List of political parties in Poland

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This article lists current political parties in Poland, as well as former parties dating back as far as 1918. Since 1989, Poland has had a multi-party system, with numerous competing political parties. Individual parties normally do not manage to gain power alone, and usually work with other parties to form coalition governments.

The transition from a mono-party Communist regime to liberal democracy and pluralism resulted in new political parties mushrooming in the early 1990s. After the first free parliamentary elections in 1991 seats in the Sejm were divided among more than a dozen different parties (amongst them such curiosities as the Polish Beer-Lovers' Party (Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa), led by a popular comedy actor, Janusz Rewiński). The existence of so many parties in the Sejm was seen by many as being counterproductive to the effectiveness of the parliament and a hindrance towards producing stable governments. Consequently, electoral reform was undertaken and an electoral threshold for the Lower House was instituted prior to the 1993 elections. The set threshold required a minimum vote of 5% for parties (with exemptions for ethnic minority parties) and 8% for electoral coalitions. The threshold was set at the national, rather than divisional, level, and had the effect of preventing many minor parties from winning seats in later elections. The threshold also prevented independent candidates from gaining election to the Sejm. Since 1990, the left side of the political scene has generally been dominated by former Communists turned social democrats. The right has largely comprised (former) Solidarity activists and supporters, but experienced deep divisions from the beginning, and showed less cohesiveness than the left. The right were unable to create a single bloc which could act as a lasting counterweight to the left-wing monolith, but instead, kept merging, splitting and renaming. Even so, the parties of the right did manage to win government again from 1997 to 2001 (having initially governed from 1989 to 1993).

Since the parliamentary elections of 2005, the right-wing parties have dominated the political scene, and appear to be in their strongest position to date. Two important developments in the political landscape have taken place since 2005. Firstly, the SLD (Communist successor) party is no longer the major, or one of the two major parties. Secondly, the main political battleground is no longer between the ex-Solidarity right versus the ex-Communist left. The new competing groupings are those of the Law and Justice party (promoting economic interventionism and social conservatism) and the Civic Platform (representing a more liberal-conservative position). The general public disapproval of politics and politicians as a whole has resulted in almost all major parties excluding the very word "party" from their names, replacing it with words less associated with politics, such as "union", "platform", "league" or "alliance".

Parliamentary parties[edit]

Party Leader Ideology European
affiliation
Representation[1][2]
Sejm Senat EP
United Right
Law and Justice (PiS)
Prawo i Sprawiedliwość
Jarosław Kaczyński National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Economic interventionism
Welfarism
Euroscepticism
ECR
165 / 460
29 / 100
25 / 52
Sovereign Poland (SP)
Suwerenna Polska
Zbigniew Ziobro National conservatism
Christian right
Political Catholicism
Anti-LGBT
ECR
18 / 460
1 / 100
2 / 52
Renewal of the Republic of Poland (ON RP)
OdNowa RP
Marcin Ociepa Conservatism
Pro-Europeanism
5 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Polish Affairs (PS)
Polskie Sprawy
Agnieszka Ścigaj [pl] Conservative liberalism
1 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Kukiz'15 (K'15)
Kukiz'15
Paweł Kukiz Right-wing populism
Conservatism
Direct democracy
Euroscepticism
EAFD
3 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Civic Coalition
Civic Platform (PO)
Platforma Obywatelska
Donald Tusk Christian democracy
Liberal conservatism
Neoliberalism
Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
EPP
127 / 460
36 / 100
14 / 52
Modern (.N)
.Nowoczesna
Adam Szłapka Classical Liberalism
Economic Liberalism
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
ALDE
6 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Polish Initiative (iPL)
Inicjatywa Polska
Barbara Nowacka Social democracy
Social liberalism
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
4 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
The Greens
Zieloni
Przemysław Słowik [pl]
Urszula Zielińska
Green politics
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
European
Greens
3 / 460
0 / 100
1 / 52
Yes! For Poland (T!DPL)
Tak! Dla Polski
Jacek Karnowski [pl] Regionalism
Localism
Decentralization
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
1 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
AGROunion (AU)
AGROunia
Michał Kołodziejczak Agrarianism
Catholic left
Democratic socialism
Economic nationalism
Decentralisation
Anti-capitalism
Euroscepticism
1 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
The Left
New Left (NL)
Nowa Lewica
Włodzimierz Czarzasty
Robert Biedroń
Social democracy
Feminism
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
S&D
19 / 460
5 / 100
4 / 52
Left Together (LR)
Lewica Razem
Adrian Zandberg
Magdalena Biejat
Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
7 / 460
2 / 100
0 / 52
Polish Socialist Party (PPS)
Polska Partia Socjalistyczna
Wojciech Konieczny Democratic socialism
Anti-Fascism
Pro-Europeanism
0 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Labour Union (UP)
Unia Pracy
Waldemar Witkowski Social democracy
Anti-clericalism
Progressivism
0 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Third Way
Poland 2050 (PL2050)
Polska 2050
Szymon Hołownia Christian democracy
Green politics
Social liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Renew
33 / 460
5 / 100
1 / 52
Polish People's Party (PSL)
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe
Władysław Kosiniak-Kamysz Agrarianism
Christian democracy
Liberal conservatism
Pro-Europeanism
EPP
28 / 460
4 / 100
3 / 52
Centre for Poland (CdP)
Centrum dla Polski
Ireneusz Raś Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
Pro-Europeanism
3 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Union of European Democrats (UED)
Unia Europejskich Demokratów
Elżbieta Bińczycka [pl] Liberalism
Social liberalism
European Federalism
0 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Confederation Liberty and Independence
New Hope (NN)
Nowa Nadzieja
Sławomir Mentzen Libertarian conservatism
Conservative liberalism
Right-wing populism
Euroscepticism
8 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
National Movement (RN)
Ruch Narodowy
Krzysztof Bosak Ultranationalism
National conservatism
Militarism
Hard Euroscepticism
6 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Confederation of the Polish Crown (KKP)
Konfederacja Korony Polskiej
Grzegorz Braun Traditionalist Catholicism
Polish nationalism
Monarchism
Anti-Ukrainian sentiment
Russophilia
4 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52

Parties without representation[edit]

Far-left[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Polish Communist Party
Komunistyczna Partia Polski
KPP Krzysztof Szwej Marxism-Leninism
Communism
Stalinism
Anti-revisionism
Anti-clericalism
Hard Euroscepticism
Founded in 2002 as the successor of the Union of Polish Communists "Proletariat", which was founded in 1990. It is considered to be the historical and ideological heir of the Communist Party of Poland, which operated from 1918 to 1938. Affiliated with INITIATIVE.
Edward Gierek's Economic Revival Movement
Ruch Odrodzenia Gospodarczego im. Edwarda Gierka
ROG Paweł Bożyk Communism
Socialism
Anti-capitalism
Anti-Atlanticism
Refers to the achievements of Edward Gierek's (Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party, 1970–1980) rule. It is against Poland's membership in NATO and postulated the withdrawal of troops from Iraq.

