 3 million people (about 11% of Sri Lanka's population) in 2010. In total, there are about 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda in the country.
According to the Mahavamsa, an ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty from the sixth century C.E., King Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka (reigned 437 BCE to 367 BCE) had lying-in-homes and Ayurvedic hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documented evidence available of institutions dedicated specifically to the care of the sick anywhere in the world. Mihintale Hospital is the oldest in the world.
Outside the Indian subcontinent
Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine developed during antiquity and the medieval period, and as such is comparable to pre-modern Chinese and European systems of medicine. However, beginning in the 1960s, Ayurveda has been advertised as alternative medicine in the Western world. Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialisation of Ayurveda has raised ethical and legal issues. In some instances, Ayurvedic practices or terminology have also been adapted specifically for Western consumption, notably in the case of "Maharishi Ayurveda" in the 1980s. In some cases, this involved active fraud on the part of proponents of Ayurveda in an attempt to falsely represent the system as equal to the standards of modern medical research.
Baba Hari Dass was an early proponent who helped bring Ayurveda to the US in the early 1970s. He taught classes derived from the Suśrutha Saṃhitā and the Charaka Saṃhitha, leading to the establishment of the Mount Madonna Institute, College of Ayurveda, Ayurveda World, and Ayurvedic pharmacy.[clarification needed] He invited several notable Ayurvedic teachers, including Vasant Lad, Sarita Shrestha, and Ram Harsh Singh. The Ayurvedic practitioner Michael Tierra wrote that "[t]he history of Ayurveda in North America will always owe a debt to the selfless contributions of Baba Hari Dass."
In the United States, the practice of Ayurveda is not licensed or regulated by any state. Practitioners of Ayurveda can be licensed in other healthcare fields such as massage therapy or midwifery, and a few states have approved schools teaching Ayurveda.
Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances in Ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there is no evidence that any are effective in themselves. According to Cancer Research UK, no significant scientific evidence has shown effectiveness of Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of any disease, although massage and relaxation are often beneficial for some cancer patients and there are indications from animal studies that some herbal products used in Ayurveda might be explored further.
A review of the use of Ayurveda for cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence is not convincing for the use of any Ayurvedic herbal treatment for heart disease or hypertension, but that many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners could be appropriate for further research.
In India, research in Ayurveda is undertaken by the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. In Nepal, the National Ayurvedic Training and Research Centre (NATRC) researches medicinal herbs in the country.
Use of toxic metals
Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbal preparations, may include toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic. Adverse reactions to herbs are described in traditional Ayurvedic texts, but practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and that reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available. There is a communication gap between practitioners of modern medicine and Ayurveda.
A 1990 study on Ayurvedic medicines in India found that 41% of the products tested contained arsenic, and that 64% contained lead and mercury. A 2004 study found toxic levels of heavy metals in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations made in South Asia and sold in the Boston area, and concluded that Ayurvedic products posed serious health risks and should be tested for heavy-metal contamination. A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from U.S. and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.
Ayurvedic proponents believe that the toxicity of these materials is reduced through purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals). These are similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the Ayurvedic techniques are more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques. However, these products have nonetheless caused severe lead poisoning and other toxic effects. Between 1978 and 2008, "more than 80 cases of lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medicine use [were] reported worldwide." In 2012, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked Ayurvedic drugs to lead poisoning, based on cases where toxic materials were found in the blood of pregnant women who had taken Ayurvedic drugs.
In India, the government ruled that Ayurvedic products must be labelled with their metallic content. However, in Current Science, a publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences, M. S. Valiathan said that "the absence of post-market surveillance and the paucity of test laboratory facilities [in India] make the quality control of Ayurvedic medicines exceedingly difficult at this time." In the United States, most Ayurvedic products are marketed without having been reviewed or approved by the FDA. Since 2007, the FDA has placed an import alert on some Ayurvedic products in order to prevent them from entering the United States.
- Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery
- Clinical trials on Ayurvedic drugs
- Georgian folk medicine
- History of alternative medicine
- List of ineffective cancer treatments
- Siddha medicine
- Traditional Tibetan medicine
- Wells, John C. (2009). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. London: Pearson Longman.
- Ganga Ram Garg. Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Volume 1. Concept publication. p. 87.
- "A Closer Look at Ayurvedic Medicine". Focus on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Bethesda, Maryland: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). US National Institutes of Health (NIH)) 12 (4). Fall 2005 – Winter 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-09.
- "ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AYURVEDA: (A BRIEF HISTORY)". US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Anc Sci Life. 1981 Jul-Sep; 1(1): 1–7.
