Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport
Chóngqìng Jiāngběi Guójì Jīchǎng
|IATA: CKG – ICAO: ZUCK|
|Location||Yubei District, Chongqing|
|Elevation AMSL||416 m / 1,365 ft|
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (Chinese: 重庆江北国际机场) (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK) is an airport located in the Yubei District of Chongqing, People's Republic of China. In 2014, it was awarded third place in the "Best Airport in the 25–40 Million Passenger Size" category by Airports Council International.
Located 21 km north of the city-centre of Chongqing, Jiangbei Airport serves as an important aviation hub for southwestern China. It is a hub for China Express Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, and China West Air. Chongqing is a focus city of Air China. As a result, Chongqing Airport is well-connected with Star Alliance and SkyTeam's international networks.
Currently Jiangbei airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 serving international flights, and Terminal 2 with halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second, and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers and its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A new terminal, T3A, and an additional runway are currently under construction.
In terms of passenger traffic, Chongqing airport was the 8th busiest airport nationwide in 2014, handling 29,264,363 people, a year-on-year increase of 15.8 percent. The airport remained the 9th busiest airport by traffic movements and 12th busiest airport by cargo traffic in China for 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Development
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Ground transportation
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The civil aviation of Chongqing dates back to the 1920s, and boasts a history of more than 90 years. After the completion of Baishiyi Airport in 1938, Chongqing became one of the only four cities in China that had an airport in operation. In 1950, four flight routes from Tianjin, Chengdu, Guangzhou and Kunming to Chongqing became the earliest to be opened after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. However, in 1965, when Civil Aviation Administration of China founded a branch in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Airport became subject to it. Since then, the development of Chongqing's civil aviation has come into a sudden stop, until the 1990s.
On 22 January 1990, the new airport, Chongqing Jiangbei Airport was opened and it replaced the old Baishiyi Airport. The development of the civil aviation resumed. In 1997, when the Chongqing area became the 4th municipality of China, Civil Aviation Administration of China established a branch in Chongqing in the same year.
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is currently undergoing a major expansion effort, with the ambition of obtaining an international air hub and becoming the largest airport in western China by 2035. Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is one of several fast-growing facilities in western China to have outlined ambitious growth plans, with Chengdu, Chongqing, Kunming, Wuhan and Xi'an all vying to be recognized as the nation's fourth largest aviation hub (after Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou).
In the second half of 2014, CAPA is expected to review the progress and ambitions of Chongqing's rivals in western China. At present, Chengdu's Shuangliu International Airport, which has already been reviewed by CAPA as part of this airport series, is the largest operation of the ambitious western China airports at nearly 38 million passengers annually. Chongqing and Xi'an airports, however, have been said to have reported the fastest growth rates since 2011, according to CAPA's Airport Traffic Benchmark Tool.
In 2004, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport became one of the largest airports by facility in Western China due to the expansion of Terminal 2 that opened and was originally expected to reach capacity of an additional 10 million passengers annually by 2010. However, this goal was realized in 2007 when the airport had already served more than 10 million passengers thanks to the swift growing of passenger traffic. Seven years later, in 2014, the annual number of passengers of Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is nearly 30 million.
The expansion project Phase III, which included a second runway and an additional expansion of Terminal 2, began in 2007 and concluded in 2010. Major elements of the construction were adding a second runway of 3,200 meters (which was later lengthened to 3,600 meters to satisfy the landings and takeoffs of Boeing 747 and the demands of Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.) to the east of the existing runway, building a parallel taxiway in between the two runways, and setting up a visual aid lighting support system. It also encompassed adding a second terminal building (T2A) with an area of 60,000 sq.m., 41 apron aircraft parking stands, and a freight station and support facilities occupying an area of 20,000 sq.m. It cost CNY3.3 billion(USD538 million). In 22 December 2010, the second runway was put into operation, which made Chongqing Airport the 4th airport in mainland China that operates two runways, one exclusively for departures and the other exclusively for arrivals.
