Alanya

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Alanya
District
A colorful city with red roofs rising out from a curving harbor with blue water and cruise ship docked by a long pier.
Alanya city center and harbor
A dark-yellow circular seal with a smaller circle inside it that portrays a fortified tower and wall behind blue waves. The smaller circle is enclosed by a black two-headed bird with the text T.C. above and Alanya Belediyesi below.
Seal
The word Alanya in blue text except for the letter Y which is elongated and in yellow.
Logo
Nickname(s): Güneşin Gülümsediği Yer
("Where the Sun Smiles")
Alanya is located in Turkey
Alanya
Alanya
Location of Alanya
Coordinates: 36°33′N 32°00′E / 36.550°N 32.000°E / 36.550; 32.000
Country  Turkey
Region Mediterranean
Province Antalya
Incorporated 1872
Government
 • Type Strong Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Hasan Sipahioğlu (AKP)
 • Governor Hulusi Doğan
Area[1]
 • District 1,598.51 km2 (617.19 sq mi)
Elevation 0–250 m (0–820 ft)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 104,573
 • District 264,692
 • District density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Demonym Alanyalılar
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 07400
Area code(s) +90 242
Licence plate 07
Website www.alanya.bel.tr
www.alanya.gov.tr

Alanya (Turkish pronunciation: [aˈɫanja]), formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey, 138 kilometres (86 mi) from the city of Antalya. On the southern coast of Turkey, the district (which includes the city and its built-up area) has an area of 1,598.51 km2 and (2010 Census) 248,286 inhabitants (city 98,627).[3]

Because of its natural strategic position on a small peninsula into the Mediterranean Sea below the Taurus Mountains, Alanya has been a local stronghold for many Mediterranean-based empires, including the Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires. Alanya's greatest political importance came in the Middle Ages, with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm under the rule of Alaeddin Kayqubad I, from whom the city derives its name. His building campaign resulted in many of the city's landmarks, such as the Kızıl Kule (Red Tower), Tersane (Shipyard), and Alanya Castle.

The Mediterranean climate, natural attractions, and historic heritage makes Alanya a popular destination for tourism, and responsible for nine percent of Turkey's tourism sector and thirty percent of foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey. Tourism has risen since 1958 to become the dominant industry in the city, resulting in a corresponding increase in city population. Warm-weather sporting events and cultural festivals take place annually in Alanya. Mayor Hasan Sipahioğlu, of the Justice and Development Party, has led the city since 1999.

Names[edit]

The city has changed hands many times over the centuries, and its name has reflected this. Alanya was known in Latin as Coracesium or in Greek as Korakesion from the Luwian Korakassa meaning "point/protruding city".[4] Under the Byzantine Empire it become known as Kalonoros or Kalon Oros, meaning "beautiful/fine mountain" in Greek.[5] The Seljuks renamed the city Alaiye (علاعية), a derivative of the Sultan Alaeddin Kayqubad I's name. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Italian traders called the city Candelore or Cardelloro.[6] In his 1935 visit, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk finalized the name in the new alphabet as Alanya, changing the 'i' and 'e' in Alaiye, reportedly because of a misspelled telegram in 1933.[7][8]

History[edit]

A detailed drawing of a map of a distinct peninsula with a walled city, and a curved bay below it. Mountains are included on the right, as is a compass rose on the left.
Piri Reis map of Alanya from 1525 showing the extent of the medieval city and the location on the Pamphylia plain.

Finds in the nearby Karain Cave indicate occupation during the Paleolithic era as far back as 20,000 BC,[9] and archeological evidence shows a port existed at Syedra, south of the modern city, during the Bronze Age around 3,000 BC.[10] A Phoenician language tablet found in the district dates to 625 BC, and the city is specifically mentioned in the 4th-century BC Greek geography manuscript, the periplus of Pseudo-Scylax.[9] The castle rock was likely inhabited under the Hittites and the Achaemenid Empire, and was first fortified in the Hellenistic period following the area's conquest by Alexander the Great.[11] Alexander's successors left the area to Ptolemy I Soter after 323 BC. His dynasty maintained loose control over the mainly Isaurian population, and the port became a popular refuge for Mediterranean pirates.[4] The city resisted Antiochus III the Great of the neighboring Seleucid kingdom in 199 BC, but was loyal to the pirate Diodotus Tryphon when he seized the Seleucid crown from 142 to 138 BC. His rival Antiochus VII Sidetes completed work in 137 BC on a new castle and port, begun under Diodotus.[12]

