List of political parties in Greece

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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Prior to the 2012 elections the characteristic Greek political system was a two-party system. The historically dominant parties have been New Democracy and the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. Under the electoral system a party needs to surpass a 3% threshold in the popular vote in order to enter parliament. The largest party gets a 50-seat bonus (out of 300 seats) ostensibly to ensure elections return viable governing majorities.

In the Parliamentary elections held in 2009, five parties entered parliament: New Democracy (ND), the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) and the Popular Orthodox Rally (LA.O.S.). In the 2012 elections, seven parties entered the parliament: ND, SYRIZA, PASOK, Independent Greeks (ANEL), KKE, Golden Dawn, and Democratic Left (DIMAR).

Parties represented in the current Parliament and European Parliament[edit]

Name Acronym Leader or Chairman People's Representatives Remarks Ideology Political Position National Affiliation International affiliation European Affiliation European Parliament Group
Coalition of the Radical Left - Unitary Social Front (Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς - Ενωτικό Κοινωνικό Μέτωπο) SYRIZA Alexis Tsipras, president Left-wing government ministers:
29 / 39
MEP:
7 / 22
national deputies:
145 / 300
Regions:
144 / 701
Democratic socialism[1]
Secularism
Left-wing populism[2]
Anti-capitalism[3][4]
Alter-globalization[5]
Social democracy
Left-wing None None Party of the European Left European United Left - Nordic Green Left MEP:
52 / 751
New Democracy (Νέα Δημοκρατία) ND Kyriakos Mitsotakis, president Centre-right opposition MEP:
5 / 22
national deputies:
75 / 300
Regions:
274 / 701
Liberal conservatism[6]
Social liberalism[7]
Conservatism[8]
Pro-Europeanism[9]
Centre-right[10] None International Democratic Union
Centrist Democrat International
European People's Party EPP Group MEP:
221 / 751
Golden Dawn (Λαϊκός Σύνδεσμος – Χρυσή Αυγή) XA Nikolaos Michaloliakos, general secretary Far-right opposition MEP:
3 / 22
national deputies:
18 / 300
Regions:
26 / 701
Ultranationalism[11][12]
Greek nationalism [13]
Neo-Nazism[14]
Hard euroscepticism
Neo-Fascism
Anti-globalization
Far-right None None Alliance for Peace and Freedom Non-Inscrits
Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα) PASOK Fofi Gennimata, president Centre-left opposition MEP:
2 / 22
national deputies:
17 / 300
Regions:
105 / 701
Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Social liberalism[15][16]
Centre-left Democratic Coalition (2015)
Olive Tree (2014)
Socialist International
Progressive Alliance
Party of European Socialists S&D MEP:
191 / 751
Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας) KKE Dimitris Koutsoumpas, general secretary Far-left opposition MEP:
2 / 22
national deputies:
15 / 300
Regions:
29 / 701
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Hard euroscepticism
Stalinism[17][18]
Revolutionary socialism[19]
Far-left None IMCWP Initiative of Communist and Workers' Parties Non-Inscrits
The River (Το Ποτάμι) POTAMI Stavros Theodorakis, president Centrist opposition MEP:
2 / 22
national deputies:
11 / 300
Regions:
0 / 701
Centrism[20]
Social liberalism[21]
Social democracy[22]
Centre to Centre-left None None None S&D MEP:
191 / 751
Independent Greeks (Ανεξάρτητοι Έλληνες) ANEL Panos Kammenos, president Right-wing government ministers:
5 / 39
MEP:
1 / 22
national deputies:
10 / 300
Regions:
51 / 701
National conservatism[1]
Social conservatism[23]
Right-wing populism[24][25]
Euroscepticism[26]
Right wing None None None None (formerly ECR)
Union of Centrists (Ένωση Κεντρώων) EK Vassilis Leventis, president Centrist opposition MEP:
0 / 22
national deputies:
9 / 300
Regions:
0 / 701
Centrism
Venizelism
Social liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre None None European Democratic Party None

Minor parties[edit]

