|Sydney Kingsford Smith Airport|
|Owner||Leased Commonwealth Airport|
|Operator||Sydney Airport Corporation Limited|
|Location||Mascot, New South Wales, Australia|
|Elevation AMSL||21 ft / 6 m|
Passenger and aircraft movements from the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics
Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport (colloquially Mascot Airport, Kingsford Smith Airport, or Sydney Airport; IATA: SYD, ICAO: YSSY; ASX: SYD) is an international airport in Sydney, Australia located 8 km (5 mi) south of Sydney city centre, in the suburb of Mascot. The airport is owned by the ASX-listed Sydney Airport Group.
It is the primary airport serving Sydney, and is a primary hub for Qantas, as well as a secondary hub for Virgin Australia and Jetstar Airways. Situated next to Botany Bay, the airport has three runways, colloquially known as the east–west, north–south and third runways.
Sydney Airport is one of the world's longest continuously operated commercial airports and the busiest airport in Australia, handling 42.6 million passengers and 348,904 aircraft movements in 2016-17. It was the 38th busiest airport in the world in 2016. Currently 46 domestic and 43 international destinations are served to Sydney directly.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Second Sydney airport
- 5 Traffic statistics
- 6 Ground transport
- 7 Accidents and incidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
1919–30: Early history
The land used for the airport had been a bullock paddock. Nigel Love, a former wartime pilot, was looking into the possibilities for aviation in Australia. He was interested in establishing the nation's first aircraft manufacturing company. This idea required him to establish a factory and an aerodrome close to the city. His search for a potential site eventually led him to a real estate office in Sydney which was aware of some land owned by the Kensington Race Club (that was kept as a hedge against losing its government-owned site at Randwick). It had been used by a local abattoir, which was closing down, to graze sheep and cattle. This land appealed to Love, the surface was perfectly flat and was covered with a pasture of buffalo grass. This grass had been grazed so evenly by the sheep and cattle running on it that it required little to make it serviceable to land aircraft. In addition, the approaches on all four sides had no obstructions, it was bounded by a racecourse, gardens, a river and Botany Bay.
Love established Mascot as a private concern, leasing 80 hectares (200 acres) from the Kensington Race Club for three years. It initially had a small canvas structure but was later equipped with an imported Richards hangar. The first flight from Mascot was on November 1919 when Love carried freelance movie photographer Billy Marshall up in an Avro. The official opening flight took place on 9 January 1920, also performed by Love.
In 1921, the Commonwealth Government purchased 65 hectares (161 acres) in Mascot for the purpose of creating a public airfield. In 1923, when Love's three-year lease expired, the Mascot land was compulsorily acquired by the Commonwealth Government from the racing club. The first regular flights began in 1924.
In 1933 the first gravel runways were built. By 1949 the airport had three runways – the 1,085-metre (3,560 ft) 11/29, the 1,190-metre (3,904 ft) 16/34 and the 1,787-metre (5,863 ft) 04/22. The Sydenham to Botany railway line crossed the latter runway approximately 150 metres (490 ft) from the northern end and was protected by special safeworking facilities. The Cooks River was diverted away from the area in 1947–52 to provide more land for the airport and other small streams were filled. When Mascot was declared an aerodrome in 1920 it was known as Sydney Airport. On 14 August 1936 the airport was renamed Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport in honour of pioneering Australian aviator Sir Charles Kingsford Smith. Up to the early 1960s the majority of Sydney-siders referred to the airport as Mascot. The first paved runway was 07/25 and the next one constructed was 16/34 (now 16R/34L), extended into Botany Bay, starting in 1959, to accommodate jet aircraft. Runway 07/25 is used mainly by lighter aircraft, but is used by all aircraft including Airbus A380s when conditions require. Runway 16R is presently the longest operational runway in Australia, with a paved length of 4,400 m (14,300 ft) and 3,920 m (12,850 ft) between the zebra thresholds.
By the 1960s, the need for a new international terminal had become apparent, and work commenced in late 1966. Much of the new terminal was designed by Paynter and Dixon Industries. The plans for the design are held by the State Library of New South Wales.