The Roman Republic fought Cilician pirates in 102 BC, when Marcus Antonius the Orator established a proconsulship in nearby Side, and in 78 BC under Servilius Vatia, who moved to control the Isaurian tribes.[13] The period of piracy in Alanya finally ended after the city's incorporation into the Pamphylia province by Pompey in 67 BC, with the Battle of Korakesion fought in the city's harbor.[14] Isaurian banditry remained an issue under the Romans, and the tribes revolted in the fourth and fifth centuries AD, with the largest rebellion being from 404 to 408.[15] After the Roman Empire's collapse and split, the city remained under Byzantine influence, becoming a suffragan of Side, in the metropolis of Pamphylia Prima.[16] Islam arrived in the 7th century with Arab raids, which led to the construction of new fortifications.[9] 681 marked the end of a bishopric in Alanya, although St. Peter of Atroa may have taken refuge here from iconoclastic persecution in the early 9th century.[16][17] The area fell from Byzantine control after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 to tribes of Seljuk Turks, only to be returned in 1120 by John II Komnenos.[18]

A stone statue of a man in warrior clothes on horseback.
Statue of Kayqubad I in Alanya

Following the Fourth Crusade's attack on the Byzantines, the Christian Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia periodically held the port, and it was from an Armenian, Kir Fard, that the Turks took lasting control in 1221 when the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Kayqubad I captured it, assigning the former ruler, whose daughter he married, to the governance of the city of Akşehir.[19] Seljuk rule saw the golden age of the city, and it can be considered the winter capital of their empire.[20] Building projects, including the twin citadel, city walls, arsenal, and Kızıl Kule, made it an important seaport for western Mediterranean trade, particularly with Ayyubid Egypt and the Italian city-states.[21] Alaeddin Kayqubad I also constructed numerous gardens and pavilions outside the walls, and many of his works can still be found in the city. These were likely financed by his own treasury and by the local emirs, and constructed by the contractor Abu 'Ali al-Kattani al-Halabi.[11] Alaeddin Kayqubad I's son, Sultan Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev II, continued the building campaign with a new cistern in 1240.[22]

At the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1242, the Mongol hordes broke the Seljuk hegemony in Anatolia. Alanya was then subject to a series of invasions from Anatolian beyliks. In 1293, the Karamanid dynasty took control after Mecdüddin Mahmud conquered the city, but their rule was intermittent.[23] Lusignans from Cyprus briefly overturned the then ruling Hamidid Dynasty in 1371.[24] The Karamanids sold the city in 1427 for 5,000 gold coins to the Mamluks of Egypt for a period before General Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1471 incorporated it into the growing Ottoman Empire. The city was made a capital of a local sanjak in the eyalet of Içel.[5] The Ottomans extended their rule in 1477 when they brought the main shipping trade, lumber, then mostly done by Venetians, under the government monopoly.[21] On September 6, 1608, the city rebuffed a naval attack by the Order of Saint Stephen from the Republic of Venice.[6]

A hill populated with houses slants down into a blue-green sea below a stone dock with five arches. A stone wall extends along the sea from the dock to the lower right.
The Seljuk era Tersane was a drydock for ships.

