West Champaran district
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2010)|
|West Champaran district
पश्चिमी चंपारण ज़िला
|District of Bihar|
Location of West Champaran district in Bihar
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Paschim Champaran, Valmiki Nagar|
|• Assembly seats||Valmiki Nagar, Ramnagar, Narkatiaganj, Bagaha, Lauriya, Nautan, Chanpatia, Bettiah, Sikta|
|• Total||5,229 km2 (2,019 sq mi)|
|• Density||750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|• Literacy||58.06 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||906|
|Major highways||NH 28B|
West Champaran (Hindi: पश्चिम चंपारण ज़िला, Urdu: مغرِبی چمپارن ضلع Maġribī Čaṃpāraṇ Zilā) is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. It is a part of Tirhut Division. The district headquarters are located at Bettiah.
It is known for its fluid border with Nepal, as well as the high levels of crime and smuggling that accompany this. It was the main transit point for Ganja and Weapons travelling between India and Nepal, however the new government in Bihar has led to a significant reduction in kidnapping and smuggling in the area. It is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2011)|
West Champaran District was carved out of the old Champaran District in 1972 as a result of re-organization of the district in the state. It was formerly a subdivision of Saran District and then Champaran District with its headquarters as Bettiah. It is said that Bettiah got its name from Baint (cane) plants commonly found in this district. The name Champaran is a degenerate form of Champaka aranya, a name which dates back to the time when the district was a tract of the forest of Champa (Magnolia) trees and was the abode of solitary ascectics.
As per District Gazetteer, it seems probable that Champaran was occupied at an early period by races of Aryan descent and formed part of the country in which the Videha empire ruled. After the fall of Videhan empire the district formed part of the Vrijjain oligarchical republic with its capital at Vaishali of which Lichhavis were the most powerful and prominent. Ajatshatru the emperor of Magadh, by tact and force annexed Lichhavis and occupied its capital, Vaishali. He extended his sovereignty over Paschim Champaran which continued under the Mauryan rule for the next hundred years. After the Mauryas, the Sungas and Kanvas ruled over the Magadh territories. The district thereafter formed part of the Kushan empire and then came under Gupta empire. Along with Tirhut, Champaran was possibly annexed by Harsha during whose reign Huen- Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim, visited India. During 750 to 1155 AD, the Palas of Bengal were in the possession of Eastern India and Champaran formed the part of their territory. Towards the close of the 10th century Gangaya Deva of the Kalacheeri dynasty conquered Champaran. He was succeeded by Vikramaditya of the Chalukya dynasty.
During 1213 and 1227, the first Muslim influence was experienced when Ghyasuddin Iwaz the Muslim governor of Bengal extended his influence over Tribhukti or Tirhut. It was however, not a complete conquest and he was only able to have Tirhut from Narsinghdeva, a Simraon king. In about 1320, Ghyasuddin Tughlaq annexed Tirhut to the Tughlaq Empire and placed it under Kameshwar Thakur, who established Sugaon or Thakur dynasty. This dynasty continued to rule the area till Nasrat Shah, son of Allauddin Shah attacked Tirhut in 1530, annexed the territory, and killed the Raja and thus put an end to the Thakur dynasty. Nasrat Shah appointed his son-in-law as viceroy of Tirhut and thence forward the country continued to be ruled by the Muslim rulers. After the fall of Mughal Empire the British rulers came to power in India.
The history of the district during the late medieval period and the British period is linked with the history of Bettiah Raj. Bettiah Raj has been mentioned as a great estate. It traces its descent from one Ujjain Singh and his son, Gaj Singh, who received the title of Raja from the Emperor Shah Jahan(1628–58). The family came into prominence as independent chief in the 18th century during the downfall of the Mughal Empire. At the time when Sarkar Champaran passed under British rule, is was in the possession of Raja Jugal Kishore Singh, who succeeded Raja Dhurup Singh in 1763. The Raj was succeeded by the descendents of Raja Jugal kishore Singh. Harendra Kishore Singh, the last Maharaja of Bettiah, died in 1893, issueless and was succeeded by his first wife, who died in 1896. The estate came under the management of Court of Wards since 1897 and was held by the Maharaja's junior widow, Maharani Janki Kuar.