- Frawley, David; Ranade, Subhash (2001). Ayurveda, Nature's Medicine. Lotus Press. p. 11. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Underwood & Rhodes (2008)
- Singh, Rana P. B.; Rana, Pravin S. (2002). Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide. Varanasi, India: Indica Books. p. 31. ISBN 81-86569-24-3.
- Dhanvantari. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 August 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/160641/Dhanvantari
- Robert E Svoboda (2000). Ayurveda: Life, Health and Longevity. Penguin UK. p. 58.
- Pankaj Gupta, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Sushma Sharma (2014). Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas. Springer. p. 23.
- Frawley, David; Ranade, Subhash (2001). Ayurveda, Nature's Medicine. Lotus Press. p. 33. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Wujastyk 2003, p. XVIII
- Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence". Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences (Delhi: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi / National College of Chest Physicians) 49: 243–244. (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.)
- "Ayurveda". American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
The effectiveness of Ayurveda has not been proven in scientific studies, but early research suggests that certain herbs may offer potential therapeutic value
- Valiathan, MS (2006). "Ayurveda: putting the house in order" (pdf). Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) 90 (1): 5–6.
- Saper RB; Phillips RS et al. (2008). "Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured medicines sold via the internet". JAMA 300 (8): 915–923. doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915. PMC 2755247. PMID 18728265.
- Chopra 2003, p. 80
- Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit Dictionary (1899), s.v. "Āyurveda" OL7164320M
- Poonam Bala. Medicine and Medical Policies in India: Social and Historical Perspectives. Lexington Books. p. 25.
- David Rakel, Nancy Faass. Complementary Medicine in Clinical Practice: Integrative Practice in American Healthcare. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 170.
- Benchmarks for training in traditional / complementary and alternative medicine (p. 23-25)
- Birgit Heyn. Ayurveda: The Indian Art of Natural Medicine and Life Extension. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 17.
- The Healthy Living Space: 70 Practical Ways to Detoxify the Body and Home. Hampton Roads Publishing. p. 390.
- Langford, Jean (2002). Fluent Bodies: Ayurvedic Remedies for Postcolonial Imbalance. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University. p. http://books.google.com/books?id=C2-G-wGXqXAC&pg=PA87 87. ISBN 978-0-8223-2931-2.
- Clifford, Terry (2003). Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. 42. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-1784-2.
- Namyata Pathak, A Raut, Ashok Vaidya Acute Cervical Pain Syndrome Resulting from Suppressed Sneezing - JAPI (Accessed on 29 Oct 2013)
- Chopra 2003, p. 75
- Chopra 2003, p. 76, citing Sushrutasamhita 25.36.
- Wujastyk 2003, pp. XIX-XX
- Mishra, L.; Singh, B. B.; Dagenais, S. (2001). "Healthcare and disease management in Ayurveda". Alternative therapies in health and medicine 7 (2): 44–50. PMID 11253416.
- Chopra 2003, p. 79
- Microsoft Corporation (2008). "Ayurveda". Encarta. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009.
- Pharmacographia Indica, A history of principal drugs of vegetable origin in British India - Volume 1, William Dymock et al. (1890), London
- Sekar, S. (2007). "Traditional alcoholic beverages from Ayurveda and their role on human health". Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6 (1): 144–149. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014.
- Mani, Dayanandan and Dhawan, Sunita S. (2011). "Scientific basis of therapeutic uses of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) in Ayurveda". Acta Horticulturae (International Symposium on Papaver) (1036): 175–180. Retrieved 7 December 2014. (subscription required (. ))
- Wujastyk 2003, p. 20
- Finger, p. 66
- Sharma, A. K. (2003). "Panchkarma Therapy in Ayurvedic Medicine". In Mishra, Lakshmi Chandra. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8493-1366-X.
- Robert Svoboda. Ayurveda: Life, Health and Longevity. Penguin.
- Issues in Pharmaceuticals by Disease, Disorder, or Organ System: 2011 Edition. p. 9.
- T.S.S. Dikshith (2008). Safe Use of Chemicals: A Practical Guide. CRC Press. p. 16.
- Elizabeth R. Mackenzie, Birgit Rakel (2006). Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Older Adults: A Guide to Holistic Approaches to Healthy Aging. Springer. p. 215. ISBN 9780826138064.
- Ṭhākara, Vināyaka Jayānanda (1989). Methodology of Research in Ayurveda. Jamnagar, India: Gujarat Ayurved University Press. p. 7.
- K. Mangathayaru. Pharmacognosy: An Indian perspective. Pearson Education India. p. 2.