Trade in the region was negatively impacted by the development of an oceanic route from Europe around Africa to India, and in the tax registers of the late sixteenth century, Alanya failed to qualify as an urban center.[25] In 1571 the Ottomans designated the city as part of the newly conquered province of Cyprus.[9] The conquest further diminished the economic importance of Alanya's port. Traveler Evliya Çelebi visited the city in 1671/1672, and wrote on the preservation of Alanya Castle, but also on the dilapidation of Alanya's suburbs.[5] The city was reassigned in 1864 under Konya, and in 1868 under Antalya, as it is today.[9] During the 18th and 19th centuries numerous villas were built in the city by Ottoman nobility, and civil construction continued under the local dynastic Karamanid authorities.[4] Bandits again became common across Antalya Province in the mid-nineteenth century.[26]

After World War I, Alanya was nominally partitioned in the 1917 Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne to Italy, before returning to the Turkish Republic in 1923 under the Treaty of Lausanne.[27] Like others in this region, the city suffered heavily following the war and the population exchanges that heralded the Turkish Republic, when many of the city's Christians resettled in Nea Ionia, outside Athens. The Ottoman census of 1893 listed the number of Greeks in the city at 964 out of a total population of 37,914.[28] Tourism in the region started among Turks who came to Alanya in the 1960s for the alleged healing properties of Damlataş Cave, and later the access provided by Antalya Airport in 1998 allowed the town to grow into an international resort. Strong population growth through the 1990s was a result of immigration to the city, and has driven a rapid modernization of the infrastructure.[29]

Geography[edit]

Map of the Alanya Peninsula

Located on the Gulf of Antalya on the Anatolian coastal plain of Pamphylia, the town is situated between the Taurus Mountains to the north and the Mediterranean Sea, and is part of the Turkish riviera, occupying roughly 70 kilometres (43 mi) of coastline.[30] From west to east, the Alanya district is bordered by the Manavgat district along the coast, the mountainous Gündoğmuş inland, Hadim and Taşkent in the Province of Konya, Sarıveliler in the Province of Karaman, and the coastal Gazipaşa district.[31] Manavgat is home to the ancient cities of Side and Selge. East of the city, the Dim River flows from the mountains in Konya on a south-west route into the Mediterranean.

The Pamphylia plain between the sea and the mountains is an isolated example of an Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forest, which include Lebanon Cedar, evergreen scrub, fig trees, and black pine.[32] The Alanya Massif refers to the area of metamorphic rocks east of Antalya. This formation is divided into three nappes from lowest to highest, the Mahmutlar, the Sugözü, and the Yumrudağ. The similar lithology extends beneath the city in a tectonic window.[33] Bauxite, an aluminum ore, is common to the area north of city, and can be mined.[34]

Blue-green sea surrounds a rocky peninsula covered by green trees and a stone castle wall with crenelations.
Tip of the Alanya Peninsula

The town is divided east–west by a rocky peninsula, which is the distinctive feature of the city. The harbor, city center, and Keykubat Beach, named after the Sultan Kayqubad I, are on the east side of the peninsula. Damlataş Beach, named for the famous "dripping caves", and Kleopatra Beach are to the west. The name "Cleopatra" possibly derives from either the Ptolemaic princess' visit here or the area's inclusion in her dowry to Mark Antony.[35][36] Atatürk Bulvarı, the main boulevard, runs parallel to the sea, and divides the southern, much more touristic side of Alanya from the northern, more indigenous side that extends north into the mountains. Çevre Yolu Caddesi, another major road, encircles the main town to the north.

Climate[edit]

Alanya has a typical hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). Located at the Mediterranean Basin, the subtropical high pressure zone ensures that most rain comes during the winter, leaving the summers long, hot, and dry, prompting the Alanya board of Tourism to use the slogan "where the sun smiles".[37] Storm cells sometimes bring with them fair weather waterspouts when close to the shore.[38] The presence of the Taurus Mountain in close proximity to the sea causes fog, in turn creating visible rainbows many mornings. The height of the mountains creates an interesting effect as snow can often be seen on them even on hot days in the city below. The sea at Alanya has an average temperature of 21.4 °C (71 °F) annually, with an average August temperature of 28 °C (82 °F).[39]

