List of heads of regimes who were later imprisoned

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This is a list of heads of regimes who were later imprisoned. There have been several personalities throughout history who went on to be Heads of State, or Heads of Government, like Presidents, Prime Ministers or monarchs of their respective nation states, who became prisoners later, including under house arrest.

Some of them are:

Names indexed by surnames Countries Dates born Official positions Later imprisonment Dates died
Aisin-Gioro Puyi  Manchukuo 1906-02-07 Emperor (1934–1945), Chief Executive (1932–1934) 1945 to 1959 1967-10-17
Alemán, Arnoldo  Nicaragua 1946-01-23 President (1997–2002) 2002 to present Living
Antonescu, Ion  Romania 1882-06-15 Prime Minister (1940–1944) 1944 to 1946 1946-06-01 (executed by firing squad)
Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal  Philippines 1947-04-05 President (2001–2010) 2011 to present (hospital arrest) Living
Ba Maw  Burma 1893-02-08 Prime Minister (1937–1939) 1940 to 1942, 1945 to 1946, 1947 1977-05-29
Banana, Canaan  Zimbabwe 1936-03-05 President (1980–1987) 1997 to 2001 2003-11-10
Bayar, Celal  Turkey 1883-05-16 President (1950–1960), Prime Minister (1937–1939) 1960 to 1964 (death sentence commuted) 1986-08-22
Ben Bella, Ahmed  Algeria 1916-12-25 President (1963–1965) 1965 to 1980 (house arrest) 2012-04-11
Bhutto, Benazir  Pakistan 1953-06-21 Prime Minister (1988–1990, 1993–1996) 2007-12-27 (assassinated)
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali  Pakistan 1928-01-05 President (1971–1973), Prime Minister (1973–1977) 1977 to 1979 1979-04-04 (executed by hanging)
Bignone, Reynaldo  Argentina 1928-01-21 President (de facto, 1982–1983) 2007 to present Living
Bokassa, Jean-Bédel  Central African Republic 1921-02-22 Emperor (1976–1979), President (1966–1976) 1986 to 1993 (death sentence commuted) 1996-11-03
Bozhilov, Dobri  Bulgaria 1884-06-13 Prime Minister (1943–1944) 1944 to 1945 1945-02-01 (executed)
Ceauşescu, Nicolae  Romania 1918-01-26 President (1967–1989) 1989 1989-12-25 (executed by firing squad)
Chaudhry, Mahendra  Fiji 1942-02-09 Prime Minister (1999–2000) 2000 (taken hostage in a coup) Living
Chen Gongbo China, Republic of (Wang Jingwei Government) 1892 President (1944–1945) 1945 to 1946 1946 (executed by firing squad)
Chen Shui-bian  Taiwan 1950-10-12 President (2000–2008) 2008-11-12[1] to 2008-12-13,[2] 2008-12-30[3] to 2015-01-05[4] Living
Chun Doo-hwan  Korea, South 1931-01-18 President (1980–1988) 1996 to 1997 (death sentence commuted) Living
Deuba, Sher Bahadur    Nepal 1946-06-13 Prime Minister (1995–1997, 2001–2002, 2004–2005) 2005 to 2006 Living
Dönitz, Karl  Germany, West 1891-09-16 President (1945) 1945 to 1956 1980-12-24
Ershad, Hossain Mohammad  Bangladesh 1930-01-01 President (1982–1990) 1990 to 1997 Living
Estrada, Joseph  Philippines 1937-04-19 President (1998–2001) 2001 to 2007 Living
Filov, Bogdan  Bulgaria 1883-04-09 Prime Minister (1940–1943) 1944 to 1945 1945-02-02 (executed)
Fujimori, Alberto  Peru 1938-07-28 President (1990–2000) 2005 to 2006 (bailed out in Chile), 2007 to present Living
Galtieri, Leopoldo Fortunato  Argentina 1926-07-15 President (de facto, 1981–1982) 1983 to 1991 (pardoned) 2003-01-12
Gandhi, Indira  India 1917-11-19 Prime Minister (1966–1977, 1980–1984) 1977 1984-10-31
González Macchi, Luis Ángel  Paraguay 1947-12-13 President (1999–2003) 2006 to present Living
Haile Selassie  Ethiopia 1892-07-23 Emperor (1930–1974) 1974 (house arrest) 1975-08-27
Honecker, Erich  Germany East 1912-08-25 Chairman of the Council of State (1976–1989) 1992 to 1993 1994-05-29
Hoveida, Amir-Abbas  Iran 1919-02-18 Prime Minister (1965–1977) 1978 to 1979 1979-04-07 (executed by firing squad)
Kaunda, Kenneth  Zambia 1924-04-28 President (1964–1991) 1997 to 1998 Living
Keita, Modibo  Mali 1915-06-04 President (1960–1968) 1968 to 1977 1977-05-16
Koiso, Kuniaki  Japan 1880-03-22 Prime Minister (1944–1945) 1945 to 1950 1950-11-03
Laurel, José P.  Philippines 1891-03-09 President (1943–1945) 1945 to 1948 1959-11-06
Liang Hongzhi China, Reformed Government of the Republic of 1882 Chairman (1938–1940) 1945 to 1946 1946-11 (executed by firing squad)
