In the 2011 census, Balurghat Urban Agglomeration had a population of 164,593, out of which 82,466 were males and 82,127 were females. The 0–6 years population was 10,349. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 91.66 per cent.
As of 2001[update] India census, Balurghat had a population of 135,516. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Balurghat has an average literacy rate of 88.8%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 92.5% of the males and 85.7% of females literate. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Already well-connected by road to Malda, Siliguri, Kolkata, Raiganj and other premier cities in North Bengal, Balurghat now sports a railway terminus, Balurghat railway station, as well located on the western bank of River Atrayee. The town of Balurghat is on the eastern shore, so one has to take a cyclerickshaw or an autorickshaw (motorised three-wheeler) to the town. A bridge connects these two shores. The railway line to Balurghat commences at Eklakhi railway station in Maldah district,is now connected to Kolkata via Gour Exp and Tebhaga Exp. The distance between Eklakhi and Balurghat is about 79 km and it crosses two rivers en route - Tangon and Punarbhaba. Two trains connect Balurghat to Kolkata directly. They are: 1. Gour Express (Departure 5:05pm everyday) 2. Tebhaga Express (Departure 6 am daily except Sunday) 3. Balurghat Howrah bi-weekly Express (Departure 8:30pm every Monday and Tuesday) One train connect Balurghat to New Jalpaiguri. This is Balurghat-NJP intercity express. One train connects Balurghat to Malda too, Balurghat - Malda Town DEMU Passenger
Durga Puja,Kali Puja,Saraswati puja and Biswakarma Puja are widely celebrated at Balurghat. Bolla Kali Puja is celebrated at Bolla, approximately 15 kilometres from Balurghat, in end-November each year.