Climate data for Alanya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.2
(61.2)
16.3
(61.3)
18.3
(64.9)
21.1
(70)
24.7
(76.5)
28.7
(83.7)
31.5
(88.7)
32.1
(89.8)
30.2
(86.4)
26.5
(79.7)
21.5
(70.7)
17.8
(64)
23.74
(74.74)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
16.9
(62.4)
20.9
(69.6)
25.1
(77.2)
27.8
(82)
28
(82)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
16.4
(61.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.37
(66.82)
Average low °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.5
(47.3)
10.1
(50.2)
13
(55)
16.7
(62.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.7
(74.7)
21.2
(70.2)
17.4
(63.3)
13
(55)
10
(50)
15.5
(59.84)
Precipitation mm (inches) 199
(7.83)
149.4
(5.882)
97.8
(3.85)
70.7
(2.783)
32.4
(1.276)
8.5
(0.335)
4.5
(0.177)
2.7
(0.106)
17.5
(0.689)
98.5
(3.878)
182.9
(7.201)
231.2
(9.102)
1,095.1
(43.109)
Avg. rainy days 13.8 11.6 9.5 8.5 4.4 1.5 0.4 0.5 2.1 6.6 9.9 13 81.8
 % humidity 57 57 61 63 66 66 64 65 58 55 59 60 60.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 131.6 198.4 231 300.7 330 337.9 322.4 279 223.2 168 136.4 2,788.8
Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service [40]
Source #2: Weather2 [41]
Alanya mean sea temperature[42]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
17 °C (63 °F) 16 °C (61 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 24 °C (75 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 24 °C (75 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 18 °C (64 °F)

Architecture[edit]

Ruins of a small stone domed structure built in a Byzantine style with tall windows. Grasses grow on the second level, as do trees behind it.
The Byzantine era Church of Saint George inside Alanya Castle was also used as a mosque.

On the peninsula stands Alanya Castle, a Seljuk era citadel dating from 1226. Most major landmarks in the city are found inside and around the castle. The current castle was built over existing fortifications and served the double purpose of a palace of local government and as a defensive structure in case of attack. In 2007, the city began renovating various sections of the castle area, including adapting a Byzantine church for use as a Christian community center.[43] Inside the castle is the Süleymaniye mosque and caravanserai, built by Suleiman the Magnificent.[44] The old city walls surround much of the eastern peninsula, and can be walked. Inside the walls are numerous historic villas, well preserved examples of the classical period of Ottoman architecture, most built in the early 19th century.

The Kızıl Kule (Red Tower) is another well-known building in Alanya. The 108-foot (33 m) high brick building stands at the harbor below the castle, and contains the municipal ethnographic museum. Sultan Kayqubad I brought the accomplished architect Ebu Ali from Aleppo, Syria to Alanya to design the building.[45] The last of Alanya Castle's 83 towers, the octagonal structure specifically protected the Tersane (dockyard), it remains one of the finest examples of medieval military architecture.[46] The Tersane, a medieval drydock built by the Seljuk Turks in 1221, 187 by 131 feet (57 by 40 m), is divided into five vaulted bays with equilateral pointed arches.[44] The Alara Castle and caravanserai near Manavgat, also built under Kayqubad's authority, has been converted into a museum and heritage center.[47]

Atatürk's House and Museum, from his short stay in the city on February 18, 1935 is preserved in its historic state and is a good example of the interior of a traditional Ottoman villa, with artifacts from the 1930s. The house was built between 1880 and 1885 in the "karniyarik" (stuffed eggplant) style. Bright colors and red roofs are often mandated by neighborhood councils, and give the modern town a pastel glow. Housed in a 1967 Republican era building, The Alanya Museum is inland from Damlataşh Beach.[48] With its rich architectural heritage, Alanya is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions.[49] In 2009, city officials filed to include Alanya Castle and Tersane as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and were named to the 2009 Tentative List.[50][51]

A panoramic view of a city beneath a mountain range with blue sea on both sides of a peninsula. On the peninsula is a castle wall and red roofed buildings. A young girl peers into the scene over the wall on the far left.
Panorama from west side of peninsula

Demographics[edit]

Historic Populations
Year District City
1893[28] 37914
1965[52] 43459 12436
1970[53] 53552 15011
1975[54] 63235 18520
1980[55] 74148 22190
1985[56] 87080 28733
1990[57] 129106 52460
2000[58] 257671 88346
2007[59] 226236 91713
2008[60] 233919 92223
2009[61] 241451 94316
2010[62] 248286 98627
2011[63] 259787 103673