The current major expansion - Phase IV - of Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport contains the construction of a third runway and a new terminal, Terminal 3A, which is expected to be 537,000 square meters, more than twice the size of the existing terminals (T1 and T2A/T2B) combined, costing CNY26.0 billion (USD4.1 billion). T3A is expected to be completed by 2016, after which the airport will have more than 7,000,000 square meters of terminal space, ranking Chongqing Jiangbei among the world's 15 largest airports with an annual passenger capacity of 60 million and an annual cargo capacity of 2 million tons. Half of the new terminal is currently planned for international flights to major cities in South East Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America. After the completion of expansion Phase IV, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport will become the 4th airport in China (inc. Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan) that has three runways, of which Runway #3 (03/21) will be operated independently of the pair #1 (02L/20R) and #2 (02R/20L).
There is a fifth Phase of expansion planned for Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport which is expected to include a new terminal, Terminal 3B, and a fourth runway. This phase will be finished after 2020.
|Phase||Year of Completion||Terminals||Runways (Direction, Classification)||Number of Bays||Passenger Capacity|
|I||1990||T1||16,000||#1 (02/20, 4E)||6||25||31||1,000,000||-|
|II||2004||T1, T2B||104,900||#1 (02/20, 4E)||24||26||50||7,000,000||-|
|III||2010||T1, T2A/T2B||181,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E)||36||49||85||30,000,000||2,100,000|
|IV||2016||T1, T2A/T2B, T3A||718,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E) #3 (03/21, 4F)||98||81||179||60,000,000||10,000,000|
|V||After 2020||T1, T2A/T2B, T3A/T3B||1,018,900||#1 (02L/20R, 4E) #2 (02R/20L, 4E) #3 (03L/21R, 4F) #4 (03R/21L, 4F)||165||-||-||70,000,000||14,000,000|
Note: Remote Bays include the ones that serve the air freighters.
Surge in cargo traffic
Cargo traffic increased at an average rate of 14% in the first six months of 2011, driven by exponential growth in international cargo. International cargo/mail volumes increased by 12 times from 2010 levels in the first half of 2011, to more than 9000 tonnes. In the second half of 2011, this growth rate is expected to be maintained, with Hewlett-Packard, Asus and other brands of large international IT production capacity supporting the increase, to an anticipated 60,000 to 80,000 tonnes of international cargo throughout the whole year.
New international routes
Back in the late 1990s, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport was very small, and had only two international flights per week. However 14 years later and especially during the past 5 years, more and more international routes have been launched. In the year 2010, there were on average more than 70 international flights per week, while during the first half of 2011 this number rose to more than a hundred. This number was expected to further increase to as many as 150 international flights per week during the year 2012.
Years ago, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport's international destinations all terminated in East and Southeast Asia, including direct flights to Tokyo (has stop-over in Beijing or Shanghai), Seoul, Singapore, Bangkok, Phuket, Siem Reap, etc. However, this situation was changed in 2011 with Qatar Airways and Finnair opening new routes to Doha and Helsinki respectively.
Statistics of Passenger, Cargo and Aircraft Operations (2000-Present)
|Year||Passengers||Ranking by PAX||Cargo||Aircraft Operations|
|2000||2,780,359||13.3 %||11||-||62,214.5||2.2 %||36,405||1.4 %|
|2001||3,192,759||14.8 %||11||-||64,597.1||3.8 %||41,192||13.1 %|
|2002||3,865,788||21.1 %||12||-||71,464.9||10.6 %||49,012||19.0 %|
|2003||4,287,505||10.9 %||12||-||76,921.5||7.6 %||56,108||14.5 %|
|2004||5,233,774||22.1 %||12||-||87,568.0||13.8 %||64,750||15.4 %|
|2005||6,631,420||26.7 %||11||-||100,909.9||15.2 %||72,674||12.2 %|
|2006||8,050,007||21.4 %||10||-||120,178.3||19.1 %||88,929||22.4 %|
|2007||10,355,730||28.6 %||10||-||143,472.4||19.4 %||105,092||18.2 %|
|2008||11,138,432||7.6 %||10||-||160,256.4||11.7 %||112,565||7.1 %|
|2009||14,038,045||26.0 %||10||91||186,005.9||16.1 %||132,619||17.8 %|
|2010||15,802,334||12.6 %||10||90||195,686.6||5.2 %||145,705||9.9 %|
|2011||19,052,706||20.6 %||9||76||237,572.5||21.4 %||166,763||14.5 %|
|2012||22,057,003||15.8 %||9||70||268,642.4||13.1 %||195,333||17.1 %|
|2013||25,272,039||14.6 %||9||62||280,149.8||4.3 %||214,574||9.9 %|
|2014||29,264,363||15.8 %||8||57||302,335.8||7.9 %||238,085||11.0 %|
Source : CAAC (Civil Aviation Administration of China)
Airlines and destinations
The airport's ground transportation is developing very fast. Four highways around the airport are under construction, as part of plans to turn Chongqing into an integrated regional transport hub in western China. There will be a 300,000sqm transportation transfer centre in T3A, which will include inter-city rail, light rail and subway.