Left-wing[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
United Beyond Boundaries
Zjednoczeni Ponad Podziałami
ZPP Wojciech Kornowski Pensioners' rights
Solidarism
Social market economy
Left-wing nationalism[3]

Left-wing populism
Catholic left
Founded in 2018 by former leader of The Confederation of Polish Employers, Wojciech Kornowski. Its main goal is protecting retired seniors, pensioners and trust-busting. Known as Action of Disappointed Retirees and Pensioners until 2022 (Polish: Akcja Zawiedzionych Emerytów Rencistów, AZER).
National Party of Retirees and Pensioners
Krajowa Partia Emerytów i Rencistów
KPEiR Tomasz Mamiński Pensioners' rights
Democratic socialism[4][5]

Social democracy
Catholic socialism
Founded in 1994. It lost its first parliamentary election in 1997 winning just 2.18% and no seat in Sejm and Senate. In the parliamentary elections in 2015, several activists of KPEiR competed for the Sejm from the lists of the United Left, which did not obtain any seats.
Better Poland
Lepsza Polska
LP Cezary Stachoń Green politics
Egalitarianism
Solidarism
Degrowth
Small green party related to the degrowth movement which took part in the 2010 Warsaw mayoral election.[6]
Peasants' Party
Partia Chłopska
PCh Krzysztof Filipek Agrarian socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Peasant movement
Catholic left
Founded by Krzysztof Filipek and other former members of Self-Defence.
Polish Party of Animal Protection
Polska Partia Ochrony Zwierząt
PPOZ Andrzej Olszewski Animal rights
Animal welfare
Environmentalism
Vegetarianism
Green politics
Social democracy
PPOZ aspires to turn away from the anthropocentric view of life. Its main goal is the introduction of more animal rights.
Self-Defence Rebirth
Samoobrona Odrodzenie
SO Sławomir Izdebski[7] Agrarian socialism
Catholic socialism
Catholic left
Laborism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Founded in 2007 from the merger of the Self-Defense Social Movement party and several other marginal groups formed by splitters from the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland.
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland
Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
SRP Krzysztof Prokopczyk Catholic socialism
Agrarian socialism
Catholic left
Environmentalism
Anti-neoliberalism
Anti-globalization
Left-wing populism
Left-wing nationalism
SRP became prominent in the 2001 parliamentary election, winning 53 seats, after which it gave confidence and supply to the SLD government. It elected 6 MEPs in 2004 and switched its support to PiS after the 2005 election, in which it won 56 seats and entered the government coalition. In 2007, the party leader was dismissed from his position and the party withdrew from the coalition. This precipitated a new election, at which the party collapsed and lost all of its seats.
Liberty and Equality
Wolność i Równość
WiR Piotr Musiał Democratic socialism
Progressivism
Anti-clericalism
Founded in 2005 as a Union of the Left, in 2015 its name was changed to Liberty and Equality. It usually takes part in elections as part of coalitions of larger left-wing parties.

Centre-left to left-wing[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Democratic Left Association

Stowarzyszenie Lewicy Demokratycznej

SLD Jerzy Teichert Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Polish Left
Polska Lewica
PL Jacek Zdrojewski Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Formed in 2007 when former Prime Minister Leszek Miller and many other members of parliament withdrew from the Democratic Left Alliance, which Miller had headed for many years. His departure also served as a public protest against the policies of party leaders. In 2010 Miller left the party and decided to return to SLD.
New Democracy - Yes
Nowa Demokracja - Tak
ND-T Marek Materek Progressivism[8]
Regionalism
Localism
Decentralization
Left-wing party founded by Marek Materek that seeks to empower local governments and promote decentralisation of Poland. The party gathers together various regionalist and autonomist activists, along with local government officials that seek to reverse excessive centralisation of the Polish administration.[9]

Centre-left[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Nonpartisan Local Government Activists
Bezpartyjni Samorządowcy
BS Robert Raczyński Localism
Regionalism[10]
Federalism[11]
Pro-Europeanism
Decentralised and federalised party formerly associated with the progressive wing of Christian democracy that promotes local and regional interests, and advocates for democratisation and federalisation of the Polish administrative system.
Social Democracy of Poland
Socjaldemokracja Polska
SDPL Wojciech Filemonowicz Social democracy
Social liberalism
Progressivism
Founded in 2004 as a splinter group from Democratic Left Alliance. SDPL contested its first elections in 2004. Party gained 5.3%, which saw 3 members elected to the European Parliament. In 2005 they managed to gain 3.9% of the vote and fell short of the 5% threshold. SDPL put forward its leader Marek Borowski as candidate for the presidential elections. He came 4th winning 10.3% of the vote. SDPL usually takes part in elections as part of coalitions.