Name Acronym Position Ideology Leader National Affiliation European Affiliation MPs MEPs
Popular Unity
Λαϊκή Ενότητα
LAE
ΛΑ.Ε.
Left-wing
Far-left
Democratic socialism[27]
Hard euroscepticism[27][28]
Left-wing populism
Panagiotis Lafazanis None None 0 1
Ecologist Greens
Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι
OP
ΟΠ
Centre-left
Left wing
Green politics
Environmentalism
Six-member committee Ecologist Greens - Pirate Party of Greece (2014)
SYRIZA (2015)
EGP, G-EFA 1 0
Democractic Left
Δημοκρατική Αριστερά
DIMAR
ΔΗΜΑΡ
Centre-left Social Democracy
Democratic Socialism
Thanasis Theocharopoulos (el) Democratic Coalition S&D 1 0
Christian Democratic Party of the Overthrow
Χριστιανοδημοκρατικό Κόμμα Ανατροπής
XPIKA
ΧΡΙΚΑ
Centre-right
Right wing
Christian Democracy
Conservatism
Nikos Nikolopoulos (fr) Union for the Homeland and the People (2014)
Independent Greeks (2015)
none 1 0
Reformers for Democracy and Development
Μεταρρυθμιστές για τη Δημοκρατία και την Ανάπτυξη
Reformers
Μεταρρυθμιστές
Centre-left Social Democracy Spyros Lykoudis (el) The River none 1 0
Course of Freedom
Πλεύση Ελευθερίας
Left-wing Socialism Zoe Konstantopoulou Popular Unity none 0 0
Society First
Η Κοινωνία Πρώτα
H.K.P
Η.Κ.Π
Left wing Democratic Socialism
Socialism
Stefanos Katsaras SYRIZA none 0 0
Popular Unions of Bipartisan Social Groups
Λαϊκές Ενώσεις Υπερκομματικών Κοινωνικών Ομάδων
LEFKO
ΛΕΥΚΟ
Centre-left Social Democracy
Populism
Konstantinos Dalios Independent Greeks None 0 0
Drassi
Δράση
Drassi
Δράση
Centre Liberalism
Classical Liberalism
Theodoros Skylakakis Bridges (el) (2014)
The River (2015)
ALDE 0 0
Popular Orthodox Rally
Λαικός Ορθόδοξος Συναγερμός
LAOS
Λα.Ο.Σ
Right wing
Far-right
Greek nationalism
Conservatism
Georgios Karatzaferis National Unity MELD 0 0
Movement of Democratic Socialists
Κίνημα Δημοκρατών Σοσιαλιστών
KIDISO
ΚI.ΔH.ΣO.
Center-left Social democracy George Papandreou None None 0 0
Greens
Πράσινοι
Greens
Πράσινοι
Centre-left Green politics
Environmentalism
Nikos Chrysogelos None 0 0
New Reformist Radical Reconstruction
Νέα Μεταρρυθμιστική Ριζοσπαστική Ανασυγκρότηση
NEA MERA
ΝΕΑ ΜΕΡΑ
Centre-right National Conservatism
Liberal Conservatism
Christos Zois Union for the Homeland and the People none 0 0
Recreate Greece
Δημιουργία Ξανά
DX
Δ.Ξ.
Centre Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Thanos Tzimeros (el) Bridges (el) ALDE 0 0
Liberal Alliance
Φιλελεύθερη Συμμαχία
FS
Φ.Σ.
Centre Neoliberalism
Progressivism
Makis Spyratos none none 0 0
Democrats
Δημοκρατικοί
Dem
Δημ
Centre Social Liberalism
Economic Liberalism
Theodoros Polyzoidis (el) None None 0 0
Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow
Αντικαπιταλιστική Αριστερή Συνεργασία για την Ανατροπή
ANTARSYA
ΑΝΤΑΡΣΥΑ
Far-left Revolutionary socialism
Anti-capitalism
21 member committee None None 0 0
Social Agreement