Airport shuttle buses are easily accessible at Terminal 2. They leave for the city every half an hour, with stops at Jiazhou Bus Station, Waimao Dasha(International Commerce Mansion) and final stop, Shangqing Si. The reverse route is slightly different, with beginning stop at Shangqing Si, but only one intermediate stop at Yutong Hotel and the buses finally stop at Terminal 2. A one-way ticket costs CNY15(approximately 2.4 US dollars).
There is a bus transition center between Hall A and Hall B of Terminal 2, and it offers bus services to nearby cities in Sichuan and Guizhou Province, as well as satellite cities of Chongqing Municipality. Those cities include:
- Chongqing Municipality: Tongliang, Tongnan, Yongchuan, Dazu, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Beibei, Rongchang, Changshou, Dianjiang, Zhongxian, Shizhu, Qijiang, Liangping and Wanzhou District.
- Sichuan Province: Yibin, Zigong, Neijiang, Guang'an, Linshui, Nanchong, Nanbu, Xichong, Hejiang, Dazhou, Anyue, Dazhu, Suixian, and Suining.
- Guizhou Province: Zunyi, Chishui and Xishui.
The fares range from CNY40 to CNY100 yuan.
There is currently one airport freeway connecting the city center with the airport, and the second one has been planned. The airport freeway is 23 kilometers long, but it usually takes as many as 30 minutes to get from the city center to the airport because of the heavy traffic. Parking lot lies right in front of Terminal 1 and 2.
Car rental service is also available at the airport.
Chongqing Rail Transit
Chongqing Rail Transit Line 3 currently runs from Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport Terminal 2 station via the city center at Lianglukou Station, on to its final stop, Yudong, covering a distance of 60 kilometers(37.3 miles) in total. It takes around 50 minutes to get to the city center (Lianglukou) and the cost is around 7 yuan.
Chongqing Rail Transit Line 10, to be completed in 2017, will serve as the second metro rail line connecting the urban areas of Chongqing and the airport. One station of Line 10 will be at Terminal 3 and the other at Terminal 2. The subway will run under Runways #1 (02L/20R) and #2 (02R/20L), connecting the public areas of Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. Line 10 is the only metro access to the new Terminal 3 that is still under construction, while Line 3 will not be elongated to Terminal 3. Line 10 will reduce the travel distance between Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and Chongqingbei Railway Station, which can facilitate the transfers of passengers between airport and rail.
Terminal 3A, currently under construction, will have a huge underground railway station that will open in 2015 that will connect cities as far as 300 kilometers away, thus allowing Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport to serve a significantly larger population. The speed of the trains is designed to be 250 to 300 kilometers per hour, allowing journeys to take less than one hour from a relatively faraway locations within the Greater Chongqing Municipality.
Automated People Mover (APM)
In the master plan of Chongqing Airport, there will be 2 APM lines that one connects Terminal 3A with its satellite Terminal 3B, and the other Terminal 3A with Terminal 2. Both the two lines serve the passengers in non-public areas and that means passengers for inter-terminal transfers needn't reclaim their baggages and take the subway or bus to the other terminal. Accurate time of completion hasn't been announced, but they should be put into operation together with Terminal 3B in the early 2020s.
Taxis can easily be found in front of Arrival Halls in both Terminal 1 and 2. The flat rate fare of most taxis in Chongqing is about CNY10(USD1.6) for the first 3 kilometers (about 1.9 miles) and then the distance surcharge is about CNY 2.1 per kilometers. It usually costs passengers at least CNY70(USD12) from the airport to downtown area in the day time, but more than CNY100(USD16) at night.
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- Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (Chinese)
- Airport information for ZUCK at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.