Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport
Chóngqìng Jiāngběi Guójì Jīchǎng
|IATA: CKG – ICAO: ZUCK|
|Location||Yubei District, Chongqing|
|Elevation AMSL||416 m / 1,365 ft|
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (Chinese: 重庆江北国际机场) (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK) is located in the Yubei District of Chongqing, People's Republic of China. In 2014, it was awarded third place in the "Best Airport in the 25–40 Million Passenger Size" category by Airports Council International.
Situated 19 kilometres (12 mi) north of the city centre of Chongqing, the airport is a major aviation hub for airlines in western China, including China Express Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, and China West Air. Chongqing is a focus city of Air China, making the airport well-connected with the Star Alliance and SkyTeam's international networks.
The airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 serving international flights, and Terminal 2 with halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second, and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers and the international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A new terminal, T3A, and an additional runway are under construction.
In terms of passenger traffic, Jiangbei Airport was the eighth busiest airport nationwide in 2014, handling 29,264,363 passengers with a year-on-year growth of 15.8 percent. The airport was the ninth busiest airport by traffic movements and twelfth busiest airport by cargo traffic in China for 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Development
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Ground transportation
- 5 Other facilities
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The civil aviation of Chongqing dates back to the 1920s. After the completion of Baishiyi Airport in 1938, Chongqing became one of th four cities in China that had an airport in operation. In 1950, four flight routes from Tianjin, Chengdu, Guangzhou and Kunming to Chongqing became the earliest to be opened after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. In 1965, the Civil Aviation Administration of China opened an office in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Airport became subject to it. The development of Chongqing's civil aviation then stopped until the 1990s.
On 22 January 1990, the new airport, Chongqing Jiangbei Airport was opened to replace the old Baishiyi Airport. The development of the civil aviation resumed. In 1997, when the Chongqing area became the 4th municipality of China, Civil Aviation Administration of China established a branch in Chongqing in the same year.
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is currently undergoing a major expansion, with a vision of obtaining a major international air hub and becoming the largest airport in western China by 2030. Jiangbei Airport has been outlined ambitious growth plans, competing with Chengdu Airport, Kunming Airport, Wuhan Airport and Xi'an Airport to be recognized as the nation's fourth largest aviation hub (after those hubs in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou).
Jiangbei Airport was reported to have reached the fastest growth rates since 2011, according to CAPA's Airport Traffic Benchmark Tool. On 1 November 2015, the annual passengers at Jiangbei Airport exceeded 30 million for the first time.
In 2004, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport became one of the largest airports by facility in Western China due to the expansion of Terminal 2 that opened and was originally expected to reach capacity of an additional 10 million passengers annually by 2010. However, this goal was realized in 2007 when the airport had already served more than 10 million passengers thanks to the swift growing of passenger traffic. Less than 8 years later, in 2015, the annual passengers of Jiangbei Airport exceeded 32 million.
The expansion project Phase III, which included a second runway and an additional Terminal, T2, started construction in 2007 and completed in 2010. Major elements of the construction were adding a second runway of 3,200 meters (which was later lengthened to 3,600 meters to satisfy the landings and takeoffs of Boeing 747 and the demands of Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.) to the east of the existing runway, building a parallel taxiway in between the two runways, and setting up a visual aid lighting support system. It also added a second terminal building (T2) with an area of 86,000 square meters, 41 apron aircraft parking stands, and a freight station and support facilities occupying an area of 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft). It cost CNY3.3 billion(USD538 million). On 22 December 2010, the second runway was commissioned, which made Jiangbei Airport the fourth airport in mainland China to operate two runways, one exclusively for departures and the other exclusively for arrivals.
The current major expansion - Phase IV - of Jiangbei Airport contains the construction of a third runway and a new terminal, T3A, which is expected to be 530,000 square meters, more than double the size of the existing terminals (T1 and T2A/T2B) combined, costing CNY26.0 billion (USD4.1 billion). T3A is expected to be completed by the end of 2016, after which the airport will have more than 725,000 square meters of terminal floor space, ranking Jiangbei Airport among the world's 15 largest airports with an annual passenger capacity of 60 million and an annual cargo capacity of 2 million tons. Half of the new terminal is currently planned for international flights to from major cities in South East Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America. After the completion of expansion Phase IV, Jiangbei Airport will become the 4th airport in China (inc. Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan) that has three runways in operation, of which Runway #3 (03/21) will be operated independently on top of the pair #1 (02L/20R) and #2 (02R/20L).
There is a fifth Phase of expansion planned for Jiangbei Airport which is expected to include a new terminal, namely T3B, and a fourth runway. This phase will be finished in mid 2020s.
|Phase||Date of Inauguration||Terminals||Runways (Direction, Classification)||Number of Bays||Passenger Capacity|
|I||Jan. 22, 1990||T1||16,000||#1 (02/20, 4E)||6||25||31||1,000,000||-|
|II||Dec. 12, 2004||T1, T2B||104,900||#1 (02/20, 4E)||24||26||50||7,000,000||-|
|III||Dec. 21, 2010||T1, T2A/T2B||181,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E)||36||49||85||30,000,000||2,100,000|
|IV||Apr. 27, 2017||T1, T2A/T2B, T3A||718,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E) #3 (03/21, 4F)||98||81||179||60,000,000||10,000,000|
|V||After 2020||T1, T2A/T2B, T3A/T3B||1,018,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E) #3 (03L/21R, 4F) #4 (03R/21L, 4F)||165||-||-||70,000,000||14,000,000|
Note: Remote Bays include the ones that serve the air freighters.