- Adam Hart-Davis. History: From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day. Penguin. p. 53.
- J. N. Roy, Braja Bihārī Kumāra. India and Central Asia: Classical to Contemporary Periods. Concept Publishing Company. p. 103.
- Leonore Loeb Adler, B. Runi Mukherji. Spirit Versus Scalpel: Traditional Healing and Modern Psychotherapy. Greenwood. p. 76.
- Praveen K. Saxena. Development of Plant-Based Medicines: Conservation, Efficacy and Safety. Springer. p. 48.
- Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Werner Winter (1988). Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé. Walter de Gruyter. p. 116.
- Glucklich, Ariel (2008). The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2.
- Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya (1991). History of Science and Technology in Ancient India: Formation of the theoretical fundamentals of natural science. p. 153.
- Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson.
- K. Mangathayaru. Pharmacognosy: An Indian perspective. Pearson Education. p. 36.
- Anil Kumar Mehta, Naveen K. Gupta, R. N. Sharma (2002). Health & Harmony Through Ayurveda. B. Jain Publishers. p. 41.
- J. Chandy (1965). Indian Journal of Medical Education, Volume 5. p. 185.
- The Indo-Asian Culture, Volume 9. 1960. p. 61.
- Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe. Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2009. Pearson. p. 196.
- K. R. Srikanthamurthy (2005). Biographical History of Indian Medicine: Pictorial. Chaukhambha Orientalia. pp. 33–35.
- Vaidya Bhagwan Dash. Materia Medica of Ayurveda: Based on: Madanapala's Nighantu. B. Jain Publishers. p. 14.
- Lock et al., p. 836
- Wujastyk 2003, p. XXVI
- Dagmar Wujastyk (2002). Well-Mannered Medicine: Medical Ethics and Etiquette in Classical Ayurveda. Oxford University Press.
- Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer.
- Hans H. Rhyner. Ayurveda: The Gentle Health System. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 15.
- Ramachandra S.K. Rao, Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicine: historical perspective, Volume 1, 2005, 94–98[need quotation to verify]
- K. Mangathayaru. Pharmacognosy: An Indian perspective. Pearson education. p. 54.
- Lock 2001, p. 607
- Lock 2001, p. 651
- Lock 2001, p. 652
- Lock 2001, pp. 651–652
- Brett, F. H. (1840). A practical essay on some of the principal surgical diseases of India. Calcutta, India: W. Thacker & Company. p. 458. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Legal Status of Traditional Medicine and Complementary/Alternative Medicine: A Worldwide Review". World Health Organization (WHO). p. 132. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- Paul I. Dargan, et al. (2008). "Heavy metal poisoning from Ayurvedic traditional medicines: an emerging problem?". Int. J. Environment and Health (Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.) 2 (3/4): 463–74. doi:10.1504/IJENVH.2008.020935. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- The majority of India’s population uses Ayurveda exclusively or combined with conventional Western medicine, and it is practiced in varying forms in Southeast Asia. "Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014.
- Wujastyk 2003, p. XXII
- "Introduction to Central Council of Indian Medicine". Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM). Archived from the original on 18 December 2014.
- Wujastyk 2003, p. XVI
- "Welcome to Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha ( India )". Ccras.nic.in. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Ayurvedic medicine". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013.
- "About TKDL". Traditional Knowledge Digital Library. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014.
- "Know Instances of Patenting on the UES of Medicinal Plants in India". PIB, Ministry of Environment and Forests. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Source of Information". Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (Government of India).
- "Weeklong programme to observe Health Day". The Himalayan Times. The Himalayan Times. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
In Nepal, 80 per cent of the population receives Ayurvedic medicine as first aid treatment.
- Alam, Zulfeequar (2008). Herbal Medicines. New Delhi, India: A.P.H. Publishing. p. 122. ISBN 978-81-313-0358-0.
- Guneratne, Arjun (2009). Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya. Routledge contemporary South Asia series, #24. New York: Routledge. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-415-77883-1.
- "Ministry of Indigenous Medicine". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Institute of indigenous Medicine". Iim.cmb.ac.lk. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Statistics Report". Sri Lanka Institute of Indigenous Medicine. November 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012.
- "About Us". The Ministry Of Indigenous Medicine (Sri Lanka). 14 February 1980. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011.
- Arjuna Aluvihare (November 1993). "Rohal Kramaya Lovata Dhayadha Kale Sri Lankikayo". Vidhusara Science Magazine.
- Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P.; De Mel, Nishan (February 1997). "Resource Mobilization in Sri Lanka's Health Sector". Harvard School of Public Health & Health Policy Programme, Institute of Policy Studies. p. 19. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Müller-Dietz, Heinz E. (1975). "Die Krankenhaus-ruinen in Mihintale (Ceylon)". Historia Hospitalium (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Krankenhausgeschichte) 10: 65–71.