Centre[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
New Solidarity/Shared Poland
Ruch Wspólna Polska
WP Rafał Trzaskowski Progressivism
Conservatism
Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Shared Poland (Polish: Ruch Wspólna Polska), also known as New Solidarity (Polish: Nowa Solidarność), is a political movement started by Rafał Trzaskowski, Mayor of Warsaw and former leading candidate in the 2020 Polish Presidential Election. It was founded in October 2020.
Direct Democracy
Demokracja Bezpośrednia
DB Marzena Petykiewicz Direct democracy
E-democracy
Progressivism
Populism
DB's creation was inspired by the 2012 protests against ACTA. In the elections to the European Parliament in 2014, DB set up its own committee, which received 0.23% of the votes. In the 2015 presidential election, DB's candidate was Paweł Tanajno, who took the last place with 0.2% of votes. In the parliamentary elections in 2015, five DB activists (including Tanajno) entered the Sejm from lists of the Kukiz'15. None of them received a mandate.
One-PL
Jeden-PL
1PL Włodzimierz Zydorczak Eurofederalism
Liberalism
Direct democracy
Founded as Civic Republic of Poland.
Polish Internet Party
Polska Partia Internetowa
PPI Leszek Lacheta Green liberalism
E-democracy
Liberalism
Founded in 2019. Party combines ecologic stances with economic liberalism.
Polish Pirate Party
Polska Partia Piratów
P3 Michał Dydycz Pirate politics
Liquid democracy
Freedom of information
Pro-Europeanism
Before European Parliament elections in 2014, P3 concluded an agreement with DB, by virtue of which its activists were included in the lists of the DB committee, which received 0.23% of the votes. In the local elections of the same year, Tomasz Słowiński was nominated by KNP as a candidate in Skierniewice presidential elections, taking the last, 6th place with slightly more than 2% support. Affiliated with PPEU.
Polish Alliance of Democrats
Polskie Stronnictwo Demokratyczne
PSD Krzysztof Góralczyk Christian democracy
Liberalism
Centrism
Founded in 2013 by Christian democratic wing of Alliance of Democrats. It started transient cooperation with Poland Together.
Enterprising Republic of Poland
Przedsiębiorcza Rzeczypospolita Polska
PRP Robert Krzemiński Economic liberalism
Anti-bureaucratism
Populism
Main postulates of party include liberalisation of economy, reduction of taxes and introduction of criminal and financial responsibility of officials.
Alliance of Democrats
Stronnictwo Demokratyczne
SD Paweł Piskorski Liberalism
Social liberalism
Centrism
Pro-Europeanism
Originated in the Democratic Clubs, which were opposed to authoritarian tendencies in Poland between the two World Wars. The first club was founded in Warsaw in 1937. In the People's Republic of Poland SD became a satellite party of the communist Polish United Workers' Party regime. After 1990, most of the members of the SD joined other parties, such as the Freedom Union. Party continued to exist, but had only a small support base, and was not represented in parliament. Affiliated with EDP.

Centre-right[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Agreement

Porozumienie

Magdalena Sroka Liberal conservatism
Pro-Europeanism
It was founded in November 2017. According to its program, it defines as a pro-European Union party, and as a "modern conservative" party, with strong emphasis on economic liberalism and reducing bureaucracy, and claims to be moderately conservative on social and cultural issues. It believes that local government should be encouraged and supported by the central government.[12][13][14]
Good Movement

Dobry Ruch

DR Paweł Szramka Classical liberalism
Libertarianism
Pro-Europeanism
It was formed on the 19th of April 2023 as a rebranded version of the We Can party (Możemy). Before rebranding as Dobry Ruch, Możemy was a classical liberal and pro-European party, "bearing in mind the personal, economic and political freedom of all citizens". In their ideological declaration, the party opted for legalizing cannabis, civil partnerships, introduction of voluntary medical insurance, separation of church and state, and decentralisation. Although it supports NATO and European integration, it opposes a European superstate.[15]
Christian Democracy of the 3rd Polish Republic
Chrześcijańska Demokracja III Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
ChDRP Lech Wałęsa Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Social market economy
Founded in 1997 by former president Lech Wałęsa. It took the German CDU as a role model. In 2000 Wałęsa ran in the presidential election, receiving 1.01% of votes (he took 7th place out of 12 candidates).
Organisation of the Polish Nation - Polish League
Organizacja Narodu Polskiego – Liga Polska
ONP-LP Stanisław Bujnicki Political Catholicism
Polish minority interests[16]
Protectionism
Economic nationalism
Christian democracy
Political party which associates Poles living abroad.
Confederation of Independent Poland
Konfederacja Polski Niepodległej
KPN Władysław Borowiec Polish nationalism
Sanationism
Anti-communism
Syncretic politics
Founded in 1979 by Leszek Moczulski and others declaring support for the pre-war traditions of Sanacja and Józef Piłsudski. It was the first independent political party that was publicly proclaimed in the Eastern Bloc. After the fall of communism, Leszek Moczulski got only 2.5% of votes in 1990 presidential election. In 1991 parliamentary election the party got 7.5% of the vote, while in the 1993 parliamentary election it received 5.7%.
Freedom Party
Partia Wolności
PW Anna Karbowska Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Republicanism
Founded by moderate splitters from Congress of the New Right and "The Republicans" Association.
People's Party "Patrimony"
Stronnictwo Ludowe "Ojcowizna"
SL"O" Kazimierz Chorzępa Agrarianism
Social conservatism
Solidarism
Refers to the Polish People's-Christian Forum "Patrimony" - a party operating in the years 1991–1997. Many activists of trade union "Solidarity of Individual Farmers" belong to "Patrimony". Its founder Roman Bartoszcze was a candidate in 1990 presidential elections.
Labour Party
Stronnictwo Pracy
SP Zbigniew Wrzesiński Solidarism
Christian democracy
Social market economy
Founded in 1989 on the initiative of the activists of the Christian Democratic Club of Political Thought. In 1990 the name Christian-Democratic Labour Party (ChDSP) was adopted. It referred to the Labour Party operating in the years 1937–1950.

Centre-right to right-wing[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Effective
Skuteczni
Piotr Liroy-Marzec Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Euroscepticism
Created in 2018 by former rapper and MP Liroy. It cooperated with Confederation in 2019 European Parliament elections, but left the coalition a few weeks later.
"Piast" Party
Stronnictwo Piast
Piast Zdzisław Podkański Agrarianism
Social conservatism
Christian democracy
Whole life
Economic progressivism
Formed in 2006 as a result of the break-up in PSL and the departure of the right wing of the party. Its name refers both to the Polish medieval Piast dynasty and to the pre-war conservative party PSL Piast.