The new terminal was officially opened on 3 May 1970, by HM Queen Elizabeth II. The first Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet" at the airport, Pan American's Clipper Flying Cloud (N734PA), arrived on 4 October 1970. The east-west runway was then 2,500 m (8,300 ft) long; in the 1970s the north-south runway was expanded to become one of the longest runways in the southern hemisphere. The international terminal was expanded in 1992 and has undergone several refurbishments since then, including one that was completed in early 2000 in order to re-invent the airport in time for the 2000 Olympic Games held in Sydney. The airport additionally underwent another project development that began in 2010 to extend the transit zone which brought new duty free facilities, shops & leisure areas for passengers.
The limitations of having only two runways that crossed each other had become apparent and governments grappled with Sydney's airport capacity for decades; eventually the controversial decision to build a third runway was made. The third runway was parallel to the existing runway 16/34, entirely on reclaimed land from Botany Bay. A proposed new airport on the outskirts of Sydney was shelved in 2004, before being re-examined in 2009–2012 showing that Kingsford Smith airport will not be able to cope by 2030.
The "third runway" which the Commonwealth government commenced development of in 1989 and completed in 1994, remained controversial because of increased aircraft movements, especially over many inner suburbs. The 1990s saw the formation of the No Aircraft Noise Party, although it failed to win a parliamentary seat.
In 1995, the Australian Parliament passed the Sydney Airport Curfew Act 1995, which limits the operating hours of the airport. This was done in an effort to curb complaints about aircraft noise. The curfew prevents aircraft from taking off or landing between the hours of 11 pm and 6 am. A limited number of scheduled and approved take-offs and landings are permitted respectively in the "shoulder periods" of 11 pm to midnight and 5 am to 6 am. The Act does not stop all aircraft movements overnight, but limits movements by restricting the types of aircraft that can operate, the runways they can use and the number of flights allowed. During extreme weather, flights are often delayed and it is often the case that people on late flights are unable to travel on a given day. As of 2009, fines for violating curfew have been levied against four airlines, with a maximum fine of $550,000 applicable.
In addition to the curfew, Sydney Airport also has a cap of 80 aircraft movements per hour which cannot be exceeded, leading to increased delays during peak hours.
In 2002, the Commonwealth Government sold Sydney Airports Corporation Limited (later renamed Sydney Airport Corporation Limited, SACL), the management authority for the airport, to Southern Cross Airports Corporation Holdings Ltd. 82.93 per cent of SACL is owned by MAp Airports International Limited, a subsidiary of Macquarie Bank, Sydney Airport Intervest GmbH own 12.11 per cent and Ontario Teachers' Australia Trust own 4.96 per cent. SACL holds a 99-year lease on the airport which remains Crown land and as such is categorised as a Leased Federal Airport.
Since the international terminal's original completion, it has undergone two large expansions. One such expansion is underway and will stretch over twenty years (2005–25). This will include an additional high-rise office block, the construction of a multi-level car park, the expansion of both international and domestic terminals. These expansions—and other plans and policies by Macquarie Bank for airport operations—are seen as controversial, as they are performed without the legal oversight of local councils, which usually act as the local planning authority for such developments. As of April 2006, some of the proposed development has been scaled back.
Sydney Airport's International terminal underwent a $500 million renovation that was completed in mid-2010. The upgrade includes a new baggage system, an extra 7,300 m2 (78,577 sq ft) of space for shops and passenger waiting areas and other improvements.
In March 2010, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission released a report sharply critical of price gouging at Sydney airport, ranking it fifth out of five airports. The report noted Sydney Airport recorded the highest average prices at $13.63 per passenger, compared to the lowest of $7.96 at Melbourne Airport, while the price of short-term parking had almost doubled in the 2008–09 financial year, from $28 to $50 for four hours. The report also accused the airport of abusing its monopoly power.