- "From time to time, even the most prestigious science journals publish erroneous or fraudulent data, unjustified conclusions, and sometimes balderdash. Balderdash was the right word when The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published the article, "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Modern Insights Into Ancient Medicine," in its 22/29 May issue. Discovering that they had been deceived by the article's authors, the editors published a correction in the 14 August issue, which was followed on 2 October by a six-page expose on the people who had hoodwinked them." Skolnick, Andrew A. (Fall 1991). "The Maharishi Caper: Or How to Hoodwink Top Medical Journals". National Association of Science Writers. Archived from the original on 16 July 2008.
- Skolnick, A. A. (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's marketing scheme promises the world eternal 'perfect health'". JAMA 266 (13): 1741–2. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470130017003. PMID 1817475.
- "National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines". World Health Organization. May 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009.
- Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa and Michael Tierra: “Independently, we both first learned Ayurvedic medicine from our respective spiritual mentors – myself with Baba Hari Dass and K.P., with Yogi Bhajan.“ (p.X); The way of Ayurvedic Herbs, Lotus Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9409-8598-8
- "Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction". NCCAM. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Mamtani, R.; Mamtani, R. (2005). "Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases". Cardiology Review 13 (3): 155–162. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000128730.31658.36. PMID 15834238.
- "Research in Ayurveda - About CCRAS". Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. Department Of AYUSH, Ministry Of Health and Family Welfare. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014.
- "China hands over Ayurveda research centre to govt". Kantipur Publications. The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
The centre will play a positive role in promotion and utilisation of Ayurveda in the country, by conducting research on medicinal herbs available here.
- Urmila, T.; Supriya, B. (2008). "Pharmacovigilance of ayurvedic medicines in India". Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40 (S1): 10–12.
- Saper, R. B.; Kales SN; Paquin, J et al. (2004). "Heavy metal content of ayurveda herbal medicine products". Journal of the American Medical Association 292 (23): 2868–2673. doi:10.1001/jama.292.23.2868. PMID 15598918.
- Ellin, Abby (17 September 2008). "Skin deep: ancient, but how safe?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
A report in the August 27  issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association found that nearly 21 percent of 193 ayurvedic herbal supplements bought online, produced in both India and the United States, contained lead, mercury or arsenic.
- Szabo, Liz (26 August 2008). "Study finds toxins in some herbal medicines". USA Today. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012.
- Saper RB; Phillips RS; Sehgal A (August 2008). "Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured ayurvedic medicines sold via the internet". JAMA 300 (8): 915–923. doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915. PMC 2755247. PMID 18728265.
- "Ayurveda linked to lead poisoning in US women". The Financial Express (Washington edition ed.). 24 August 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014.
- "Use caution with Ayurvedic products". US FDA. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Cited references
- Chopra, Ananda S. (2003). "Āyurveda". In Selin, Helaine. Medicine across cultures: history and practice of medicine in non-western cultures. Kluwer Academic. pp. 75–83. ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.
- Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence". Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences (Delhi: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi / National College of Chest Physicians) 49: 243–244. (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.)
- Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
- Kutumbian, P. (1999). Ancient Indian Medicine. Andhra Pradesh, India: Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-1521-5.
- Lock, Stephen (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.
- Underwood, E. Ashworth; Rhodes, P. (2008). "History of Medicine". Encyclopædia Britannica (2008 ed.).
- Wujastyk, D. (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044824-1.
- William Dymock et al. (1890). Pharmacographia Indica A history of principal drugs of vegetable origin in British India 1. London.
- Thomas T. Wise (1845). Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine. Calcutta: Thacker & Co.
- Drury, Heber (1873). The Useful plants of India. William H Allen & Co., London. ISBN 1-4460-2372-9.
- Hoernle, Rudolf August Friedrich (1907). Studies in the Medicine of Ancient India: Part I: Osteology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
- Kishor Patwardhan (2008). Pabitra Kumar Roy, ed. Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda. Sowarigpa and Ayurveda. Samyak Vak Series-14 (Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies). pp. 53–73. ISBN 978-81-87127-76-5.
- WHO guidelines on safety monitoring of herbal medicines in pharmacovigilance systems
- Use caution with ayurvedic products US Food and Drug Administration.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Ayurveda at DMOZ
- Ayurveda: Benchmarks for trainings in traditional/complementary and alternative medicine World Health Organization (WHO)
- National Library of Ayurveda Medicine