From only 87,080 in 1985, the district has surged to hold a population of 384,949 in 2007.[64][65] This population surge is largely credited to immigration to the city as a result or byproduct of the increased prominence of the real estate sector and the growth of the housing market bubble.[66] The city itself has a population of 134,396, of which 9,789 are European expatriates, about half of them from Germany and Denmark.[67] 17,850 total foreigners own property in Alanya.[68] The European expatriate population tends to be over fifty years old.[69] During the summer the population increases due to large numbers of tourists, about 1.1 million each year pass through the city.[30] Both Turks and Europeans, these vacationers provide income for much of the population.

The city is home to many migrants from the Southeastern Anatolia Region and the Black Sea region. In the first decade of the 21st century, the town has seen a surge in illegal foreign immigrants from the Middle East and South Asia, both to stay and to attempt to enter European Union countries.[70] As of 2006, 1,217 migrants claim residence in Alanya while working abroad.[71] Yörük nomads also live in the Taurus Mountains north of the city on a seasonal basis.[72] Additionally, there is a small African community descendant from imported Ottoman slaves.[73]

The town is nearly 99% Muslim, and although many ancient churches can be found in the district, there are no regular Christian services. In 2006, a German language Protestant church with seasonal service opened with much fanfare, after receiving permission to do so in 2003, a sign of the growing European population in the city.[74] The town provides the Atatürk Cultural Center to Christian groups on a regular basis for larger religious ceremonies.[75]

Education and health[edit]

Several children dressed in blue wearing backpacks crowd around a small rock enclosure.
Young students from an Alanya school at their class garden

The city has 95% literacy, with public and private schools, and a roughly 1:24 student-teacher ratio.[30] Rural villages are, however, disadvantaged by the limited number of secondary schools outside the city center. Alantur Primary School, which opened in 1987, was built and is maintained under the Turkish "Build Your Own School" initiative, supported by the foundation of Ayhan Şahenk, the founder of Doğuş Holding.[76]

In 2005, Akdeniz University of Antalya launched the Alanya Faculty of Business, as a satellite campus that focuses on the tourism industry.[77] The school hosts an International Tourism Conference annually in coordination with Buckinghamshire New University.[78] The city also has plans to open a private university in 2012.[79] Georgetown University operates an annual study abroad program for American students known as the McGhee Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies, named for the United States Ambassador to Turkey from 1952–53 George C. McGhee, and based in his villa.[80] Başkent University Medical and Research Center of Alanya, a teaching hospital run by Başkent University in Ankara is one of nineteen hospitals in Alanya.[81] Other major hospitals include the 300-bed Alanya State Hospital and the 90-bed Private Hayat Hospital.[82]

Culture[edit]

A eight-sided medieval tower built of red and yellow brick rises above a green sea in which swimmers play.  Stone walls run along the shore and further up from the tower.
The Kızıl Kule, or Red Tower, is also home to the city ethnographic museum.

Alanya's culture is a subculture of the larger Culture of Turkey. The city's seaside position is central to many annual festivals. These include the Tourism and Arts Festival, which marks the opening of the tourism season from at the end of May or beginning of June.[83][84] At the opposite end of the season, the Alanya International Culture and Art Festival is held in the last week of May, and is a notable Turkish festival.[85] Other regular festivals include the Alanya Jazz Days, which has been held since 2002 in September or October at the Kızıl Kule, which is otherwise home to the municipal ethnographic museum. The Jazz Festival hosts Turkish and international jazz musicians in a series of five free concerts.[86]

Two guitarists in blue shirts perform on stage in front of a blue and white poster in Turkish.
Rockcorn from Finland perform during the 2011 Alanya International Culture and Art Festival