The British Raj palace occupies a large area in the centre of the town. Built in 1910 at the request of Maharani, the palace was built after the plan of Graham's palace in Calcutta. The Court Of Wards is at present holding the property of Bettiah Raj.
The rise of nationalism in Bettiah in early 20th century is intimately connected with indigo plantation. Raj Kumar Shukla, an ordinary raiyat and indigo cultivator of Champaran met Gandhijii and explained the plight of the cultivators and the atrocities of the planters on the raiyats. Gandhijii came to Champaran in 1917 and listened to the problems of the cultivators and the started the movement known as Champaran Satyagraha Movement to end the oppression of the British indigo planters. By 1918 the long standing misery of the indigo cultivators came to an end and Champaran became the hub of Indian National Freedom Movement and the launch pad of Gandhi’s Satyagraha. During The British rule, the entire region surrounding Bettiah was extensively used for indigo plantation. Indigo cultivation yielded quick benefits to the British colonizers but frequent cultivation of indigo even for few years ruined the entire subsoil decreasing the possibility of any further cultivation of any kind. Even now, the regions of Indigo cultivation in the past are barren and have only scrub vegetation in stark contrast.
In 1959, when the Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru visited Bettiah, said that "This city will be the fifth Metro City of the country." Bettiah Raj was well known for its eighteen hundred square miles of land, yielding a rental of almost 2 million rupees which was second largest in Bihar. In India the land rental system was termed as zamindari, which was later banned by the government and all the rented land was acquired.
Flora and fauna
In 1989 West Champaran district became home to Valmiki National Park, which has an area of 336 km2 (129.7 sq mi). It is also home to two wildlife sanctuaries: Valkimi (adjacent to its namesake national park) and Udaypur.
West Champaran district comprises the following Sub-Divisions: Bettiah, Bagaha, and Narkatiaganj.
Blocks: Bettiah, Sikta, Mainatand, Chanpattia, Bairia, Lauria, Bagaha - 1, Bagaha - 2, Madhubani, Gaunaha, Narkatiaganj, Manjhaulia, Nautan, Jogapatti, Ramnagar, Thakraha, Bhitaha, Piprasi
According to the 2011 census West Champaran district has a population of 3,922,780, roughly equal to the nation of Liberia or the US state of Oregon. This gives it a ranking of 63rd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 750 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,900 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 28.89%. Pashchim Champaran has a sex ratio of 906 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 58.06%.
The district is well connected by roads and railways to all major cities. The district is connected by national Highway no. 28B which passes through district towns of Bagaha, Chautarwa, Lauria nandangarh and finally goes out of district through Bettiah (district Headquarters). The district has 13 stations on Gorakhpur Narkatiaganj Muzaffarpur line, 4 stations on Narkatiaganj Darbhanga line and 5 stations on Narkatiaganj Bhikhna Thori line. The district has only one major Junction i.e. Narkatiaganj Junction.
The city inherits a very rich culture. It is the birthplace of famous poet Gopal Singh 'Nepali'. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi started the Satyagraha movement from here in 1917 along with prominent nationalists Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Babu and Brajkishore Prasad.
- Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagrah Andolan from here.
- Valmiki Rishi wrote Ramayana here.
- The Hindi poet Gopal Singh Nepali was from Bettiah.
- Ramesh Chandra Jha
- Krishna Kumar Mishra, Kehunia
- Gauri Shankar Pandey, Bettiah
- Manoj Bajpai, Bettiah
- Prakash Jha, Bettiah
- "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Amund Ringnes Island 5,255km2"
- Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Bihar". Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Liberia 3,786,764 July 2011 est."
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Oregon 3,831,074"
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Bhojpuri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
||Maharajganj district, Uttar Pradesh||Nepal|
|Kushinagar district, Uttar Pradesh|
|Gopalganj district||East Champaran district|