In December 2011, Sydney Airport announced a proposal to divide the airport into two airline-alliance-based precincts; integrating international, domestic and regional services under the one roof by 2019. The current domestic Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 would be used by Qantas, Jetstar and members of the oneworld airline alliance while today's international Terminal 1 would be used by Virgin Australia and its international partners. Other international airlines would continue to operate from T1.
In September 2012, Sydney Airport and MD CEO Kerrie Mather announced the airport had abandoned the proposal to create alliance-based terminals in favour of terminals "based around specific airline requirements and (passenger) transfer flows". She stated the plan was to minimise the number of passengers transferring between terminals. In June 2013 the airport released a draft version of its 2013 Masterplan, which proposes operating domestic and international flights from the same terminals using 'swing gates', along with upgrading Terminal 3 (currently the Qantas domestic terminal) to accommodate the Airbus A380.
On 17 February 2014, the Australian Government approved Sydney Airport’s Master Plan 2033, which outlines the airport’s plans to cater for forecast demand of 74 million passengers in 2033. The plan includes Sydney Airport’s first ever integrated ground transport plan.
Sydney Airport has three passenger terminals. The International Terminal is separated from the other two by a runway, therefore connecting passengers need to allow for longer transfer times.
Terminal 1 was opened on 3 May 1970, replacing the old Overseas Passenger Terminal (which was located where Terminal 3 stands now) and has been greatly expanded since then. Today it is known as the International Terminal, located in the airport's north western sector. It has 25 gates (thirteen in concourse B numbered 8–37, and twelve in concourse C numbered 50–63) served by aerobridges. Pier B is used by Qantas, all Oneworld members and all Skyteam members (except Delta). Pier C is used by Virgin Australia and its partners (including Delta) as well as all Star Alliance members There are also a number of remote bays which are heavily utilised during peak periods and for parking of idle aircraft during the day.
The terminal building is split into three levels, one each for arrivals, departures and airline offices. The departure level has 20 rows of check-in desks each with 10 single desks making a total of 200 check-in desks. The terminal hosts eight airline lounges: Two for Qantas, and one each for Etihad Airways, Air New Zealand, Singapore Airlines, Emirates, American Express and SkyTeam. The terminal underwent a major $500 million redevelopment that was completed in 2010, by which the shopping complex was expanded, outbound customs operations were centralised and the floor space of the terminal increased to 254,000 square metres (2,730,000 sq ft). Further renovations began in 2015 with a reconfiguration and decluttering of outbound and inbound duty-free areas, extension of the airside dining areas and installation of Australian Border Force Smart Gates for outbound immigration. These works were completed in 2016.
Terminal 2, located in the airport's north-eastern section, was the former home of Ansett Australia's domestic operations. It features 16 parking bays served by aerobridges and several remote bays for regional aircraft. It serves FlyPelican, Jetstar, Regional Express Airlines, Tigerair Australia, Virgin Australia and Virgin Australia Regional Airlines. There are lounges for Regional Express Airlines and Virgin Australia.
Terminal 3 is a domestic terminal, serving Qantas with QantasLink flights having moved their operations from Terminal 2 to Terminal 3 on 16 August 2013. Originally, it was home for Trans Australia Airlines (later named Australian Airlines). Like Terminal 2 it is located in the north-eastern section.
The current terminal building is largely the result of extensions designed by Hassell that were completed in 1999. This included construction of a 60-metre roof span above a new column free checkin hall and resulted in extending the terminal footprint to 80,000 square metres. There are 14 parking bays served by aerobridges, including two served by dual aerobridges. Terminal 3 features a large Qantas Club lounge, along with a dedicated Business Class and Chairmans lounge. Terminal 3 also has a 'Heritage Collection' located adjacent to gate 13, dedicated to Qantas and including many collections from the airline's 90-plus years of service. It also has a view of the airport's apron and is used commonly by plane-spotters.
Qantas sold its lease of Terminal 3, which was due to continue until 2019, back to Sydney Airport for $535 million. This means Sydney Airport resumes operational responsibility of the terminal, including the lucrative retail areas.