The Alanya Chamber Orchestra, formed of members of the Antalya State Opera and Ballet, gave its inaugural performance on December 7, 2007.[87] The International Alanya Stone Sculpture Symposium, begun is 2004, is held over the month of November.[88] The Alanya Documentary Festival was launched in 2001 by the Alanya Cinémathèque Society and the Association of Documentary Filmmakers in Turkey.[89] Onat Kutlar, Turkish poet and writer, and founder of the Istanbul International Film Festival was born in Alanya, as was actress Sema Önür.[90]

Atatürk's visit to Alanya is also celebrated on its anniversary each February 18, centered on Atatürk's House and Museum.[4] The Alanya Museum is home to archaeology found in and around the city, including a large bronze Hercules statue, ceramics, and Roman limestone ossuaries, as well as historic copies of the Qur'an.[48][91] European residents of Alanya also often celebrate their national holidays, such as Norwegian Constitution Day,[92] and the city set up a Christmas market in December 2010.[93] Iranians also celebrate the Persian New Year, Nevruz, in Alanya.[94]

Government[edit]

A tall sweeping stone triangle projects skyward behind the statues of a man and two children in bronze on a smaller podium. Around the base are placed several wreaths with logos. Palm trees surround the scene.
Many national celebrations are centered at the downtown Mustafa Kemal Atatürk monument.

Alanya was set up as a municipality in 1872, electing its first mayor in 1901. Today, Alanya is governed by a mayor and a municipality council made up of twenty-five members. Twelve councilors are of the Justice and Development Party (AK Party), which is currently in power in the national government. Eight councilors are from the center-right Motherland Party, with three members from the center-left Republican People's Party, two from the far-right Nationalist Movement Party.[95] Mayor Hasan Sipahioğlu was formerly with the Motherland Party, but on July 12, 2009 joined the AK Party.[96] Sipahioğlu was first elected in 1999, and was reelected in 2004 and 2009. Elections are held every five years, with the next to be held in March 2014. Alanya also has a deputy mayor, who often represents the city at its sporting events.[97]

Two older Turkish men stand facing each other, one bald, the other wearing a white cap, while a large crowd mingles behind them along a waterfront.
MP Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu (on the left) was also President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

Alanya District is divided up into 17 municipalities, including the city center, and 92 villages.[64] Alanya is greatly influenced by the provincial government in Antalya, and the national government in Ankara, which appoints a governor for the district, currently Dr. Hulusi Doğan.[98] Although Alanya has been part of Antalya Province since the Ottoman Empire, many local politicians have advocated a separate Alanya Province, a position supported by associations of foreign residents.[99]

Nationally, in the 2007 election, the province voted with the Justice and Development Party, who were followed closely by the Republican People's Party and the True Path Party.[100] Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, of the Justice and Development Party, is the only native Alanyalilar Member of Parliament representing Antalya Province in the Grand National Assembly, where he chairs the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population.[101] He also served as the president of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

Economy[edit]

Dozens of baskets of brightly colored fruits and vegetables stacked around intersecting aisles at a market.
Locally grown fruits for sale in a market in the farming district of Obaköy, outside Alanya

The tourist industry in Alanya is worth just under 1.1 billion euros per year, and is therefore the principal industry.[30] The area is further known for its many fruit farms, particularly lemons and oranges, and large harvests of tomatoes, bananas and cucumbers.[30][102] About 80,000 tonnes of citrus fruits were produced in 2006 across 16,840 hectares (41,600 acres). The greengage plum and the avocado are increasingly popular early season fruits where citrus fruits are becoming unprofitable.[103]

Despite the seaside location, few residents make their living on the sea, and fishing is not a major industry. In the early 1970s, when fish stocks ran low, a system of rotating access was developed to preserve this sector.[104] This innovative system was part of Elinor Ostrom's research on economic governance which led to her 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics.[105] In 2007, locals protested the establishment of some larger chain supermarkets and clothing stores, which have opened branches in Alanya.[106]

Beginning in 2003, with the provisional elimination of restrictions on land purchases by non-nationals, the housing industry in the city has become highly profitable with many new private homes and condominiums being built for European and Asian part-time residents.[66] Sixty-nine percent of homes purchased by foreign nationals in the Antalya Province and 29.9% in all of Turkey are in Alanya.[68][107] Buyers are primarily individuals, rather than investors.[108] This housing boom put pressure on the city's many gecekondu houses and establishments as property values rise and property sales to locals fall.[109] A height restriction in the city limits most buildings to 21 feet (6.5 m).[110] This keeps high rise hotels to the east and west of the city, preserving the central skyline at the expense of greater tourist potential. The fringes of the city however have seen uncontrolled expansion.[111]

Tourism[edit]

Numerous white, blue, and orange boats float tied to a dock in a greenish sea. Mountains rise on the other side of a bay.
Tourism began following the opening of Damlataş Cave in the 1950s.

