Saul

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This article is about King Saul, the Biblical figure. For other uses, see Saul (disambiguation).
David Plays the Harp for Saul, by Rembrandt van Rijn, c. 1658.

According to the Hebrew Bible, Saul (/sɔːl/; Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Šāʼûl ; "asked for, prayed for"; Greek: Σαούλ Saoul; Latin: Saul; Arabic: طالوت‎, Ṭālūt) was the first king of a united Kingdom of Israel and Judah. He would have lived circa 1082 BC–1010 BC, was anointed by the prophet Samuel and reigned from Gibeah. He fell on his sword to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed.

The oldest accounts of Saul's life and reign are found in the Books of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. A similar, yet different account is given in the Qur'an. The historicity of Saul's kingdom has been called into question by historians.[1]

Biblical account[edit]

House of King Saul[edit]

According to the Tanakh, Saul was the son of Kish, of the family of the Matrites, and a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel. (1 Samuel 9:1-2; 10:21; 14:51; Acts 13:21) It appears that he came from Gibeah.[2]

David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg.

Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz. They had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth. Their daughters were named Merab and Michal.[3]

Saul also had a concubine named Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, who bore him two sons, Armoni and Mephibosheth. (2 Samuel 21:8)

Saul offered Merab to David as a wife after his victory over Goliath, but David was not interested in the arrangement. (1 Samuel 18:17-19) Saul then gave his other daughter Michal in marriage to David, (1 Samuel 18:20-27) but when David became Saul's rival to the kingship, Saul gave Michal in marriage to Palti, son of Laish. (1 Samuel 25:44)

Saul died at the Battle of Mount Gilboa (1 Samuel 31:3-6; 1 Chronicles 10:3-6), and was buried in Zelah, in the region of Benjamin within modern-day Israel. (2 Samuel 21:14) Three of Saul's sons – Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchishua – died with him at Mount Gilboa (1 Samuel 31:2; 1 Chronicles 10:2). Ish-bosheth became king of Israel, at the age of forty, but was killed by Bannah and Recab after hearing Abner's death. (2 Samuel 2:10) Michal was returned as a wife to David, but wasn't granted any children as she disgraced David later on.

Ish-bosheth reigned for two years and was killed by two of his own captains. (2 Samuel 4:5) The only male descendant of Saul to survive was Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, (2 Samuel 4:4) who had been five when his father and grandfather Saul had died in battle. In time, he came under the protection of David. (2 Samuel 9:7-13) Mephibosheth had a young son, Micah, (2 Samuel 9:12) of whom nothing more is heard.

Armoni and Mephibosheth (Saul's sons with his concubine, Rizpah) were given by David along with the five sons of Merab (Saul's daughter)[4] to the Gibeonites, who killed them. (2 Samuel 21:8-9) Michal was childless. (2 Samuel 6:23)

Anointed as king[edit]

"Death of King Saul", 1848 by Elie Marcuse (Germany and France, 1817-1902)

Samuel's sons were dishonest and not trustworthy. The leaders of the Israelites feared that it would be disastrous if his sons were to be judge over them and requested that Samuel give them a king. Samuel resented this request and warned that, if he appointed a king over them, they would suffer from the dealings of the king. Meanwhile Saul, a young Israelite, was commanded by his father, Kish, to go and locate their lost donkeys. Saul obeyed, and Samuel saw him walking toward him. God revealed to Samuel that Saul would be the one anointed as the "first" King of Israel.[5]

The Books of Samuel give three events in Saul's rise to the throne:

  • Saul was sent with a servant to look for his father's donkeys, who had strayed; leaving his home at Gibeah, they eventually wandered to the district of Zuph, at which point Saul suggested abandoning their search. Saul's servant however, remarked that they happened to be near the town of Ramah, where a famous seer was located, and suggested that they should consult him first. The seer (later identified by the text as Samuel), having previously had a vision instructing him to do so, offered hospitality to Saul when he entered Ramah, and later anointed him in private.[5]
  • Reflecting a desire to be like other nations, there was a popular movement to establish a centralised monarchy.(1 Samuel 8:5; 10:19). Samuel therefore assembled the people at Mizpah in Benjamin, and despite having strong reservations, which he made no attempt to hide, allowed the appointment of a king. Samuel was told by God the day before Saul arrived that Saul, from the land of Benjamin, would come and that he would be anointed as the ruler over the people of Israel [2]
  • The Ammonites, led by Nahash, laid siege to Jabesh-Gilead, which was forced to surrender. Under the terms of surrender, the occupants of the city would be forced into slavery, and have their right eyes removed as a sign of this. The city's occupants sent out word of this to the other tribes of Israel, and the tribes west of the Jordan assembled an army under the leadership of Saul. Saul led the army to victory against the Ammonites, and, in gratitude and appreciation of his military skill, the people congregated at Gilgal, and acclaimed Saul as king.[5]