This section does not cite any sources. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Sydney Airport had a fourth passenger terminal, east of Terminal 2. This was formerly known as Domestic Express and was used by Regional Express Airlines; and low-cost carriers Virgin Blue (now known as Virgin Australia) and the now-defunct Impulse Airlines; during the time Terminal 2 was closed following the collapse of Ansett Australia. It is now used by DHL Express and Tasman Cargo Airlines as an office building.
The dedicated Freight Terminal is located north of Terminal 1. It is used for international freight operations, except for Tasman Cargo Airlines' trans-Tasman services. It is also used as overflow parking when all Terminal 1 gates are occupied.
Airlines and destinations
^a The Qantas flight QF11 from Sydney to New York operates with a stop in Los Angeles, where all passengers disembark and clear US customs while the flight continues to New York carrying all connecting passengers from Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. Although the same flight number continues to New York there is an aircraft swap at Los Angeles from an A380 to 747. So therefore an entry for a direct New York flight is not included for this reason (the 747 comes from Brisbane). Furthermore, it is not possible to fly solely between LAX and JFK as the US government prohibits foreign airlines from serving domestic flights in the US.
- ^1 Aircraft leased from operator. Airly requires an initial subscription fee prior to flight booking.
- ^2 These flights may make an intermediate domestic stop en route to their listed final destination; however the airlines have no traffic rights to carry passengers solely between Sydney and the intermediate Australian stop.
- ^3 Each of these freight companies has its own facility (each located on different parts of the airport) and does not operate from the International freight terminal.
Second Sydney airport
The local, state and federal governments have investigated the viability of building a second major airport in Sydney since the 1940s. Significant passenger growth at Sydney Airport indicates the potential need for a second airport — for example, total passenger numbers increased from less than 10 million in 1985-86 to over 25 million in 2000-01, and over 40 million in 2015-16. This growth is expected to continue, with Sydney region passenger demand forecast to reach 87 million passengers by 2035.
On 15 April 2014, the Federal Government announced that Badgerys Creek would be Sydney's second international airport, to be known as Western Sydney Airport. Press releases suggest that the airport will not be subject to curfews and will open in phases, initially with a single airport runway and terminal. It would be linked to Sydney Airport by local roads and motorways, and by extensions to the existing suburban rail network. In May 2017 the Federal Government announced it would build (pay for) the second Sydney Airport, after the Sydney Airport Group declined the Government's offer to build the second airport.
Sydney Airport handled over 27 million domestic passengers in 2016-17.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled ('000s)||% Change|
Sydney Airport handled 15.6 million international passengers in 2016-17.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% change|
Tokyo includes services to both Haneda and Narita airports.
In 2016-17 Sydney Airport handled 489,183 tonnes of international air freight and 23,349 tonnes of international air mail.
The airport is accessible via the Airport Link underground rail line. The International Airport railway station is located below the International terminal, while the Domestic Airport railway station is located under the car park between the domestic terminals (Terminal 2 and Terminal 3). While the stations are part of the Sydney Trains suburban network, they are privately owned and operated by the Airport Link consortium and their use is subject to a surcharge. The trains that service the airport are regular suburban trains. Unlike airport trains at some other airports, these do not have special provisions for customers with luggage, do not operate express to the airport and may have all seats occupied by commuters before the trains arrive at the airport.
State Transit operates route 400 from Burwood to Bondi Junction railway stations which stops at both the International and Domestic terminals. This route connects to the eastern suburbs, and St George areas.
Sydney Airport has road connections in all directions. Southern Cross Drive (M1), a motorway, is the fastest link with the city centre. The M5 South Western Motorway (including the M5 East Freeway) links the airport with the south-western suburbs of Sydney. A ring road runs around the airport consisting of Airport Drive, Qantas Drive, General Holmes Drive, M5 East Freeway and Marsh Street. General Holmes Drive features a tunnel under the main north-south runway and three taxiways as well as providing access to an aircraft viewing area. Inside the airport a part-ring road – Ross Smith Avenue (named after Ross MacPherson Smith) – connects the Domestic Terminal with the control tower, the general aviation area, car-rental company storage yards, long-term car park, heliport, various retail operations and a hotel. A perimeter road runs inside the secured area for authorised vehicles only.