Right-wing[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
Wolnościowcy

Wolnościowcy

Artur Dziambor libertarianism
Minarchism
Direct democracy
E-democracy
The party is classically liberal in the sphere of economy, proposing economic deregulation, privatisation of public services, radical tax cuts and simplification of taxes. Socially the party focuses on direct democracy and personal liberties, proposing drug liberalization, unrestricted freedom of speech, right to keep and bear arms, and electronic voting.[17]
Social Alternative
Alternatywa Społeczna
AS Krzysztof Przybylak Right-wing populism
National conservatism
Christian right
Founded by Piotr Wroński - Colonel of the Intelligence Agency and a former officer of Polish Special Services.
Europe of Free Fatherlands - Polish Party
Europa Wolnych Ojczyzn – Partia Polska
EWO-PP Jan Szczepankiewicz Anti-Lisbon Treaty
National liberalism
Souverainism
Marginal party was founded in 2008 as an opposition to the Lisbon Treaty.
Decent Life
Godne Życie
Grzegorz Masierowski Direct democracy
Right-wing populism
Souverainism
Small populist party which never participated in any elections.
II Republic of Poland
II Rzeczpospolita Polska[18]
II RP Jan Zbigniew Potocki Sanationism[19] Founded by Jan Zbigniew Potocki, who claims that he is the legitimate President of Poland and that the Constitution of 1935 is still in force.
Unity of the Nation
Jedność Narodu
JN Romuald Starosielec National conservatism
National liberalism
Ordoliberalism
Registered one list in 2019 European Parliament election. It won 0.02% of the vote.
Congress of the New Right
Kongres Nowej Prawicy
KNP Stanisław Żółtek Right-Libertarianism
Hard Euroscepticism
Founded in 2011 by Janusz Korwin-Mikke by the merger of Liberty and Lawfulness with several members of Real Politics Union. The former leader Korwin-Mikke was ousted from the party in 2015, which caused massive decline in its support. Affiliated with the ID Party.
Libertarians
Libertarianie
LIB Jan Brzostek Libertarianism
Classical liberalism
A minor libertarian party founded in 2019 that proposes lowering taxes, same-sex civil partnership and legal cannabis.[20]
League of Defence of Sovereignty
Liga Obrony Suwerenności
LOS Wojciech Podjacki Souverainism
Anti-globalism
National conservatism
Favors of full sovereignty of Poland. It opposed Poland's accession to the European Union and is in favour of protecting the Polish economy against unfair competition from foreign capital. It recognized King Bolesław Chrobry as its patron. The 18 April (date of the coronation of Bolesław Chrobry as King of Poland in 1025) is celebrated as a party holiday.
League of Polish Families
Liga Polskich Rodzin
LPR Witold Bałażak Christian conservatism
Theodemocracy
Social conservatism
Civic nationalism
Familialism
Pro-Europeanism
LPR was created just before parliamentary elections in 2001 as a far-right nationalist party. In 2004 European Parliament elections, LPR received 15.2%, which gave it 10 out of 54 seats, making it the second-largest party in Poland in that election. In 2005 elections, LPR received 8% of votes and formed a government coalition with PiS and SRP. In the 2007 parliamentary election, it failed to gain the 5% of votes and lost all its seats. In the following years, LPR has become more moderate, usually supporting candidates of PO and PSL.
Normal Country
Normalny Kraj
NK Wiesław Lewicki Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Anti-communism
Marginal party founded by splitters from Congress of the New Right and "The Republicans" Association.
Defence of the Polish Nation
Obrona Narodu Polskiego
ONP Tadeusz Mazanek Agrarianism
National conservatism
National Catholicism
Originally registered in 2005 as a Self-Defence of the Polish Nation (it operated under this name for a year). It was founded by nationalist splitters from Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland.
PolEXIT
PolEXIT
PEX Stanisław Żółtek Polexit
Souverainism
Populism
Satellite party of KNP, established for the elections to the European Parliament in 2019. It registered lists in 2 constituencies.
People's National Covenant
Przymierze Ludowo-Narodowe
PLN Andrzej Turek Agrarianism
National conservatism
Souverainism
Marginal party with agrarian-nationalist agenda.
Patriotic Poland
Polska Patriotyczna
PP Paweł Ziemiński National Catholicism
Solidarism
Agrarianism
Founded in 2008 by activists of the Patriotic Self-Defence (acting parallel to this group until 2013).
Right Wing of the Republic
Prawica Rzeczypospolitej
PR Krzysztof Kawęcki National conservatism
Social conservatism
Political Catholicism
Economic liberalism
Polish nationalism
Euroscepticism
Founded by former Marshal of the Sejm Marek Jurek on 20 April 2007 after he had left Law and Justice on 16 April 2007, when the Sejm failed to pass a constitutional amendment protecting prenatal life. It positions itself as a Christian conservative party with a strong focus on family rights and an anti-abortion stance. Affiliated with ECPM.
Polish Monarchist Movement
Polski Ruch Monarchistyczny
PRM Leszek Wierzchowski Monarchism
Reactionarism
Christian right
The founder, leader, and regent of party is Leszek Wierzchowski. PRM confirms old titles of nobility and aristocracy and awards new ones "for merit". It also awards its own orders and decorations. PRM favors a state governed by a hereditary king as a constitutional monarchy. It considers the Constitution of 3 May to be the foundation of its actions.
Real Europe Movement
Ruch Prawdziwa Europa
RPE Mirosław Piotrowski Political Catholicism
Christian fundamentalism
Social conservatism
Created in 2019 by former PiS MEP Mirosław Piotrowski, who belonged to party's fundamentalist faction.
Party of Polish National Interest
Stronnictwo Polska Racja Stanu
SPRS Józef Kurecki National conservatism
National Catholicism
Solidarism
In 2000 SPRS candidate Dariusz Grabowski won 0.51% of the vote in presidential election. It was the first and last start of the party in any elections.
Real Politics Union
Unia Polityki Realnej
UPR Bartosz Józwiak Ordoliberalism
Federalism
National conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing populism
Soft Euroscepticism
Created as libertarian conservative party in 1987, became more nationalist after its most prominent politician Janusz Korwin-Mikke left it in 2009. UPR cooperated with RN in the European Parliament election in 2014, local elections in 2014 and the presidential election in 2015. In the parliamentary election in 2015, the whole RN stand for the Sejm from the lists of Kukiz'15. UPR lost its parliamentary seats in 2019.
Union of Polish Monarchist Groups
Unia Polskich Ugrupowań Monarchistycznych
UPUM Aleksander Podolski Monarchism
Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Founded in 1997. It gives noble and aristocratic titles.