Since the first modern motel was built in 1958, considered the first year of the tourist industry in Alanya, hotels have raced to accommodate the influx of tourists, and the city as of 2007 claims 157,000 hotel beds.[29][112] Damlataş Cave, which originally sparked the arrival of outsiders because of the cave's microclimate, with an average temperature of 72 °F (22 °C) and 95% humidity, is accessible on the west side of the peninsula with trails from Damlataş Beach.[113] Many tourists, especially Scandinavians, Germans, Russians, and Dutch, regularly vacation in Alanya during the warmer months.[114] They are drawn to the area because of property prices, warm weather, sandy beaches, access to Antalya's historic sites, and fine cuisine.[115]

Other outdoor tourist activities include wind surfing, parasailing, and banana boating. Attractions include Europe's largest waterpark, Sealanya, and Turkey's largest go-kart track.[116] Hunting season also attracts some tourist for wild goat, pig and partridge hunting in area nature reserves.[117]

For various reasons, tourist seasons after 2005 have been disappointing for Alanya's tourism industry. Among the reasons blamed were increased PKK violence, the H5N1 bird flu found in Van, and the Mohammad cartoon controversy.[118] Alanya officials have responded with a variety of publicity initiatives, including baking the world's longest cake on April 26, 2006, a Guinness World Record.[119] The economy has also suffered due to investment in more than 20,000 surplus properties.[106] Israeli tourists, commonly arriving via cruise ship, have also declined sharply by about 85% from 2009 to 2011 due in part to strained relations between Turkey and Israel.[120]

Numerous white, blue, and orange boats float tied to a dock in a greenish sea. Mountains rise on the other side of a bay.
Colorful tourist boats docked in the city harbor

Media[edit]

Alanya has 10 local daily newspapers.[30] One of these is Yeni Alanya, which includes the news and lifestyles magazine Orange and is available in English, German and Turkish. Two native German language newspapers are published in Alanya, the Aktuelle Türkei Rundschau and Alanya Bote for the community of German speaking residents and visitors. A monthly magazine Hello Alanya published in Alanya for foreigners, appearing in English and Dutch.[121] The free regional newspaper, Riviera News, is printed in English and is widely available in Alanya.

Five radio stations broadcast from the city.[30] Alanya FM Radyo broadcasts on 106.0 FM and is partnered with Radio Flash, on 94.0 FM, both broadcasting popular music.[122] Other stations include Alanya RadyoTime on 92.3 FM, which broadcasts a variety of Turkish music, news, and talk programming.[123] Two television stations are local to Alanya, Kanal Alanya, and Alanya Televizyonu, abbreviated ATV, which is partnered with Alanya RadyoTime.[124][125]

Transportation[edit]

Dozens of sailboats crowd a marina under a cloudy sky along a mountain-lined coast.
Alanya Marina was opened in 2010 at a cost of $10 million with space for 437 ships.[126]

The D 400 Highway, the Alanya–Mersin Route, connects Alanya from the east and west, encircling it, and linking through the city center via Atatürk Bulvarı. The D695, the Ankara–Akşehir Route, runs north–south and reaches the sea 41 kilometres (25 mi) west of the city near Side, connecting with the D400. Antalya Airport is 121 kilometres (75 mi) away and connects internationally. The new Antalya Gazipaşa Airport, first begun in 1992, is only 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) from the city, and was expected to have its first regular domestic flights on May 22, 2010, although international flights were not expected before the start of the 2011 tourist season.[127] No train routes go to Alanya or Antalya Province, and there are no train stations in the district.[128]