The Airport runs several official car parks—Domestic Short Term, Domestic Remote Long Term, and International Short/Long Term.
The International Terminal is located beside a wide pedestrian and bicycle path. It links Mascot and Sydney City in the north-east with Tempe (via a foot bridge over Alexandra Canal) and Botany Bay to the south-west. All terminals offer bicycle racks and are also easily accessible by foot from nearby areas.
Accidents and incidents
- On 19 July 1945 a Consolidated C-87 Liberator Express operated by the Royal Air Force bound for Manus Island failed to gain altitude after taking off from runway 22, struck trees and crashed into Muddy Creek, north of Brighton. The aircraft exploded on impact,killing all 12 passengers and crew on board. The crash made all bodies be tossed into the air and slam into the ground when the plane then squashed them. All the victims were service personnel, five from the RAF, one from the Royal New Zealand Air Force and six from the Royal Navy.
- On 18 June 1950 a Douglas DC-3 of Ansett Airways taxiing for take-off from Sydney's now non-existent runway 22 for a night-time passenger flight to Brisbane, hit and partially derailed a coal train travelling on the railway line that crossed the runway. Only the co-pilot was injured.
- On 30 November 1961, Ansett-ANA Flight 325, a Vickers Viscount, crashed into Botany Bay shortly after take-off. The starboard (right) wing failed after the aircraft flew into a thunderstorm. All 15 people on board were killed.
- On 1 December 1969, Boeing 707-321B N892PA of Pan Am Flight 812 overran the runway during take-off due to bird strikes. The accident investigation established that the aircraft struck a flock of seagulls, with a minimum of 11 individual bird strikes to the leading edges of the wings and engines 1, 2, and 3. In particular, blade 14 of number 2 engine was damaged by a single bird carcass and lost power before the decision to abandon the take-off (which occurred at or near V1 or takeoff decision speed). The aircraft came to rest 560 ft (170 m) beyond the end of runway 16 (now runway 16R). During the crash, number 2 engine hit the ground and was damaged. The nose and left main landing gears failed and the aircraft came to rest supported by engines 1 and 2, the nose, and the remainder of the main landing gear. There were no injuries or fatalities amongst the 125 passengers and 11 crew. The accident investigation concluded that the overrun was not inevitable.
- On 29 January 1971, Boeing 727 of Trans Australia Airlines registered VH-TJA, Flight 592, struck the tail of Canadian Pacific Air Lines Douglas DC-8, registered CF-CPQ, Flight 592 during take-off. The DC-8 misinterpreted instructions on which exit to use after landing and the tower cleared the 727 for take-off before the runway was clear. The 727 then proceeded to attempt take-off rather than take evasive measures. After impact the 727 experienced a tear in the fuselage and lost some hydraulic pressure but managed to return and land safely.
- On 21 February 1980, Advance Airlines Flight 4210 registered VH-AAV, a Beechcraft Super King Air took off from Sydney Airport and suffered an engine failure. The pilot flew the aircraft back to the airport and attempted to land but crashed into the sea wall. All 13 people on board died in the accident.
- On 24 April 1994, a Douglas DC-3 registered VH-EDC of South Pacific Airmotive had an engine malfunction shortly after take-off on a charter flight to Norfolk Island. The engine was feathered but airspeed decayed and it was found to be impossible to maintain height. A successful ditching was carried out into Botany Bay. All four crew and 21 passengers safely evacuated the aircraft. The investigation revealed that the propeller was not fully feathered.
- On 23 March 2009, Terminal 3 was the scene of a brawl involving 10 people in the two rival bikie gangs, the Hells Angels and Comancheros. The brawl left one man, Anthony Zervas, dead. The fighting was witnessed by over 50 travellers, CCTV cameras and airport staff, including airport security, who could do little to intervene. The security staff were unarmed and police (Federal Police) arrived late. In November 2011 Comancheros leader Mahmoud "Mick" Hawi was found guilty of affray and murder, but the murder conviction was overturned on appeal. At a retrial he pleaded guilty to manslaughter and in March 2015 he was sentenced to a minimum of 3.5 years jail.