Saul among the prophets[edit]

Having been anointed by Samuel, Saul is told of signs he will receive to know that he has been divinely appointed. The last of these signs is that Saul will be met by an ecstatic group of prophets leaving a high place and playing music on lyre, tambourine, and flutes. The signs come true (though the text skips the first two, suggesting that a portion of the text has been lost, or edited out for some reason), and Saul joins the ecstatic prophets, hence the phrase. (1 Samuel 10:11-12)

Saul sends men to pursue David, but when they meet a group of ecstatic prophets playing music on lyre, tambourine, and flute, they become possessed by a prophetic state and join in. Saul sends more men, but they too join the prophets. Eventually Saul himself goes, and also joins the prophets, hence the phrase. (1 Samuel 19:24)

Military victories[edit]

Besides relieving the siege of Jabesh-Gilead, Saul conducted military campaigns against the: Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, the kings of Zobah, Philistines, and Amalekites.[2]

Rejection[edit]

Saul and the Witch of Endor by Gustave Dore.

According to 1 Samuel 10:8, Samuel had told Saul to wait for a week after which they would meet and he would give Saul further instructions. But as Samuel did not arrive after a week (1 Samuel 13:8) and with the Israelites growing restless, Saul starts preparing for battle by offering sacrifices. Samuel arrives just as Saul finished offering the sacrifices, and reprimands Saul for not obeying his instructions.

After the battle with the Philistines was over, the text describes Samuel as having instructed Saul to kill all the Amalekites. Having forewarned the Kenites who were living among the Amalekites to leave, Saul goes to war and defeats the Amalekites. Saul kills all the men, women, children and poor quality livestock, but leaves alive the king and best livestock. When Samuel found out that Saul has not killed them all, he informs Saul that God has rejected him as king, because Saul was disobedient. When Samuel turns away, Saul grabs Samuel by his clothes. A piece off his garment tears off, and Samuel announces this as indicative of what will happen to Saul's kingdom. Samuel then kills the Amalekite king himself 1 Samuel 15:33 and leaves Saul for the last time.

Saul and David[edit]

After Samuel tells Saul that God has rejected him as king, David, a son of Jesse, from the tribe of Judah, enters the story:

  • (1 Samuel 16:1-13) Samuel is surreptitiously sent by God to Jesse. While offering a sacrifice in the vicinity, Samuel includes Jesse among the invited guests. Dining together, Jesse's sons are brought one by one to Samuel, each time being rejected by him, speaking for God; running out of sons, Jesse sends for David, the youngest, who was tending sheep. When brought to Samuel, David is anointed by him in front of his other brothers.
  • (1 Samuel 16:14-23) Saul is troubled by an evil spirit sent by God. Saul requests soothing music, and a servant recommends David the son of Jesse, who is renowned as a skillful harpist and soldier. When word of Saul's needs reach Jesse, he sends David, who had been looking after a flock, and David is appointed as Saul's armor bearer. David remains at court playing the harp as needed by Saul to calm his moods.
  • (1 Samuel 17:1-18:5) The Philistines return with an army to attack Israel, and the Philistine and Israelite forces gather on opposite sides of a valley. A Rephaite from Gath named Goliath challenges the Israelite army to send a champion to fight with him. David is described as a young shepherd boy who happens to be delivering food to his three eldest brothers, who are in the Israelite army, at the time that the challenge is made. David talks to the nearby soldiers mocking the Philistines, and his speech is overheard and reported to Saul, who summons David and on hearing David's views decides to appoints David as his champion, and David defeats Goliath with a single shot from a sling, which hits him on the forehead. Goliath falls forward and David decapitates him. At the end of the passage, Saul asks his general, Abner, who David is.
"Saul Throws Spear at David" by George Tinworth

In the text, Saul's son Jonathan becomes David's dearest friend. Eventually, David becomes Jonathan's brother-in-law by Michal. Jonathan recognises David as the rightful king, and 1 Samuel 18 states "Jonathan made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul."[6] Jonathan even gives David his military clothes, symbolizing David's position as successor to Saul.