Far-right[edit]

Party Leader Ideology Comments
National Revival of Poland
Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski
NOP Adam Gmurczyk Neo-fascism
Ultranationalism
Polish nationalism
National syndicalism
Third Position
Corporatism
Distributism
Radical environmentalism
Anti-communism
Anti-globablism
Anti-Americanism
Anti-capitalism
Anti-Zionism
Anti-LGBT
Holocaust denial
Founded in 1981 as a discussion club. Often accused of racism and anti-Semitism. It never had a parliamentarian. Affiliated with ENF.
Union of Christian Families
Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańskich Rodzin
ZChR Bogusław Rogalski National conservatism
Polish nationalism
Political Catholicism
Christian Right
Anti-LGBT
Anti-abortion
Anti-Islam
Hard Euroscepticism
Founded in 2019 by former LPR MEP Bogusław Rogalski. It cooperates with the Right Wing of the Republic and the Real Europe Movement.
National League
Liga Narodowa
LN Zbigniew Lipiński National democracy
National conservatism
Souverainism
Originally registered in 2007 as a National People's Movement (and operated under this name until 2013). It was founded mainly by former activists of League of Polish Families and Self-Defence. As RLN it had agrarian-nationalist character, while as LN it refers only to national democracy.
Federation for the Republic of Poland (pl)
Federacja dla Rzeczypospolitej
FdR Marek Jakubiak Social conservatism
Political Catholicism
Economic liberalism
Created in 2018 by former entrepreneur and MP Marek Jakubiak. It cooperated with Confederation in 2019 European Parliament elections, but left the coalition a few weeks later.
Piast - Unity of Thoughts of European Nations
Piast – Jedność Myśli Europejskich Narodów
Piast-JMEN Eugeniusz Maciejewski Polish nationalism
Pan-European nationalism
Pacifism
Formed in 2015. It strives for the peaceful cooperation of European nations, but recognizes the differences between them.
There is One Poland
Polska Jest Jedna
PJJ Rafał Piech [pl] Conspiracism
Vaccine hesitancy
Climate change denial
Traditional Catholicism
Anti-abortion
Hard Euroscepticism
Right-wing party born out of the anti-COVID-19 restriction movement, founded in 2021 and registered in 2023.
Polish National Community
Polska Wspólnota Narodowa
PWN Bolesław Tejkowski Polish nationalism
Anti-clericalism
Anti-Atlanticism
A pro-Russian party founded in 1990. Criticizes the US and Israel, has a significant pagan wing.
November 11 Movement
Ruch 11 Listopada
11/11 Michał Fałek Protestant fundamentalism
Anti-Catholicism
Atlanticism
Founded by members of the Protestant sect Church of the New Covenant. It is known for aversion to the Catholic Church, Russia and China. Movement has a positive attitude towards the United States and Israel.
National Party
Stronnictwo Narodowe
SN Leszek Bubel Ultranationalism
Anti-Semitism
Ethnic nationalism
One of the parties founded by Leszek Bubel, former MP and presidential candidate, who calls himself "the supreme anti-Semite of Poland".
Roman Dmowski's National Party
Stronnictwo Narodowe im. Dmowskiego Romana
SND Ludwik Wasiak Polish nationalism
National democracy
National conservatism
Refers to the political thought of Roman Dmowski, one of the fathers of Polish independence.
Polish Agreement
Porozumienie Polskie
PP Jan Łopuszański National conservatism
Catholic fundamentalism
Souverainism
Founded in 1999 by splitters from the Solidarity Electoral Action. In the 2000 presidential election Jan Łopuszański won 0.79% of the vote. Before parliamentary elections in 2001, PP joined LPR, maintaining its independence, and won 3 seats. In 2003 cooperation was terminated and PP lost its importance.

Minority interest parties[edit]

Logo Party Leader Ideology Comments
German Minority
Mniejszość Niemiecka
MN Ryszard Galla German minority interests

Regionalism

An electoral committee in Poland which represents the German minority. Since 2008, its representative has been Ryszard Galla. In the 2023 Polish parliamentary election, Galla lost his seat in the Sejm, leaving the party with no national representation.[21]
Kashubian Association
Wspólnota Kaszubska
WK Karol Rhode Kashubian regionalism
Kashubian autonomism[22]
A regionalist party representing the interests of the Kashubian minority. The party demands Kashubian autonomy as a way to preserve Kashubian culture and language. The party is a member of EFA.[23]
Silesian Regional Party
Śląska Partia Regionalna
ŚPR Rafał Adamus Silesian regionalism
Silesian autonomism
Party associating regionalists from Silesian local organizations. The most important of them is the Silesian Autonomy Movement. Affiliated with EFA.
Silesian Separatist Movement
Śląski Ruch Separatystyczny
ŚRS Dariusz Jerczyński[24] Silesian separatism[25]
Social democracy[26]
A minor party founded in 2007 whose main goal is "national and territorial separation of Silesia and the sanctioning of Silesian nationality". The party claims to continue the legacy of Silesian autonomist Józef Kożdoń, who in 1910 wrote: "We do not know Polish patriotism, we do not know the Polish homeland. Silesia does not long for mother Poland".[25]
Silesian Autonomy Movement
Ruch Autonomii Śląska
RAŚ Jerzy Gorzelik Silesian autonomism
Pro-Europeanism
Silesian autonomist party that seeks to restore the interwar Silesian autonomy. The party is a member of the European Free Alliance and formed an electoral alliance with the Civic Platform.[27]
Silesians Together
Ślonzoki Razem
ŚR Leon Swaczyna Linguistic separatism[28]
Silesian separatism[29]
A Silesian regional party founded in 2017, based on the concept of working together with the German minority in Silesia. The party believes that the Silesian nation and culture are completely separate from the Polish nation, and many of the party's members hold separatist views.[30]

Parties difficult to define/regional[edit]