- Transport in Australia
- Ascot Racecourse, Sydney
- RAAF Mascot
- United States Army Air Forces in Australia (World War II)
- List of airports in New South Wales
- List of airports in Greater Sydney
- Annual Report 2014 (PDF). Sydney Airport.
- "Airport Traffic Data". Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics.
- "Sydney airport – Economic and social impacts". Ecquants. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- PDF). AIP En Route Supplement from Airservices Australia, effective 09 November 2017 (
- "Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "Sydney Airport heritage". Retrieved 2017-08-31.
- "Airport traffic data". Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Movements at Australian Airports Financial Year 2017". Airservices Australia. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Steve Creedy (24 November 2009). "Bullock paddock grew to nation's busiest air hub". The Australian. News Corp. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- "Aerial joy riding. Tests at Mascot". Evening News. Sydney. 9 January 1920. p. 4. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- Pollard, Neville (1988). Offal, Oil and Overseas Trade: The Story of the Sydenham to Botany Railway Line. Australia: Australian Railway Historical Society NSW Division. p. 51. ISBN 0909650217.
- Sydney Morning Herald 9 August 1938 p.12
- "Paynter and Dixon". The Sun Herald. 26 April 1970. p. 57.
- "George Surtees architectural and design drawings, ca. 1950's-1989". Skip Navigation LinksManuscripts, Oral History and Pictures Search. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Aviation Daily 27 July 1971
- "Airport Curfews – General Information" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Creedy, Steve (6 May 2009). "Jetstar fined for airport curfew breach". news.com.au. News Limited. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- "Sydney Airport Runway Movement Cap Report for December quarter 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Ownership". Sydneyairport.com.au. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Leased Federal Airports, Australian Government Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development (accessed 4 September 2014)
- Sydney Morning Herald. 21 April 2006 issue
- "International Terminal – Expansion and Upgrade". Sydneyairport.com.au. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- West, Andrew; Matt, O'Sullivan (12 March 2010). "ACCC slams price gouging at Sydney Airport". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- "New Vision To Integrate International, Domestic and Regional Services". Sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Ghee, Ryan (2012). "Integrated Terminals Central to Sydney Airport Vision". ACI Asia-Pacific Airports. PPS Publications Ltd. (Winter 2012): 13–14.
- McKenny, Leesha (4 June 2013). "Airport says the sky's the limit". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Sydney Airport Master Plan". SALC. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Sydney Airport Master Plan Approved". 2014-02-18.
- "Master Plan". sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Master Plan". Sydneyairport.com.au. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Nickell, Alena (16 August 2013). "Terminal take off for country passengers | St George & Sutherland Shire Leader". Theleader.com.au. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "QantasLink Terminal Change". Qantas. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Qantas Domestic Terminal". Architravel. Achitravel. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Flynn, David (18 August 2015). "Qantas sells Sydney Airport terminal lease for $535 million". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Beijing Capital schedules Qingdao – Sydney launch in Oct 2017". routesonline. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "China Eastern reopens Wuhan – Sydney reservation from late-Jan 2017". routesonline. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
-  Archived 23 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Watson, Elle (27 May 2015). "Fly Pelican [sic] announces starting date for flights". The Mudgee Guardian. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Gordon, Jason (25 May 2015). "FlyPelican announces Canberra, Sydney schedules". The Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "FlyCorporate adds Sydney service from Sep 2017". routesonline. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- airlineroute (9 September 2016). "Hainan Airlines this week opened reservation for Changsha – Sydney flights on/after 30OCT16. 2 wkly flights will begin on 12SEP16". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Hainan Airlines schedules Haikou – Sydney launch in 1Q18". routesonline. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Vietnam Just a bargain away with Jetstar to offer direct flights". Stuff. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Jetstar adds Sydney – Proserpine route from April 2017". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Qantas ditches Dubai, returns A380 to Sydney-Singapore-London". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
- "Qantas to launch seasonal Sydney-Osaka flights". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Qantas returns to Osaka Kansai with seasonal Sydney services". Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- "Qantas converts Sydney – Osaka to year-round service in 2018". routesonline. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
- "AIRPORT TAKES FLIGHT WITH QANTAS DEAL". Qantas Airways Limited. 3 September 2014.