Κοινωνική Συμφωνία
KOISY
ΚΟΙ.ΣΥ.
Centre-left
Left wing
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Louka Katseli SYRIZA None 0 0
National Unity Association
Σύνδεσμος Εθνικής Ενότητας
SEE
Σ.Ε.Ε.
Right wing Patriotism
National Conservatism
Nikos Alikakos None None 0 0
Pirate Party of Greece
Κόμμα Πειρατών Ελλάδας
KPP
Κ.Π.Π.
Left wing Freedom of information
Direct democracy
Has no leader, but a management board. Ecologist Greens - Pirate Party of Greece (2014) PPEU,
supported G-EFA
0 0
Communist Party of Greece (Marxist–Leninist)
Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας (Μαρξιστικό - Λενινιστικό)
KKE(m-l)
Κ.Κ.Ε.(μ-λ)
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Grigoris Konstantopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece
Μαρξιστικό-Λενινιστικό Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
M-L KKE
Μ-Λ Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Antonis Papadopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Workers Revolutionary Party
Εργατικό Επαναστατικό Κόμμα
EEK
ΕΕΚ
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
Savas Matsas None None 0 0
Democratic Revival
Δημοκρατική Αναγέννηση
Diman
Δημαν
Centre-right
Right wing
National Conservatism
Christian Socialism
Stelios Papathemelis None None 0 0
Drachmi Greek Democratic Movement Five Stars
Δραχμή, Δημοκρατική Κίνηση Πέντε Αστέρων
Drachma Five Stars
Δραχμή Πέντε Αστέρων
Centre
Centre-right
Liberal Conservatism
Patriotic Socialism
Theodore Katsanevas None None 0 0
Fighting Socialist Party of Greece
Αγωνιστικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
ASKE
Α.Σ.Κ.Ε.
Centre-Left Democratic socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Nikos Kargopoulos None None 0 0
National Front
Eθνικό Mέτωπο
EM
Ε.Μ.
Far-right Ultranationalism
Greek nationalism
Emmanouil Konstas None None 0 0
National Hope
Εθνική Ελπίδα
EE
E.E.
Right wing
Far-right
National conservatism
Monarchism
Yiorgos Papadopoulos None None 0 0
Greek Ecologists
Έλληνες Οικολόγοι
EO
E.O.
Centre-left Ecologism
Social progressivism
Dimosthenis Vergis None None 0 0
Liberal Party
Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων
KF
Κ.Φ.
Centre Liberalism
Venizelism
Manolis Kalligiannis None None 0 0
Organization for the Reconstruction of the Communist Party of Greece
Οργάνωση για την Ανασυγκρότηση του Κομουνιστικού Κόμματος Ελλάδας
OAKKE
Ο.Α.Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Communism
Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
Elias Zafiropoulos None None 0 0
Organisation of Internationalist Communists of Greece
Οργάνωση Κομμουνιστών Διεθνιστών Ελλάδας
OKDE
Ο.Κ.Δ.Ε.
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
None None 0 0
Panhellenic Citizen Chariot
Πανελλήνιο Άρμα Πολιτών
PAP
ΠΑΠ
Centre
Centre-left
Social democracy
Democratic Socialism
Giannis Dimaras (el) None None 0 0