Logo Party Leader Ideology Comments
Civic Initiative
Inicjatywa Obywatelska
IO Adam Morawiec Silesian localism
Communitarianism[31]
Local party from the Tarnowskie Góry County that cooperates with the Civic Platform.[32] The party promotes local interests and advocates for the recognition of Silesian as an official regional language.[33]
First Self-Governance League
Liga Samorządowa Pierwsza
LSP Ryszard Ziobro Silesian localism[34]
Decentralisation[35]
Local party from the Pszczyna County allied with the Polish Socialist Party.[35] The party wants to decentralise Polish administration and greatly empower local governments, and summarised its program by stating: "Silesia - regional and aware of its national and cultural identity. Poland - regional, not centralised".[34]
Common Powiat
Wspólny Powiat
WP Zygmunt Worsa Silesian localism
Pro-Europeanism[36]
Local party from the Świdnica County, mistakenly called Active Local Politicians (Polish: Aktywni Samorządowcy).[37] The party is allied with the Civic Platform and the Democratic Left Alliance.[38] Common Powiat is pro-European and actively promotes extensive development and investment projects.[36]
Development Party[39]
Partia Rozwoju
PR Arnold Buzdygan Classical liberalism[40]
Secularism
Party created by businessman and user of Polish Usenet Arnold Buzdygan. It does not carry out any activities.
I've Had Enough 2023
Mam Dość 2023
Mam Dość Marianna Schreiber Social liberalism[41] Party announced in 2022 by Marianna Schreiber, wife of Łukasz Schreiber.
Patriotic Party of Poland and the Polish Diaspora
Stronnictwo Patriotyczne Polski i Polonii
SPPiP Zenon Miller Polish minority interests Political party which associates Poles living abroad.
Community[42]
Wspólnota
WSP Andrzej Anusz Christian democracy[43]
Familialism[44]
Party founded by former MP Andrzej Anusz, who belonged to parties from all sides of the political spectrum.
Slavic Union
Związek Słowiański
ZS Zbigniew Adamczyk Economic nationalism
Russophilia
Anti-Americanism[45]
Minor party founded in 2006 that wants to reorient Polish foreign policy - it advocates for leaving the EU and pursuing closer relations with Russia and Belarus instead.[45]

Historical parties[edit]

Important defunct parties after 1989[edit]