There are bus and dolmuş systems out of Alanya's two bus depots, but buses are usually limited to the major roads, and inside the city transportation is by car, taxi, or foot, as many roads in the old town are closed to vehicle traffic. The harbor includes cruise ship piers, and also seasonal ferries and hydrofoils depart for Kyrenia in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.[129] Cruise ships ships docking at Alanya have increased 50% in 2013, with 53 estimated to have brought 56,000 passengers the end of the year.[130] Further west of the city is the Alanya Marina, which started services in 2008 while still under construction,[131] completing its expansion in 2010.[126] The 85-km2 (33-sq-mi) marina allowed Alanya to participate in the 2008 Eastern Mediterranean Yacht Rally.[132][133] The city is also investing in a community bicycle program with 150 bicycles and twenty terminals.[134]

Sports[edit]

Two female beach volleyball player dressed in black receive a volley from two others dressed in red. Light blue boards covered in advertising enclose the sandy playing court.
Women's teams in the 2006 beach volleyball tournament

Alanya is home to a woman's basketball team, Alanya Belediye, which started in the first division but was relegated after the 2002 season. The city hosts a third level soccer team, Alanyaspor. The club was founded in 1948, and play home games at Milli Egemenlik Stadium. It played in the Second League between 1988-1997. In 2007, the city began constructing a new soccer facility with the intention of hosting winter competitions between major teams.[135] The public Alanya Municipality Sports Facility is located adjacent to Milli Egemenlik Stadium, which is one of thirteen facilities.[136][137]

Dozens of professional bicyclists race on a street lined with palm trees and pastel apartments.
The Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey features a stage in Alanya every year.

Alanya's waterfront location makes it suitable for certain events, and is perhaps most famous for its annual triathlon, part of the International Triathlon Union series, which has been held every October since 1990.[138] Marathon swimming competitions have also been connected to the triathlon since 1992.[139] Building on the triathlon's success, Alanya hosted a modern pentathlon in 2009.[140] Alanya is also the regular host of The Turkish Open, part of the Nestea European Beach Volleyball championship tour, which takes place in May.[141] In 2007, the Turkish Volleyball Federation persuaded the European Volleyball Confederation to build a beach volleyball training facility in Alanya, and make it the exclusive "center of beach volleyball in Europe".[142]

The city is also a frequent host to national events, such as the annual beach handball tournament.[97] Alanya is the traditional finish site of the seven-day Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey, though organizers reversed the route in 2012, and started the event in Alanya instead.[143] Other cycling events include the Alanya International Mountain Bike Race.[144] Additionally, the European Cycling Union had its 2010 European road cycling championship and 2010 ordinary congress meeting in Alanya.[145]

Sister cities[edit]

Since making agreements with Talsi, Trakai, and Keszthely in 2006, Borås in 2007, and Rovaniemi, Špindlerův Mlýn, and Moscow in 2009, Alanya increased its number of sister cities to twelve, ten of which are located within the European Union.[146][147][148] In 2005 Alanya applied with Sister Cities International for an additional sister city from the United States.[149] The most significant tie is with the city of Nea Ionia, where many of Alanya's Christians were resettled in 1923 after the Treaty of Lausanne. Soccer teams from sister cities Wodzisław Śląski and Schwechat have also come to train and scrimmage in Alanya.[150][151] Wodzisław, Schwechat, Gladbeck, Fushun, and Alanya form a "family" in that most are partnered with the others. During the annual Tourism and Culture Festival, Alanya dedicates the year to focus on one country, and has involved sister cities, such as Trakai when 2009 was declared the "Year of Lithuania,"[152] and Talsi, which was the focus of the 12th annual Tourism Parade in 2012.[153]

See also[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Redford, Scott. Landscape and the state in medieval Anatolia: Seljuk gardens and pavilions of Alanya, Turkey. Oxford: Archaeopress; 2000. ISBN 1-84171-095-4

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°33′0″N 32°0′0″E / 36.55000°N 32.00000°E / 36.55000; 32.00000