God makes David successful wherever Saul sends him. Therefore Saul sets David in charge of the army. After David returns from battle, the women heap praise upon him and refer to him as a greater military hero than Saul by singing "Saul has slain his thousands and David his tens of thousands" which makes him very angry and jealous, fearing David as a rival to the throne.

Saul threatening David, by José Leonardo.

Another day, while David is playing the harp, Saul - possessed by an evil spirit - throws a spear at him but misses on two occasions. Saul removes David from the court and appoints him an officer, but David becomes increasingly successful, making Saul even more resentful of him. In return for being his champion, Saul offers his daughter Merob to David as a wife. But David is too humble to accept, so Merob is married to a different man. When Saul's other daughter Michal falls in love with David, Saul repeats the offer. Again David turns it down, claiming he lacks the wealth of a suitable husband. Saul persuades David that the bride price would only be 100 foreskins from the Philistines; he secretly hopes that David will be slain trying to achieve this. Instead, David obtains 200 foreskins and is consequently married to Michal.

The narrative continues as Saul plots against David, but Jonathan dissuades Saul from this course of action; he also tells David of it. Saul tries to have David killed during the night, but Michal helps him escape and tricks his pursuers by using a household idol to make it seem that David is still in bed. David flees to Jonathan, who wasn't living near Saul. Jonathan returns to Saul, hoping to discover his father's ultimate intent. While dining with Saul, Jonathan pretends that David has been called away to his brothers. But Saul sees through the ruse and castigates Jonathan for being David's protector; clearly, Saul wants David slain. The next day, Jonathan meets with David and tells him Saul's intent. The two friends say their goodbyes, and David flees into the countryside. Saul later marries Michal to another man.

Saul is later informed by his head shepherd, an Edomite named Doeg, that Ahimelech assisted David. A henchman is sought to kill Ahimelech and the other priests of Nob. None of Saul's henchmen are willing to do this, so Doeg offers to do it instead, killing 85 priests. Saul also kills every man, woman and child living in Nob.

David had already left Nob by this point and had amassed about 400 disaffected men including a group of outlaws. With these men David launches an attack on the Philistines at Keilah. Saul realises he could trap David and his men by laying the city to siege. Yet David hears about this and, having received divine counsel (via the Ephod), finds that the citizens of Keilah would betray him to Saul. He flees to Ziph. Saul discovers this and pursues David on two occasions:

  • Some of the inhabitants of Ziph betray David's location to Saul, but David hears about it and flees with his men to Maon. Saul follows David, but while Saul travels along one side of the gorge, David travels along the other, and Saul is forced to break off pursuit when the Philistines invade. David hides in the caves at Engedi and after fighting the Philistines, Saul returns to Engedi to attack him. Saul eventually enters the cave in which David had been hiding, but as David is in the darkest recesses Saul doesn't spot him. David cuts off a piece of Saul's robe; yet David restrains himself and his associates from going further. David then leaves the cave, revealing himself to Saul, and gives a speech that persuades Saul to reconcile.
  • On the second occasion, Saul returns to Ziph with his men. When David hears of this he sneaks into Saul's camp by night, and thrusts his spear into the ground near where Saul is sleeping. David prevents his associates from killing Saul. Instead, David merely steals Saul's spear and water jug. The next day, David stands atop a slope opposite Saul's camp; he shows the jug and spear as proof that he could have slain Saul but did not. David then persuades Saul to reconcile with him; the two swear never to harm one another. After this they never see each other again.