Party Leader Ideology European
affiliation
Founded Dissolved Comments
Solidarity Citizens' Committee
Komitet Obywatelski "Solidarność"
KO "S" Bronisław Geremek Big tent
Anti-communism
Liberal democracy
1989 1991 Initially a semi-legal political organisation of the democratic opposition in Communist Poland. In the partially-free 1989 election KO "S" won all 161 seats available in the Sejm, and 99 out of 100 seats in the senate. On 25 August 1989, the new "Contract Sejm" elected its candidate Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister, making him the first ever non-Communist head of government east of the Iron Curtain. Shortly afterwards, the Committee broke up into several smaller parties.
Christian National Union
Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańsko-Narodowe
ZChN Wiesław Chrzanowski National Catholicism
National conservatism
Christian democracy
1989 2010 Party formed by Catholic politicians of KO "S". In 1991 election it took 3rd place, winning 8.74% and introducing 49 MPs. ZChN was a member of two government coalitions. In 1993 the party did not cross electoral threshold and in 1997 it became member of AWS. In 2001 most of ZChN activists joined LPR or PiS. Party lost its former significance.
Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland
Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
SdRP Aleksander Kwaśniewski Social democracy
Third Way
Progressivism
SI 1990 1999 Party was formed after the dissolution of communist PZPR. In 1991 it created the left-wing SLD coalition. In the election held this year it won 11.99% of the votes, taking second place. Two years later SLD won election and in 1995 Aleksander Kwaśniewski became president. In 1997 the party lost power. In 1999 SdRP co-founded a unified party SLD and dissolved itself.
Party of Regions
Partia Regionów
PR Bolesław Borysiuk Agrarianism
Socialism
Regionalism
2007 2017 Party that seceded from Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland following its electoral down in the 2007 elections. The party strongly supported regionalism, intending to revive local and regional traditions and patriotism. The party envisioned a decentralised Poland full of "regional, small homelands". PR cooperated with left-wing parties such as the Democratic Left Alliance and the Polish Socialist Party. The party won 38 councillor seats in the 2010 Polish local elections, but never entered the national Sejm. The party was deregistered in early 2017.
Centre Agreement
Porozumienie Centrum
PC Jarosław Kaczyński Anti-communism
Centrism
Christian democracy
EDU 1990 2001 Party founded in 1990, demanded a break with previous policy of the government of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who was accused of leaving the remains of communism too slowly. PC candidate Lech Wałęsa won the presidential election, but later on he got into conflict with the party. In 1991, PC received 8.71% of the votes, introducing 44 MPs, but in 1993 only 4.42% (below the electoral threshold). In 1997 party started from AWS and ROP lists, introducing 15 MPs. In 2001 PC was transformed into the currently ruling PiS.
Citizens' Movement for Democratic Action
Ruch Obywatelski Akcja Demokratyczna
ROAD Władysław Frasyniuk Liberalism
Social liberalism
Laicism
1990 1991 Party was founded in response to creation of PC by Jarosław Kaczyński. In 1990 presidential election it supported candidacy of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who took 3rd place. In 1991, ROAD merged with FPD and established the UD.
Forum of Democratic Right
Forum Prawicy Democratycznej
FPD Aleksander Hall Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
1990 1991 Party formed by moderate right-wing politicians of KO "S". In 1991 it merged with ROAD to form UD.
Polish Social Democratic Union
Polska Unia Socjaldemokratyczna
PUS Tadeusz Fiszbach Social democracy
Social patriotism
Welfare state
1990 1991 Along with SdRP, PUS was one of successor parties of communist PZPR. The party itself was succeeded by currently existing UP.
Liberal Democratic Congress
Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny
KLD Donald Tusk Economic liberalism
Neoliberalism
Conservative liberalism
EDU 1990 1994 Party originated from Gdańsk Social-Economic Society "Congress of Liberals". In 1991 elections KLD won 7.49% of votes and 37 seats in the Sejm. In 1993 it did not reach electoral threshold and a year later merged with UD to form UW.
Polish Beer-Lovers' Party
Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa
PPPP Janusz Rewiński Political satire
Beerism
Anti-alcoholism
1990 1993 Party founded by popular satirists. Originally, its goal was to promote cultural beer-drinking in English-style pubs instead of vodka and thus fight alcoholism. In 1991 election PPPP won 16 seats in the Sejm capturing 2.97% of the vote. Party soon split into Large Beer and Small Beer factions. Eventually PPPP was dissolved in 1993.
Party X
Partia X
X Stanisław Tymiński Populism
Anti-establishment
Syncretic politics
1990 1999 Party was established by businessman Stanisław Tymiński who took 2nd place in 1990 presidential election. In 1991 parliamentary elections it received 0.47% of the vote, winning three seats in the Sejm. Despite increasing its vote share in the 1993 election to 2.74%, it failed to win a seat, following introduction of a 5% electoral threshold. Party failed to collect enough signatures for Tymiński to run in the 1995 presidential elections.
Democratic Union
Unia Demokratyczna
UD Tadeusz Mazowiecki Liberalism
Social liberalism
Christian democracy
1991 1994 Party was founded by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki as a merger of ROAD and FPD. It won election this year with 12.32% of the vote and 62 MPs. A year later conservative faction left party. In 1993 election UD took 3rd place (10.59% of votes and 74 MPs) and a year later merged with KLD to form UW.
Peasants' Agreement
Porozumienie Ludowe
PL Gabriel Janowski Agrarianism
Conservatism
Christian democracy
1991 1999 In 1991 parliamentary election party received 5.5% of the vote, winning 28 seats in the Sejm. It joined the coalition governments headed by Jan Olszewski and Hanna Suchocka. Due to several splits and internal disagreements, 1993 elections saw the party's vote share fall to 2.4%. As it had failed to pass the 5% electoral threshold, it lost all its parliamentary representation. In 1997 PL joined AWS.
Movement for the Republic
Ruch dla Rzeczypospolitej
RdR Jan Olszewski Anti-communism
National conservatism
Paternalistic conservatism
1992 1999 Party founded by overthrown former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski and a group of radically anti-communist MPs who demanded full lustration. In 1993 elections, RdR obtained 2.7% of the votes and did not cross electoral threshold. Two years later Olszewski took 4th place in presidential election. In 1995, the most important RdR politicians founded ROP, while the rest of party joined AWS.
Patriotic Self-Defence
Samoobrona Patriotyczna
SP Marian Frądczyk National agrarianism
Economic nationalism
Social Catholicism
2006 2013 Political party that broke away from Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland in 2006. The party represented marginalized right-wing and nationalist wings of the party that were alienated as Self-Defence reaffirmed its far-left political position. The party tried to claim a part of Self-Defence electorate in 2007 election, but it was only registered in a single district and won 0.02% of the national vote. It disbanded in 2013.
Self-Defence of the Polish Nation
Samoobrona Narodu Polskiego
SNP Tadeusz Mazanek National agrarianism
National Catholicism
Anti-capitalism
2003 2023 Right-wing nationalist party that was founded as a dissident faction of Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland in 2003, before registering as a separate party in 2005. The party marked the beginning of further splinters within Samoobrona that were to follow. It was struck off the ballot in 2006 for being too similar to the original Samoobrona party, and renamed itself to "Defence of the Polish Nation" in response. It continued to participate in Polish electons as a perennial candidate until 2018. It became inactive in 2019 and dissolved in 2023.
Self-Defence Social Movement
Samoobrona Ruch Społeczny
SRS Sławomir Izdebski Agrarian socialism
Laborism
Left-wing nationalism
2006 2007 Agrarian and trade-unionist wing of Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland that split from the party in 2006 and became an independent movement. Social Movement actively organized rural trade unions and was known for its social justice actions such as blocking evictions. It tried to challenge Self-Defence in 2006 local elections, but it was not allowed on the count of its name, logo and abbreviation being too similar to Self-Defence. It disbanded to join Self-Defence Rebirth in 2007.
Nonpartisan Bloc for Support of Reforms
Bezpartyjny Blok Wspierania Reform
BBWR Andrzej Olechowski Big tent
Populism
Pro-Wałęsa politics
1993 1997 Party affiliated with President Lech Wałęsa. It was founded to continue the traditions of Józef Piłsudski's pre-war Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem), which likewise had been known by the same initials, BBWR. In 1997 became part of AWS.
Freedom Union
Unia Wolności
UW Bronisław Geremek Liberalism
Social liberalism
Economic liberalism
ALDE 1994 2005 Party was founded out of merger of UD and KLD. In 1997 election UW got 13.37% of the votes and 60 seats. It joined government coalition with AWS. In 2001 some members of UW decided to create new party PO, which got 12.68% of the votes and 65 seats in general elections whilst UW failed to cross the 5% threshold required to gain entry to the lower house of Parliament, receiving only 3.10%. Surprisingly, party managed to cross the required 5% threshold in 2004 European Parliament election, receiving 7.33% of votes and 4 seats. In 2005 UW was transformed into PD.
Movement for Reconstruction of Poland
Ruch Odbudowy Polski
ROP Jan Olszewski National conservatism
Paternalistic conservatism
Social conservatism
1995 2012 Party was established after 1995 presidential election, which ended with an unexpectedly good result for Jan Olszewski (4th place, 6.86% of votes). Despite formation of AWS, which integrated almost all centre-right and right-wing parties, ROP, encouraged by the high support in polls, decided to stay outside the federation. Eventually, in 1997 election party received 5.56% of support and introduced only 6 MPs (including Jarosław Kaczyński - Chairman of PC, whose other members ran from AWS lists). In 2001 party participated in election on LPR lists and in following years lost its significance.
Solidarity Electoral Action
Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność
AWS Marian Krzaklewski Solidarism
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
1996 2001 Formation of party was connected with integration of post-Solidarity parties into a broad electoral block. AWS won 1997 parliamentary election gaining 33.83% of votes and 201 seats. It formed a coalition with UW, which collapsed in 2000. Chairman Marian Krzaklewski became AWS candidate in 2000 presidential election. His candidacy did not arouse general consensus - some activists were largely in favour of independent Andrzej Olechowski. Krzaklewski won 15.57% of votes, finishing third. In 2001 liberal wing left AWS and joined new party PO, created by a part of former UW politicians. Trade union NSZZ "Solidarity" decided not to participate in political structures anymore. Activists associated with the Kaczyński brothers created another new party - PiS. Christian-national wing joined LPR. As a result of parliamentary election in 2001, AWS failed to cross the 8% threshold required to gain entry to the Sejm as coalition, receiving only 5.60% of votes. Shortly afterwards, federation ceased to exist.
Conservative People's Party
Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe
SKL Jan Rokita Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
Agrarianism
1997 2014 Creation of party was result of merger of several small, moderately conservative parties. It was also joined by some former UW MPs. It quickly joined AWS. In 2001 party participated in elections by running from PO lists. The most important politicians (including future President Bronisław Komorowski) joined PO and SKL became marginal. In 2014 party joined Agreement.
National-Catholic Movement
Ruch Katolicko-Narodowy
RKN Małgorzata Romanowicz National Catholicism
National conservatism
Political Catholicism
1997 2023 Created in 1997 by politician Antoni Macierewicz. He left it in 2012.
Polish Labour Party
Polska Partia Pracy
PPP Bogusław Ziętek Marxism
Trotskyism
Anti-capitalism
EACL 2001 2017 Small party of the extreme left. Despite lack of electoral successes, it managed to run in elections many times and gain recognition.
Feminist Initiative
Inicjatywa Feministyczna
IF Iwona Piątek
Elżbieta Jachlewska
Katarzyna Kądziela
Feminism
Women's rights
Social progressivism
2007 2020 Party was registered in 2007 and was known as "Women's Party" (Partia Kobiet) until 2016. On 21 October 2007 National Assembly election, it won 0.28% of the popular vote and no seats in the Sejm or the Senate.
Democratic Party – democrats.pl
Partia Demokratyczna – demokraci.pl
PD Władysław Frasyniuk Liberalism
Social liberalism
Progressivism
ALDE 2005 2016 Party was supposed to become an extension of UW by politicians coming from the left, social democratic Prime Minister Marek Belka was one of its founders. Some notable politicians did not join the new party. In 2005 parliamentary election PD did not reach the electoral threshold, obtaining the result of 2.45% of votes. In the following years, party unsuccessfully joined several centre-left electoral coalitions. In 2016 PD was renamed to UED. 4 MPs of PO joined new party.
Poland Comes First
Polska Jest Najważniejsza
PJN Paweł Kowal Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
ACRE 2010 2013 Party was founded by liberal wing of PiS, which did not agree with its economic policy. In 2011 parliamentary election PJN received 2.19% of the votes, which did not allow it to obtain seats in the Sejm. In 2013 party joined Agreement.
Your Movement
Twój Ruch
TR Janusz Palikot Progressivism
Social liberalism
Anti-clericalism
2011 2023 Founded by Janusz Palikot, a former Civic Platform MP, in 2010, as Palikot's Movement. It adopted its current name in 2013. In 2011 parliamentary election, party received 10% of the vote and won 40 seats in the Sejm, making it the third party behind Civic Platform and Law and Justice, one of the best debut performances for a party since the end of communism. In 2015 parliamentary election United Left list was led by Your Movement's Barbara Nowacka and received only 7.6% of the vote, below the 8% threshold, leaving TR without parliamentary representation.
Now!
Teraz!
Teraz! Ryszard Petru Liberalism
Economic liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
ALDE 2018 2019 Party founded by Ryszard Petru after leaving .Nowoczesna party. Turned out to be ephemeral and quickly dissolved.
Free and Solidary
Wolni i Solidarni
WiS Kornel Morawiecki Solidarism
State interventionism
Anti-communism
2016 2020[46][47] Party formed by Kornel Morawiecki, former Senior Marshal of the Sejm. MPs of the party were elected from the lists of Kukiz'15. Formerly declared support for Prime Minister Beata Szydło and her government, but later moved into opposition to the government of Mateusz Morawiecki. WiS lost all seats in 2019.
Party of Drivers
Partia Kierowców
PK Lech Kędzierski Drivers' rights
Anti-bureaucratism
2019 2022 Created in 2019 and dissolved in 2022. Member of Confederation.
Social Justice Movement
Ruch Sprawiedliwości Społecznej
RSS Piotr Ikonowicz Socialism
Anti-capitalism
Communism
2014 2023 Founded in 2014 by social activist Piotr Ikonowicz based on his Social Justice Chancellery. Before the presidential elections in 2015, RSS supported candidate of The Greens Anna Grodzka, who did not collect the required number of signatures.
Spring
Wiosna
Robert Biedroń Social liberalism
Social democracy
S&D 2019 2021 Registered a political party in 2018, proclamed in 2019. Formed by Robert Biedroń, former Słupsk mayor. Won 3 seats in European Parliament election in 2019. Formed The Left electoral alliance at the 2019 election. Merged into New Left party in 2021. Remains a faction within the NL.
Democratic Left Alliance
Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej
SLD Aleksander Kwaśniewski (founder),
Leszek Miller (first),
Włodzimierz Czarzasty (last)
Social democracy S&D 1999 2021 Founded as an electoral alliance around SdRP at the 1991 election by Aleksander Kwaśniewski. Formed a coalition government together with PSL after 1993 election. Registered a political party in 1999 under leadership of Leszek Miller. After 2001 election formed SLD-UP coalition government. Under leadership of Włodzimierz Czarzasty formed The Left electoral alliance together with Spring and Left Together at the 2019 election. In 2021 absorbed the Spring party and later rebranded as New Left. Remains a faction within the NL.