- "Qantas to fly Boeing 717s between Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane". Australian Business traveller. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- "REX Airlines to fly to Snowy Mountains in 2016 ski season - SnowsBest". 19 November 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Samoa Airways confirms plan to launch services from 14-Nov-2017". CAPA. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "Tianjin Airlines files proposed Sydney schedule in 1Q18". routesonline. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "United adds Houston – Sydney service from Jan 2018".
- "Second Sydney Airport – A Chronology". www.aph.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
- "No airport cap or curfew change: Albanese". Sydney Morning Herald. www.news.smh.com.au. AAP. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- Truss, Warren; Tony Abott. "Western Sydney Airport to Deliver Jobs and Infrastructure". Media Release. Ministry for Inreastructure and Regional Development. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- O'Sullivan, Matt (16 April 2014). "Sydney Airport looks west". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Saulwick, Jacob (16 April 2014). "Federal government plans for airport rail line but will not build it". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Blumer, Clare (4 May 2017). "Badgerys Creek airport to be built by Federal Government as Sydney Airport declines first option". ABC News. ABC. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Australian Domestic Domestic aviation activity December 2016" (PDF). Bitre.gov.au. February 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- "International Airline Activity 2016". Bitre.gov.au. May 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
- "Sydney Airport Link". Airport Link. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Sydney Airport". Rail Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Sydney Buses Route 400 Public Bus". Sydney Airport. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Sydney Airport Carparks". Sydney Airport Website. Sydney Airport Corporation Limited. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- Pearcy, Arthur (1996). Lend lease aircraft in World War II (1. publ. ed.). United States: Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers. p. 105. ISBN 9780760302590.
- Livingstone, Bob (1998). Under the Southern Cross: the B-24 Liberator in the South Pacific (Limited ed.). Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company. p. 122. ISBN 9781563114328.
- "Crash of a C-87 Liberator Express 1 mile west of Mascot Airfield on 19 July 1945". Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Job, Macarthur (1992). Air Crash, Volume 2. Weston Creek, ACT: Aerospace Publications. p. 153. ISBN 1-875671-01-3.
- "Accident description: VH-TVC, 30 November 1961". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Air Safety Investigation Branch (1970). Accident Investigation Report – Boeing 707-321B Aircraft N892PA at Sydney (Kingsford-Smith) Airport, on 1st December 1969 (pdf). Department of Civil Aviation, Australia. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Air Safety Investigation Branch (August 1971). "Canadian Pacific Airlines DC8-63 aircraft CF-CPQ and Trans-Australia Airlines Boeing 727 aircraft VH-TJA at Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport New South Wales on 29 January, 1971" (pdf). Accident Investigation Report. Department of Civil Aviation. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Accident description:VH-EDC 24 April 1994". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI) (5 March 1996). Investigation Report, No. 9401043, Douglas Aircraft Co Inc DC3C-S1C3G, VH-EDC, Botany Bay, NSW, 24 April 1994 (pdf). Department of Transport (Australia). ISBN 0 642 24566 5. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Dylan Welch, Les Kennedy and Ellie Harvey (23 March 2009). "Bikie killed in Sydney Airport brawl". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Wells, Jamelle (court reporter) (2 November 2011). "Bikie boss guilty of murder over airport brawl". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
The jury was told: Anthony Zervas suffered massive head injuries and stab wounds as he was attacked with metal bollards, kicked, punched and stomped on as he lay on the ground
- Wells, Jamelle; Hoerr, Karl (13 March 2015). "Ex-bikie boss sentenced to jail over fatal Sydney Airport brawl". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 March 2017.