Defunct parties[edit]

Parties during the reign of King Otto (1833-1862)[edit]

Parties during the reign of King George I (1863-1913)[edit]

  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal) (1910–1961)
  • Nationalist Party (Greek: Κόμμα Εθνικόφρονων, K.E.) - Komma Ethnikofronon, KE (conservative, nationalist) (1865–1909)
  • Modernist Party (Greek: Νεωτεριστικόν Κομμα, Ν.Κ.) - Neoteristikon Komma, ΝΚ (Liberal, Liberal Nationalist) (1875–1910)

Parties during the reign of King Constantine I - George II (1913-1924)[edit]

  • Freethinkers' Party (Greek: Κόμμα των Ελευθερόφρονων K.E.) - Komma Eleftherofronon (Nationalist, Royalist) (1922–1936)
  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal,Liberal Nationalist) (1910–1961)
  • People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκόν Κόμμα Λ.Κ.) LK - Laiko Komma (Conservative, Royalist) (1920–1958)

Parties during the Second Hellenic Republic (1924-1935)[edit]

  • Agrarian Party (Greek: Άγροτικό Κόμμα A.K.) - Agrotikon Komma AK (1926–1956)
  • Conservative Democratic Party (Greek: Συντιριτικό Δημοκρατικόν Κόμμα Σ.Δ.Κ.) - Syntiritiko Demokratikon Komma SDK (1932–1936)
  • Democratic Union (Greek: Δημοκρατική Ένωσις Δ.E.) - Demokratiki Enosis (Liberal) (1926-?)
  • Democratic Socialist Party of Greece (Greek: Δημοκρατικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος, ΔΣΚ) - DSK (Democratic Socialist) (1935–1950)
  • Farmers’ and Workers’ Party (Greek: Άγροτικόν και Έργατικόν Κόμμα Α.Ε.Κ.) - Agrotikon kai Ergatikon Komma/Agrotergatiko Komma AEK (Rural radical) (1932–1936)
  • General People's Radical Union (Greek: Γενική Λαïκή Ριζοσπαστική Ένωση Γ.Λ.Ρ.Ε) - Geniki Laiki Rizospastiki Enosis GLRE (??) (1932–1936)
  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal, Liberal Nationalist) (1910–1961)
  • Greek National Socialist Party (Greek: Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα) - Elliniko Ethniko Sosialistiko Komma (National Socialist) (1932)
  • Jewish Political Union (Greek: Εβραϊκή Πολιτική Ένωση) - Evraiki Politiki Enosi (1926-1932)
  • Macedonian Union (Greek: Μακεδονική Ένωση) – Makedoniki Enosi (Conservative) (1935)
  • National Radical Party (Greek: Εθνική Ριζοσπαστική Κόμμα E.Ρ.K.) - Ethnikon Rizospastikon Komma ERK (Conservative) (1932–1936)
  • National Unionist Party (el) (Greek: Εθνικόν Ενωτικόν Κόμμα Ε.Ε.Κ.)– Ethnikon Enotikon Komma EEK (1935–1950)
  • People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκόν Κόμμα Λ.Κ.) LK - Laiko Komma (Conservative, Royalist) (1920–1958)
  • Progressive Party (Greek: Προοδευτικόν Κόμμα Π.Κ.) - Proodeftikon Komma PK (1928–1964, 1981)
  • Refugees' Liberal Party (Greek: Φιλελευθέρων Προσφιγικόν Κόμμα Φ.Π.Κ.) - Fileleftheron Prosfijikon Komma FPK (1926-?)
  • Socialist Party of Greece (Greek: Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας ΣΚΕ)- Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, ΣΚΕ (Socialist, Svolist) (1920-1953)
  • Union of Royalists (Greek: Ένωσις Βασιλικών EB) – Enosis Vasilikon (Monarchist-Conservative) (1935)

Parties during the restoration of King George II (1936-1946)[edit]

Parties during the reigns of Kings Paul and Constantine II (1946-1973)[edit]