Defunct parties of People's Republic of Poland[edit]

Party Leader Ideology European
affiliation
Founded Dissolved Comments
Polish United Workers' Party
Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza
PZPR Bolesław Bierut (first) Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Cominform 1948 1990 PZPR was established at unification congress of PPR and PPS during meetings in 1948. Unification was possible because PPS activists who opposed it had been forced out of party. PZPR ruled Poland in the years until 1989. During semi-free election this year communists won 65% of seats in the Sejm, though seats won were guaranteed and PZPR was unable to gain a majority, while 99 out of 100 seats in Senate freely contested were won by Solidarity-backed candidates. Jaruzelski won presidential ballot by one vote. In 1990 PZPR was renamed to SdRP.
United People's Party
Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe
ZSL Władysław Kowalski (first) Agrarian socialism
Peasant movement
1949 1989 Party was formed from the merger of communist SL with remnants of the independent PSL of Stanisław Mikołajczyk. ZSL became – as intended from its beginning – a satellite party of PZPR, representing it in rural areas. In 1989 after victory of Solidarity in legislative elections together with PZPR's other satellite party, SD, ZSL decided to support opposition. At party congress ZSL merged with anti-communist PSL in exile, forming today's PSL. SD exists until now.

Defunct and historical political parties in the Second Polish Republic, 1918–1939[edit]

Defunct and historical parties Political parties before 1918[edit]

Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Dariusz Cecuda, Leksykon Opozycji Politycznej 1976-1989, BIS Trust, Warszawa 1989
  • Małgorzata Dehnel-Szyc, Jadwiga Stachura, Gry polityczne. Orientacje na dziś, Oficyna Wydawnicza Volument, Warszawa 1991
  • Piotr Frączak (e.d), Gorączka czasu przełomu. Dokumenty ugrupowań radykalnych 1989-1990, Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, Warszawa 1984
  • Inka Słodkowska (ed.), Programy partii i ugrupowań parlamentarnych 1989-1991' vol. 1–2, Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warszawa 1995