|Corruption by country|
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to important positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Trading parliamentary employment for favors is a modern-day example of nepotism. Criticism of nepotism, however, can be found in ancient Indian texts such as the Kural literature.
The term comes from the Italian word nepotismo, which is based on the Latin word nepos meaning 'nephew'. Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.
Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty". For instance, Pope Callixtus III, head of the Borgia family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI. Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.
Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally limited when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692. The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.
Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.
Nepotism can also occur within organizations when a person is employed due to familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.
Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people. Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees, and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name." Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.
Outside of national politics, accusations of nepotism are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:
- Peaches Geldof's role as magazine editor in an MTV reality show – produced by a company owned by her father, Bob Geldof.
- Tori Spelling's breakout role on Beverly Hills, 90210 as a result of her father Aaron Spelling's involvement with the show.
- Hollywood's Coppola family includes many distinguished filmmakers and actors. The careers of Sofia Coppola, Nicolas Cage, and Jason Schwartzman have been attributed to aid by director Francis Ford Coppola, who cast his daughter Sofia in The Godfather Part III. Cage changed his last name in order to distance himself from such charges.
Types of partiality
Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to an associate or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance.
- "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History". Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Article nepos". CTCWeb Glossary. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Article Nepotism". New Catholic Dictionary. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- Gianvittorio Signorotto; Maria Antonietta Visceglia (21 March 2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-1-139-43141-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Article Pope Alexander VI". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- "Article Pope Paul III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
- Anura Gurugé (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Sundaram, P. S. (1990). Tiruvalluvar: The Kural (First ed.). Gurgaon: Penguin Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-01-44000-09-8.
- Trahair, R. C. S. (1994). From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72.
- "Nepotism at Work". Safeworkers.co.uk. 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- "Family Ties: Handling Nepotism Within Your Business - Perspectives - Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick". Insideindianabusiness.com. 2010-11-09. Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Kneale, Klaus. "Is Nepotism So Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- "Peaches Geldof bags TV reality show as magazine editor". Sundaymirror.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- "On 'So Notorious,' Tori Spelling Mocks Herself Before You Can". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
- "Tori Spelling admits getting Shannon Doherty fired from Beverly Hills 90210 and lending her dress stained with 'virgin blood' for photoshoot - Independent.ie". Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "EXTRA: Nepotism in the Director's Chair at". Hollywood.com. 2000-04-21. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- "Nothing is true, everything is permitted - Coppola nepotism hate". Spiritof1976.livejournal.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
- "Nicolas Cage". IMDb. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- Judy Nadler and Miriam Schulman. "Favoritism, Cronyism, and Nepotism". Santa Clara University. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
|Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nepotism|