Battle of Gilboa and the death of King Saul[edit]

The Battle of Gilboa, by Jean Fouquet, the protagonists depicted anachronistically with 15th Century armour

Despite the oaths of reconciliation, David made an alliance with the Philistines, becoming their vassal. Emboldened by this, the Philistines prepared to attack Israel, and Saul led out his army to face them at Mount Gilboa, but before the battle decided to consult the witch of Endor for advice. The witch, unaware of who he was, reminded Saul that the king (i.e. Saul himself) had made witchery a capital offence, but after being assured that Saul wouldn't harm her, the witch conjures up the spirit of Samuel, who had previously died (1 Samuel 25:1; 28:3). Upon seeing Samuel's ghost, Saul fell with his face to the ground. Saul told him of the forthcoming battle with the Philistines and that God would not answer him anymore when he prayed, and asked for understanding. The ghost then told Saul that he would lose the battle and his life.

1 Samuel and 2 Samuel give conflicting accounts of Saul's death. In the former, Saul returned to face his enemies, and the Israelites were duly defeated.[7] To escape torture, Saul then asked his armour bearer to kill him, but was forced to commit suicide by falling on his sword when the armour bearer refused.[7] In 2 Samuel, Saul asks not his armour bearer but an Amalekite to deliver the coup de grace, or so the Amalekites boasts to David, hoping to gain a reward.[7] Infuriated, David orders the Amalekite to be put to death as punishment for killing the anointed king.

When the Philistines found Saul's body, they decapitated it, along with those of his sons, and fastened the decapitated bodies to the wall of Beth-shan. They hung up Saul's armor in the house of Ashtaroth (an Ascalonian temple of the Canaanites). But the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead came out at night and rescued the bodies, and took them to Jabesh-gilead, where they cremated them and buried the bones.(1 Samuel 31:8-13). Later on, David took the bones of Saul together with the bones of Jonathan his son from Jabesh-gilead and buried them in Zela, in the tomb of his father (2 Samuel 21:12–14).[8]

Biblical criticism[edit]

There are several textual or narrative issues in the text, and plays on words, that biblical scholars have discussed.

The birth-narrative of the prophet Samuel is found at 1 Samuel 1-28. It describes how Samuel's mother Hannah requests a son from Yahweh, and dedicates the child to God at the shrine of Shiloh. The passage makes extensive play with the root-elements of Saul's name, and ends with the phrase hu sa'ul le-Yahweh, "he is dedicated to Yahweh." Hannah names the resulting son Samuel, giving as her explanation, "because from God I requested him." Samuel's name, however, can mean "name of God," (or "Heard of God" or "Told of God") and the etymology and multiple references to the root of the name seems to fit Saul instead. The majority explanation for the discrepancy is that the narrative originally described the birth of Saul, and was given to Samuel in order to enhance the position of David and Samuel at the former king's expense.[9]

In the Books of Samuel, Saul is not referred to as a king (melech), but rather as a “leader” or “commander” (nagid) (1 Samuel 9:16; 1 Samuel 10:1).[10] However (possibly representing an opposing literary strain[citation needed]), Saul is said to be made a "king" (melech) at Gilgal (1 Samuel 11:15). Even David, before he was anointed king, was referred to only as a future nagid, or military commander (1 Samuel 13:14).

Various authors have attempted to harmonize the two narratives regarding Saul's death. Josephus writes that Saul's attempted suicide was stalled because he was not able to run the sword through himself, and that he therefore asked the Amalekite to finish it.[7] Later biblical criticism has posited that the story of Saul's death was redacted from various sources, although this view in turn has been criticized because it does not explain why the contradiction was left in by the redactors.[7] But since 2 Samuel records only the Amalekite's report, and not the report of any other eye-witness, some scholars theorize that the Amalekite may have been lying to try to gain favor with David. On this view, 1 Samuel records what actually happened, while 2 Samuel records what the Amalekite claims happened.[11]

Classical rabbinical views[edit]

Two opposing views of Saul are found in classical rabbinical literature. One is based on the reverse logic that punishment is a proof of guilt, and therefore seeks to rob Saul of any halo which might surround him; typically this view is similar to the republican source. The passage referring to Saul as a choice young man, and goodly (1 Samuel 9:2) is in this view interpreted as meaning that Saul was not good in every respect, but goodly only with respect to his personal appearance (Num. Rashi 9:28). According to this view, Saul is only a weak branch (Gen. Rashi 25:3), owing his kingship not to his own merits, but rather to his grandfather, who had been accustomed to light the streets for those who went to the bet ha-midrash, and had received as his reward the promise that one of his grandsons should sit upon the throne (Lev. Rashi 9:2).