Surge in cargo traffic
Cargo traffic increased at an average rate of 14% in the first six months of 2011, driven by exponential growth in international cargo. International cargo/mail volumes increased by 12 times from 2010 levels in the first half of 2011, to more than 9000 tonnes. In the second half of 2011, this growth rate is expected to be maintained, with Hewlett-Packard, Asus and other brands of large international IT production capacity supporting the increase, to an anticipated 60,000 to 80,000 tonnes of international cargo throughout the whole year.
New international routes
Back in the late 1990s, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport was very small, and had only two international flights per week. However 14 years later and especially during the past 5 years[when?], more and more international routes have been launched. In the year 2010, there were on average more than 70 international flights per week, while during the first half of 2011 this number rose to more than a hundred. This number was expected to further increase to as many as 150 international flights per week during the year 2012.
Years ago, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport's international destinations all terminated in East and Southeast Asia, including direct flights to Tokyo (has stop-over in Beijing or Shanghai), Seoul, Singapore, Bangkok, Phuket, Siem Reap, etc. However, this situation was changed in 2011 with Qatar Airways and Finnair opening new routes to Doha and Helsinki respectively.
While the new T3A terminal is under construction as of September 2016, the airport is expecting to have multiple new international routes to Tokyo, Istanbul, London, Dubai and Moscow. A transpacific flight to North America (Vancouver) is still under negotiation.
|Year||Passengers||Ranking by PAX||Cargo||Aircraft Operations|
Source : CAAC (Civil Aviation Administration of China)
Number of Domestic and International/Regional passengers (Bar Chart, 2009-2015)
Source : CQA (Chongqing Airport Group Co., Ltd.)
Airlines and destinations
The airport's ground transportation is developing very fast. Four highways around the airport are under construction, as part of plans to turn Chongqing into an integrated regional transport hub in western China. There will be a 300,000sqm transportation transfer centre in T3A, which will include inter-city rail, light rail and subway.
General plan of Integrated Transportation Hub at Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport:
- One Inter-City Rail: Branch of Chongqing-Wanzhou Inter-City Rail.
- Two Lines of Chongqing Rail Transit: CRT Line 3 and Line 10.
- Three Latitudinal Roadways: (1)Outer Ring Expressway, (2)Relocated National Highway G319, and (3)Southern Connecting Freeway.
- Four Longitudinal Roadways: (1)First Freeway of CKG Airport (National Highway G210), (2)Second Freeway of CKG Airport (Under Construction), (3)Chongqing-Linshui Expressway, and (4)Northern Connecting Roadway.
Airport buses are easily accessible at Terminal 2. They leave for the city every half an hour, with stops at Jiazhou Bus Station, Waimao Dasha (International Commerce Mansion, in Guanyinqiao Shopping District) and the final stop, Shangqingsi(in Yuzhong District). The reverse route is slightly different, with the beginning stop at Shangqingsi, but only one intermediate stop at Minhang Dasha (Civil Aviation Mansion), and the buses finally arrive at Terminal 2. 
There is a Transfer Center for Long-Distance Coaches between Terminal 2A and Terminal 2B, and it offers bus services to nearby cities in Sichuan and Guizhou Province, as well as suburban areas of Chongqing Municipality.
There is currently one airport freeway connecting the city center with the airport, and the second one is under construction and will be put into operation in the late 2016. The airport freeway is 23 kilometers long, but it usually takes as many as 30 minutes to get from the city center to the airport because of the heavy traffic.
At present, the airport has three parking lots:
- International (Outdoor) Parking Lot, located in front of Terminal 1.
- Domestic (Outdoor) Parking Lot, located in front of Terminal 2.
- Underground (Indoor) Parking Lot, located under Terminal 2.
The total number of cars that those lots can accommodate is 2,300.
As an essential part of ground transportation for Terminal 3, a four-level parking garage is being built to accommodate up to 5,000 cars.
Chongqing rail transit
Chongqing Rail Transit Line 3 runs from Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport Terminal 2 station via the city center at Lianglukou Station, on to its final stop, Yudong, covering a distance of 60 kilometres (37 mi). It takes around 50 minutes to get to the city center (Lianglukou) and the cost is around 7 yuan.
Chongqing Rail Transit Line 10, to be completed in 2017, will serve as the second metro rail line connecting the urban areas of Chongqing and the airport. One station of Line 10 will be at Terminal 3 and the other at Terminal 2. The subway will run under Runways #1 (02L/20R) and #2 (02R/20L), connecting the public areas of Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. Line 10 is the only metro access to the new Terminal 3 that is still under construction, while Line 3 will not be elongated to Terminal 3. Line 10 will reduce the travel distance between Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and Chongqingbei Railway Station, which can facilitate the transfers of passengers between airport and rail.
Terminal 3A, currently under construction, will have a huge underground railway station that will open in 2019 that will connect cities as far as 300 kilometers away, thus allowing Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport to serve a significantly larger population. The speed of the trains is designed to be 250 to 300 kilometers per hour, allowing journeys to take less than one hour from a relatively faraway locations within the Greater Chongqing Municipality.
Automated people mover
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In the master plan of Chongqing Airport, there will be 2 APM lines that one connects Terminal 3A with its satellite Terminal 3B, and the other Terminal 3A with Terminal 2. Both the two lines serve the passengers in non-public areas and that means passengers for inter-terminal transfers needn't reclaim their baggages and take the subway or bus to the other terminal. Accurate time of completion hasn't been announced, but they should be put into operation together with Terminal 3B in the early 2020s.
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