Parties during the Third Hellenic Republic (1974-present)[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram, "Greece", Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 15 March 2012 .
  2. ^ Giorgos Katsambekis. "Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: The Case of SYRIZA". academia.edu. 
  3. ^ "Russell Brand calls for UK to join Greek revolution after anti-capitalist anti-austerity coalition SYRIZA wins in Athens". The Independent. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Greece: Phase One. Jacobin. 22 January 2015.
  5. ^ Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (2008), Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 575, The cooperation with the alter-globalization movement shapes the life of the party. 
  6. ^ José M. Magone (2003). The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration Into the European Union. Praeger. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-275-97787-0. 
  7. ^ "The great crisis of the Right wing". To Vima. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  8. ^ "New Democracy (ND)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  9. ^ Kalaitzidis, Akis (2009), Europe's Greece: A Giant in the Making, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 29 
  10. ^ Robert Thomson (2011). Resolving Controversy in the European Union: Legislative Decision-Making before and after Enlargement. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-139-50517-8. 
  11. ^ Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), "Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece", Journal of Political Ideologies 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi). 
  12. ^ Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980–2005 (PDF), Nuffield College, University of Oxford, p. 15 
  13. ^ Pew Research Center: Rise of Greek nationalist ‘Golden Dawn’ party coincides with Greece’s economic crisis
  14. ^
    • Wodak, Ruth (2015), The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean, Sage, However, Golden Dawn's neo-Nazi profile is clearly visible in the party's symbolism, with its flag resembling a swastika, Nazi salutes and chant of 'Blood and Honour' encapsulating its xenophobic and racist ideology. 
    • Vasilopoulou; Halikiopoulou (2015), The Golden Dawn's 'Nationalist Solution', p. 32, The extremist character of the Golden Dawn, its neo-Nazi principles, racism and ultranationalism, as well as its violence, render the party a least likely case of success... 
    • Dalakoglou, Dimitris (2013), "Neo-Nazism and neoliberalism: A Few Comments on Violence in Athens At the Time of Crisis", WorkingUSA: The Journal of Labor and Society (16(2) 
    • Miliopoulos, Lazaros (2011), "Extremismus in Griechenland", Extremismus in den EU-Staaten (in German) (VS Verlag), p. 154, doi:10.1007/978-3-531-92746-6_9, ...mit der seit 1993 als Partei anerkannten offen neonationalsozialistischen Gruppierung Goldene Mörgenröte (Chryssi Avgí, Χρυσή Αυγή) kooperierte... [...cooperated with the openly neo-National Socialist group Golden Dawn (Chryssi Avgí, Χρυσή Αυγή), which has been recognized as a party since 1993...] 
    • Davies, Peter; Jackson, Paul (2008), The Far Right in Europe: An Encyclopedia, Greenwood World Press, p. 173 
    • Altsech, Moses (August 2004), "Anti-Semitism in Greece: Embedded in Society", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism (23): 12, On 12 March 2004, Chrysi Avghi (Golden Dawn), the new weekly newspaper of the Neo-Nazi organization of that name, cited another survey indicating that the percentage of Greeks who view immigrants unfavorably is 89 percent. 
  15. ^ Μητρόπουλος, Αλέξης Π. [1] Το... μέλλον του ΠΑΣΟΚ [Τhe... future of PASOK], Ελευθεροτυπία, 20 November 2011.
  16. ^ Νταβανέλλος, Αντώνης [2] Η σοσιαλδημοκρατία στην εποχή του σοσιαλφιλελευθερισμού: Ποιο μέλλον έχει το ΠΑΣΟΚ; [Social democracy in the age of social liberalism: What is the future of PASOK?], Διεθνιστική Εργατική Αριστερά, 25 January 2012.
  17. ^ https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2015/08/31/corr-a31.html
  18. ^ https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2012/06/kke-j18.html
  19. ^ http://inter.kke.gr/en/aboutKKE/history/
  20. ^ Gideon Rose (2015). Europe's Monetary (Dis)union. Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-87609-638-3. 
  21. ^ Michael Kaeding; Niko Switek (2015). Die Europawahl 2014: Spitzenkandidaten, Protestparteien, Nichtwähler. Springer-Verlag. p. 41. ISBN 978-3-658-05738-1. 
  22. ^ "Greek election 2015: everything you need to know". The Guardian. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  23. ^ "Venizelos draws battle lines for general elections", Ekathimerini, 15 March 2012 
  24. ^ Boyka M. Stefanova (2014). The European Union beyond the Crisis: Evolving Governance, Contested Policies, and Disenchanted Publics. Lexington Books. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-4985-0348-8. 
  25. ^ Christian Karner; Bram Mertens (2013). The Use and Abuse of Memory: Interpreting World War II in Contemporary European Politics. Transaction Publishers. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4128-5203-6. 
  26. ^ Mannin, Michael (2013). Evaluating the Europeanization Effect. The Europeanization of European Politics (Palgrave Macmillan). p. 210. 
  27. ^ a b "Introducing Popular Unity". Jacobin Magazine. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  28. ^ "Lafazanis: Greek rebel with a eurosceptic cause". EUBusiness. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.