The second view of Saul makes him appear in the most favourable light as man, as hero, and as king. This view is similar to that of the monarchical source. In this view it was on account of his modesty that he did not reveal the fact that he had been anointed king (1 Samuel 10:16; Meg. 13b); and he was extraordinarily upright as well as perfectly just. Nor was there any one more pious than he (M. Q. 16b; Ex. Rashi 30:12); for when he ascended the throne he was as pure as a child, and had never committed sin (Yoma 22b). He was marvelously handsome; and the maidens who told him concerning Samuel (cf 1 Samuel 9:11-13) talked so long with him that they might observe his beauty the more (Ber. 48b). In war he was able to march 120 miles without rest. When he received the command to smite Amalek (1 Samuel 15:3), Saul said: For one found slain the Torah requires a sin offering [Deuteronomy 21:1-9]; and here so many shall be slain. If the old have sinned, why should the young suffer; and if men have been guilty, why should the cattle be destroyed? It was this mildness that cost him his crown. And while Saul was merciful to his enemies, he was strict with his own people; when he found out that Avimelech, a kohen, had assisted David with finding food, Saul, in retaliation, killed the rest of the 85 kohanim of the family of Avimelech and the rest of his hometown, Nov. (Yoma 22b; Num. Rashi 1:10) The fact that he was merciful even to his enemies, being indulgent to rebels themselves, and frequently waiving the homage due to him, was incredible as well as deceiving. But if his mercy toward a foe was a sin, it was his only one; and it was his misfortune that it was reckoned against him, while David, although he had committed much iniquity, was so favored that it was not remembered to his injury (Yoma 22b; M. Q. 16b, and Rashi ad loc.). In some respects Saul was superior to David, e.g., in having only one concubine {Rizpah}, while David had many. Saul expended his own substance for the war, and although he knew that he and his sons would fall in battle, he nevertheless went forward, while David heeded the wish of his soldiers not to go to war in person (2 Samuel 21:17; Lev. Rashi 26:7; Yalq., Sam. 138).

According to the Rabbis, Saul ate his food with due regard for the rules of ceremonial purity prescribed for the sacrifice (Yalq., l.c.), and taught the people how they should slay cattle (cf 1 Samuel 14:34). As a reward for this, God himself gave Saul a sword on the day of battle, since no other sword suitable for him was found (ibid 13:22). Saul's attitude toward David finds its excuse in the fact that his courtiers were all tale-bearers, and slandered David to him (Deut. Rashi 5:10); and in like manner he was incited by Doeg against the priests of Nob (1 Samuel 22:16-19; Yalq., Sam. 131) - this act was forgiven him, however, and a heavenly voice (bat qol) was heard, proclaiming: Saul is the chosen one of God (Ber. 12b). His anger at the Gibeonites (2 Samuel 21:2) was not personal hatred, but was induced by zeal for the welfare of Israel (Num. Rashi 8:4). The fact that he made his daughter remarry (1 Samuel 25:44), finds its explanation in his (Saul's) view that her betrothal to David had been gained by false pretenses, and was therefore invalid (Sanhedrin 19b). During the lifetime of Saul there was no idolatry in Israel. The famine in the reign of David (cf 2 Samuel 21:1) was to punish the people, because they had not accorded Saul the proper honours at his burial (Num. Rashi 8:4). In Sheol, Samuel reveals to Saul that in the next world, Saul would dwell with Samuel, which is a proof that all has been forgiven him by God('Er. 53ba]

In Islam[edit]

Muslims refer to Saul as Tālūt (Arabic: طالوت‎), and believe that (as in the Bible) he was the commander of Israel. According to the Qur'an, Saul was chosen by the prophet Samuel (not mentioned by name explicitly but rather as "a Prophet" of the Israelites) after being asked by the people of Israel for a king to lead them into war. The Israelites criticized Samuel for appointing Saul, lacking respect for Saul because he was not wealthy. Samuel rebuked the people for this and told them that Saul was far more favored than they were. Saul led the Israelites to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by David. Saul is not considered a prophet, but a divinely appointed king.