Liu Shaoqi  China, People's Republic of 1898-11-24 President (1959–1968) 1967 to 1968 (house arrest) 1969-11-12
Louis XVI of France  France 1754-08-23 King (1774–1792) 1792 to 1793 1793-01-21 (executed by decapitation (guillotine))
Lumumba, Patrice  Congo-Léopoldville 1925-07-02 Prime Minister (1960) 1960 to 1961 1961-01-17
Macías Nguema, Francisco  Equatorial Guinea 1924-01-01 President (1968–1979) 1979 1979-09-29 (executed)
Marcos, Ferdinand  Philippines 1917-09-11 President (1965–1986), Prime Minister (1978–1981) 1988 (indicted) 1989-09-28
Massemba-Débat, Alphonse  Congo, Republic of the 1921 President (1963–1968), Prime Minister (1963) 1977 1977-03-25 (executed)
Menderes, Adnan  Turkey 1899 Prime Minister (1950–1960) 1960 to 1961 1961-09-17 (executed by hanging)
Menem, Carlos  Argentina 1930-07-02 President (1989–1999) 2001, June to November (house arrest) Living
Milošević, Slobodan  Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of 1941-08-20 President (1997–2000) 2001 to 2006 2006-03-11
Mussolini, Benito  Italy 1883-07-29 Prime Minister (1922–1943) 1945 1945-04-28 (executed by firing squad)
Nagy, Imre  Hungary 1896-06-07 Prime Minister (1953–1955, 1956) 1956 to 1958 1958-06-16 (executed by hanging)
Najibullah, Mohammad  Afghanistan 1947 President (1987–1992) 1992 to 1996 (virtual detention) 1996-09-27 (executed by hanging)
Nicholas II of Russia  Russian Empire 1868-05-18[5] Emperor (1894–1917) 1917 to 1918 1918-07-17[6] (executed)
Noriega, Manuel  Panama 1935-02-11 Military leader (1983–1989) 1990 to present Living
Park Geun-hye  Korea, South 1952-02-02 President (2013-17) 2017 to present Living
Pérez Molina, Otto  Guatemala 1950-12-01 President (2012–15) 2015 to present Living
Pétain, Philippe  France, Vichy 1856-04-24 Head of State (1940–1944) 1945 to 1951 (death sentence commuted to life imprisonment) 1951-07-23
Päts, Konstantin  Estonia 1874-02-23 Prime Minister in the duties of the State Elder (1934–1937)[7] 1940 to 1952 (prison), 1952 to 1956 (psychiatry hospital) [8] 1956-01-18
Pinochet, Augusto  Chile 1915-11-25 President (de facto, 1973–1990) 1998 to 2006 2006-12-10
Portillo, Alfonso  Guatemala 1951-09-24 President (2000–2004) 2011-15 Living
Quisling, Vidkun  Norway 1887-07-18 Minister President (1942–1945) 1945 1945-10-24 (executed by firing squad)
Roh Tae-woo  Korea, South 1932-12-04 President (1988–1993) 1995 to 1998 Living
Risto Ryti  Finland 1889-02-03 President (1940–1944) 1945 to 1949 1956-10-25
Hussein, Saddam  Iraq 1937-04-28 President (1979–2003) 2003 to 2006 2006-12-30 (executed by hanging)
Sharif, Nawaz  Pakistan 1949-12-25 Prime Minister (1990–1993, 1997–1999) 1999 to 2000 Living
Shinawatra, Yingluck  Thailand 1967-06-21 Prime Minister (2011–2014) 2014 (house arrest) Living
Sócrates, José  Portugal 1957-09-06 Prime Minister (2004-2011) 2014 Living
Suharto  Indonesia 1921-06-08 President (1967–1998) 2000 (house arrest) 2008-01-27
Sukarno  Indonesia 1901-06-06 President (1945–1967) 1967-1970 (house arrest) 1970-06-21
Charles Taylor  Liberia 1948-01-28 President (1997-2003) 2012 Living
Tojo, Hideki  Japan 1884-12-30 Prime Minister (1941–1944) 1945 to 1948 1948-12-23 (executed by hanging)
Traoré, Moussa  Mali 1936-09-25 President (1968–1991) 1992 to 2002 (death sentence commuted) Living
Tsang, Donald  Hong Kong 1944-10-07 Chief Executive (2005–2012) 2017 to present Living
Videla, Jorge Rafael  Argentina 1925-08-21 President (de facto, 1976–1981) 1985 to 1990 (pardoned), imprisoned again 2010 to 2013 2013-05-17
Viola, Roberto Eduardo  Argentina 1924-10-13 President (de facto, 1981) 1983 to 1990 (pardoned) 1994-09-30
Yanayev, Gennady  Soviet Union 1937-08-26 Acting President (1991) 1991 to 1994 2010-09-24
Zhao Ziyang  China, People's Republic of 1919-10-17 Premier (1983–1987) 1989 to 2005 (house arrest) 2005-01-17

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Formal arrest and detention.
  2. ^ Released without bail.
  3. ^ Detained again.
  4. ^ Paroled for medical reasons.
  5. ^ 6 May 1868 in the Julian calendar.
  6. ^ 4 July 1918 in the Julian calendar.
  7. ^ Was several times the Head of Government and Head of State before and after the regime.
  8. ^ Was imprisoned by Soviets during the occupation.

External links[edit]