Name[edit]

The name Tālūt has uncertain etymology. Unlike some other Qur'anic figures, the Arabic name is not similar to the Hebrew name (Sha'ul). According to Muslim exegetes, the name Tālūt means 'tall' (from the Arabic "tūl") and refers to the extraordinary stature of Saul, which would be consonant with the Biblical account.[12] In explanation of the name, exegetes such as Tha'labi hold that at this time, the future king of Israel was to be recognised by his height; Samuel set up a measure, but no one in Israel reached its height except Tālūt (Saul).

Saul as the first king[edit]

In the Qur'an, Israel demanded a king after the time of Moses. God appointed Saul as their king. Saul was distinguished by the greatness of his knowledge and of his physique; it was a sign of his role as king that God brought back the Ark of the Covenant for Israel. Saul tested his people at a river; whoever drank from it would not follow him in battle. Many drank but only the faithful ventured on. In the battle, however, David slew Goliath and was made the subsequent king of Israel.

The Qur'anic account differs slightly from the Biblical account in that in the Bible the sacred Ark was returned to Israel before Saul's accession, and the test by drinking water is made in the Hebrew Bible not by Saul but by Gideon.[13]

Psychological analyses[edit]

Accounts of Saul's behavior have made him a popular subject for speculation among modern psychiatrists. George Stein views the passages depicting Saul's ecstatic episodes as suggesting that Saul may have suffered from mania.[14] Martin Huisman sees the story of Saul as illustrative of the role of stress as a factor in depression.[15] Liubov Ben-Noun of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, believes that passages referring to King Saul's disturbed behavior indicate he was afflicted by a mental disorder, and lists a number of possible conditions.[16] However, Christopher C. H. Cook of the Department of Theology and Religion, Durham University, UK recommends caution in offering any diagnoses in relation to people who lived millennia ago.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Baruch Halpern (2003). David's Secret Demons: Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 208–211. 
  2. ^ a b c ""Saul", Jewish Encyclopedia". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  3. ^ 1 Samuel 14:51 lists three sons - Jonathan, and Ishvi, and Malchi-shua - and the two daughters. But see also 2 Samuel 2:8 and 1 Chronicles 8:33.
  4. ^ Some Hebrew versions say that the five sons were Michal's - e.g. 2 Samuel 21:8-9
  5. ^ a b c "Driscoll, James F. "Saul." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 5 Jan. 2014". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "1 Samuel 18 ; ESV - David and Jonathan's Friendship - As - Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Bill T. Arnold (1989). "The Amalekite report of Saul's death: political intrigue or incompatible sources?". J. Evangelical Theological Society 32 (3): 289–298. 
  8. ^ G. Darshan, "The Reinterment of Saul and Jonathan’s Bones (II Sam 21, 12–14) in Light of Ancient Greek Hero-Cult Stories", ZAW, 125,4 (2013), 640–645.
  9. ^ The idea was originally advanced in the 19th century, and has most recently been elaborated in Kyle McCarter's influential commentary on I Samuel (P. Kyle McCarter, "I Samuel: A New Translation with Introduction, Notes and Commentary", Anchor Bible Series, 1980)
  10. ^ Bright, John, "A History of Israel," The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1972, p. 185.
  11. ^ Life Application Study Bible: Note on 2 Samuel 1:13
  12. ^ Leaman, Oliver, The Quran, An Encyclopedia, 2006, p.638.
  13. ^ Judges vii. 5-7
  14. ^ "Stein, George. "The case of King Saul: did he have recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar affective disorder? – psychiatry in the Old Testament", The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011), 198: p.212". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Huisman, Martin. "King Saul, work‐related stress and depression", Journal of Epidemiol Community Health, 2007 October; 61(10): 890". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Ben-Noun, Liubov. "What was the Mental Disease that Afflicted King Saul?", Clinical Case Studies, October 2003 vol. 2 no. 4 pp.270-282". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  17. ^ "Cook, Christopher C.H., "Psychiatry in scripture: sacred texts and psychopathology", The Psychiatrist (2012) 36: pp.225-229". Retrieved 15 September 2014. 

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Saul at Wikimedia Commons
Saul of the United Kingdom of Israel & Judah
House of Saul
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Benjamin
Regnal titles
New title
Anointed king to
replace Judge Samuel
King of the United Kingdom
of Israel and Judah

1047 BC – 1007 BC
Succeeded by
Ish-bosheth, David